|Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)
Report Number: R-191 (Final Report)
Publication Date: 6/29/2017
This report serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives.
A P3 Project Screening Checklist
, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, accompanies the guidebook and may assist transit agencies with screening and evaluating a P3 initiative.
Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops
Report Number: S-129
Publication Date: 5/29/2017
This report documents current practices of transit systems to determine methods and procedures used for maintaining transit stops and associated infrastructure during and following such weather events. This synthesis also provides a state-of-the-practice report on transit systems' management of extreme weather events; associated planning; management responsibilities; efforts to respond; standards and specifications; associated legal claims; and communication with customers.
Public Transit Emergency Preparedness Against Ebola and Other Infectious Diseases: Legal Issues
Report Number: LRD-50
Publication Date: 5/17/2017
This report examines responses to infectious disease epidemics and identifies legal issues that may be confronted by transit agencies. It considers federal and state laws and available court decisions affecting transit agencies’ responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including potential cohesiveness among transit agencies’ procedures and federal and state guidance. The digest also examines the legal basis for the protocols that public transit agencies and other transportation providers such as airlines have planned or implemented to respond to epidemics and pandemics. It further builds upon the 2014 NCHRP Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response.
Practices For Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit
Report Number: S-128
Publication Date: 4/17/2017
This report provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.
Public Transportation Guidebook for Small-and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships
Report Number: R-191
Publication Date: 3/31/2017
This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. The guidebook serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook also addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives.
A P3 Project Screening Checklist, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, accompanies the guidebook and may assist transit agencies with screening and evaluating a P3 initiative.
Multiagency Electronic Payment Fare Systems
Report Number: S-125
Publication Date: 3/27/2017
This report describes the current practice, challenges, and benefits of utilizing electronic fare payment systems (EFPS), such as smart cards. The synthesis reviews current systems and identifies their major challenges and benefits; describes the use of electronic fare systems in multimodal, multiagency environments; and reviews next-generation approaches through existing implementation case examples.
Legal Issues Concerning Transit Agency Use of Electronic Customer Data
Report Number: LRD-48
Publication Date: 3/22/2017
This report explores the advantages, disadvantages, risks, and benefits for transit agencies moving to electronic, cloudbased, and other computerized systems for fare purchases and for communicating with customers. “Smart” fare cards are now commonplace, and private businesses and transit agencies are using or planning to use smartphones, smart cards and credit cards, and other systems to obtain payment, location, and other personal data from customers.
The digest updates TCRP LRD 14: Privacy Issues in Public Transportation (2000) and TCRP LRD 25: Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards (2008) and covers additional dimensions of collection and use of personal information using new technologies developed since those studies. Appendix A-D are available online only at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/175848.aspx
Addressing Difficult Customer Situations
Report Number: S-127
Publication Date: 3/1/2017
This report explores issues surrounding difficult customers or passengers and the variety of circumstances that can arise when they utilize transit system facilities or vehicles. The report identifies current practices used by transit agencies to prevent, prepare for, and deal with these incidents.
Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems
Report Number: S-124
Publication Date: 2/10/2017
This report documents the state-of-the-practice to address fire and smoke incidents. Fires in underground passenger rail tunnels require implementation of different measures in order to provide safety for the passengers and ensure structural and system integrity of the facilities and operating infrastructure. The publication addresses planning, design, and operations to address fire and smoke incidents, and identifies current practices including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information.
Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Bus Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-126
Publication Date: 2/6/2017
This report documents current practices and training initiatives, including bus operator training and retraining programs that have been effective in reducing accidents and incidents at transit agencies. The study also focuses on other system approaches that have been implemented to address safety hazards. These approaches include various technology applications, infrastructure modifications, and programs and initiatives such as driver incentive programs and close call/near miss reporting.
TCRP Annual Report of Progress 2016
Publication Date: 1/24/2017
This Annual Report provides background and an overview of the program, status of each of TCRP’s projects, and a summary of some of the program's accomplishments for the year.
Guide to Value Capture Financing for Public Transportation Projects
Report Number: R-190
Publication Date: 1/6/2017
This report identifies the requirements necessary for successful value creation through transportation infrastructure investment and capturing a portion of that value through specific value capture mechanisms. It includes six case studies that provide practical examples of successful value capture from public transportation investments.
Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies
Report Number: R-187
Publication Date: 9/19/2016
This report presents practical planning and implementation strategies to enhance livability in transit corridors. It provides a resource for planning practitioners, policy makers, and other stakeholders to measure, understand, and improve transit corridor livability.
The handbook provides a definition of transit corridor livability and a set of methods, metrics, and strategies—framed within a five-step visioning and improvement process—that communities can use to improve livability in their transit corridors. It includes a set of tools and techniques that can help in planning and building support for corridor improvements, screening alternatives in preparation for environmental review, identifying a corridor’s livability needs, and developing an action-oriented set of strategies for improving transit corridor livability and quality of life.
A spreadsheet-based Transit Corridor Livability Calculator tool and a separate spreadsheet used for tool testing are also available for download by clicking this link. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/174953.aspx
An instructional file accompanies the spreadsheet.
Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit (A pre-publication draft)
Report Number: R-188
Publication Date: 9/15/2016
This report examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand-responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. Additionally, it examines issues and explores opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes.
Onboard Camera Applications for Buses
Report Number: S-123
Publication Date: 6/22/2016
This report explores the current technologies, research, and opportunities for use. It also provides examples of how surveillance systems are used to improve operations, safety, security, training, and customer satisfaction.
Bus Operator Workstation Design for Improving Occupational Health and Safety
Report Number: R-185
Publication Date: 5/26/2016
This report is a pre-publication, non-edited draft. It provides guidance to transit agencies and bus manufacturers as they integrate emerging technologies into current procurement practices and improve bus operator workstation design across the transit industry.
The research produced practical guidance documents and tools applicable to the procurement process and bus design, including a suggested procurement process and strategies for transit agencies to develop, train, and support a bus procurement team; training for the procurement team, including an ergonomics training module for bus operators; guidelines to update TCRP Report 25: Bus Operator Workstation Evaluation and Design Guidelines; and a digital model of a bus operator workstation that may be used by designers and transit agencies to develop specifications.
A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies
Report Number: R-183
Publication Date: 4/11/2016
This report is a resource for transit and roadway agency staff seeking to improve bus speed and reliability on surface streets while addressing the needs of other roadway users, including motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians.
The guidebook identifies consistent and uniform strategies to help improve transportation network efficiency to reduce delay and improve reliability for transit operations on roadways; and includes decision-making guidance for operational planning and functional design of transit/traffic operations on roads that provides information on warrants, costs, and impacts of strategies. It also identifies the components of model institutional structures and intergovernmental agreements for successful implementation; and highlights potential changes to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and related documents to facilitate implementation of selected strategies.
Maintenance Technician Staffing Levels for Modern Public Transit Fleets
Report Number: R-184
Publication Date: 2/7/2016
This report identifies existing tools and practices used to determine optimum maintenance technician staffing levels. It also provides an analysis of variables that influence maintenance technician staffing needs. In addition, the report documents an MS Excel-based Maintenance Staffing Calculator with the report. For more information on the tools and resources available with this report, click the link http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/173927.aspx
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices
Report Number: RRD-111
Publication Date: 1/6/2016
This digest is the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 1: Toolkit
Report Number: R-181: Volume 1
Publication Date: 11/16/2015
This report provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships. The first volume describes:
•The development of a labor–management partnership charter to start or improve a partnership
•Labor–management partnership guidance that provides specific recommended actions for both management and labor union leaders
•A labor–management partnership workshop framework that can be used to develop a cooperative workshop that prepares management and union representatives with essential skills for establishing and managing labor–management partnerships
Volume 2, Final Report, provides background material that was used to develop Volume 1.
Policing and Security Practices for Small-and-Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems
Report Number: R-180
Publication Date: 7/10/2015
This report explores the current state of practice and identifies and responds to the specific challenges and issues associated with the security of small-and medium-sized transit agencies. It follows the five stages of protection activity (prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) by providing baseline options and identifying potential security countermeasures that could be deployed by both of these sizes of transit agencies.
Use of Web-Based Rider Feedback to Improve Public Transit Services
Report Number: R-179
Publication Date: 6/3/2015
This report provides toolkit of practices, emerging platforms, and promising approaches for customer web-based and electronic feedback to help improve public transit services. Part I of the report identifies promising practices among transit agencies and other industries using in-house or third-party web-based and mobile platforms. The mobile platforms are meant to engage customers and provide guidance on managing web-based feedback. Part II includes a Tool Selection Guide to assist transit agencies with selecting a web-based feedback tool based on their needs.
Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-177
Publication Date: 4/27/2015
This report explores attributes, implementation strategies, and applications of next generation transit fare payment (NGFP) systems. It also documents the state of the practice of emerging fare payments options for public transportation; develops a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States; and evaluates the pros and cons of the options presented in the typology.
Practices for Utility Coordination in Transit Projects
Report Number: S-118
Publication Date: 4/10/2015
This synthesis summarizes utility coordination practices at transit agencies around the country. Specifically, the report focuses on utility coordination issues that transit agencies undertake during typical phases of project development and delivery, including planning, designing, and constructing civil infrastructure facilities.
Most utility relocation appears to be associated with rail and streetcar projects, and very rarely, bus projects. The topic panel and consultant chose to work closely with the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) to extract information about general trends around the country as reported here and to identify the potential agencies with whom to conduct more detailed interviews.
Better On-Street Bus Stops
Report Number: S-117
Publication Date: 4/4/2015
This synthesis explores major issues and successful approaches to address on-street bus stops from both the transit agency’s perspective and customer's perspective. It documents the current state of the practice with regard to actions taken to address constraints and improvements to on-street bus stops.
Quantifying Transit's Impact on GHG Emissions and Energy Use - The Land Use Component
Report Number: R-176
Publication Date: 4/2/2015
This report examines interrelationships between transit and land use patterns to understand their contribution to compact development and the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction benefits.
The report is accompanied by an Excel-based tool that applies the research findings. The calculator tool estimates the land use benefits of existing or planned transit projects. The report and tool will enable users to determine quantifiable impacts of transit service on compact development, energy use, and air quality in urbanized areas. To obtain a hard copy of this report, and the Excel-based tool, click on the link. Please note the software disclaimer. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172110.aspx
Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume 1: Transit Integrtion Manual
Report Number: R-173
Publication Date: 1/8/2015
This Manual provides guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple transit providers. The report accompanies TCRP Report 173, Volume II: Research Report. Together, these documents demonstrate benefits of transit integration; illustrate the range of potential types of integration activities; and describe procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-110
Publication Date: 1/6/2015
This digest is the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Developing Best-Practice Guidelines for Improving Bus Operator Health and Retention
Report Number: R-169
Publication Date: 8/14/2014
This report addresses some of the health and safety issues common throughout the transit industry, and describes approaches that transit organizations in the United States and Canada have taken to address health problems faced by transit employees.
The report is supplemented by a presentation, Making the Case for Transit Workplace Health Protection and Promotion, and an Excel worksheet, Transit Operator Workplace Health Protection and Promotion Planning, Evaluation, and ROI Template, that may assist transit agencies with implementing and carrying out transit-specific programs to protect the health of bus operators and other employees. click the link to view. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/171189.aspx
Use of Mobility Devices on Paratransit Vehicles and Buses
Report Number: R-171
Publication Date: 8/11/2014
This report describes the current and emerging issues which limit the use of mobility devices in paratransit vehicles and buses, and includes a guidance document to assist transit systems, manufacturers, and transit users in the implementation of potential accessible design and accommodation solutions for the short and long term.
Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas
Report Number: S-113
Publication Date: 7/15/2014
This report documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.
Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.
Transit Public-Private Partnerships: Legal Issues
Report Number: LRD-45
Publication Date: 6/25/2014
This digest identifies the legal issues associated with negotiating public-private partnership (PPP) agreements for transit projects. It explores the rationale for using PPP, innovative contracting and financing approaches offered by PPPs, and transfer of risks from the public to the private sector through PPPs. In addition, the digest provides an overview of the legal barriers that PPPs confront in some states, and how PPPs comply with federal law. Funding of PPPs for transit projects and long-term leasing of transit facilities are also covered in the digest.
Strategy Guide to Enable and Promote the Use of Fixed-Route Transit by People with Disabilities
Report Number: R-163
Publication Date: 4/30/2014
This report is designed to help transit agencies fulfill the primary goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) by making mainstream fixed-route bus and rail systems accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The focus of the Strategy Guide is to offer guidance on providing public services in the most integrated setting possible. The project that developed the Strategy Guide, also produced the following, which are available only in PDF format at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170626.aspx
• a final research report that includes a summary of the literature, description of the research methodology, copies of the survey instruments used, and detailed tabulations of the survey responses; and
• information briefs that summarize key findings and findings of the research in the following five areas: – the overall strategy that is suggested, – current use of fixed-route transit by persons with disabilities, – bus stop and pedestrian infrastructure improvement efforts, – fare incentive programs, and – ADA paratransit eligibility determination programs.
Characteristics of Premium Transit Services that Affect Choice of Mode
Report Number: R-166
Publication Date: 4/23/2014
This report explores the full range of determinants for transit travel behavior and offers solutions to those seeking to represent and distinguish transit characteristics in travel forecasting models. The report includes appendices that present detailed research results including a state-of-the-practice literature review, survey instruments, models estimated by the research team, model testing, and model implementation and calibration results. The models demonstrate a potential approach for including non-traditional transit service attributes in the representation of both transit supply (networks) and demand (mode choice models), reducing the magnitude of the modal specific constant term while maintaining the ability of the model to forecast ridership on specific transit services.
System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios Update
Report Number: S-109
Publication Date: 4/15/2014
This synthesis documents successful practices in the United States and Canada, and presents information on efforts employed to achieve optimal bus fleet size and effective spare bus ratios. The report is designed to provide guidance to transit agencies on how various factors may affect optimal fleet size. Appendix D: Compilation of Agency Survey Responses was not printed, and not included in the print or PDF version of TCRP Synthesis 109. It is, however, available for download at www.trb.org. TCRP Synthesis 109 updates the findings of TCRP Synthesis 11: System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios, as significant changes have occurred in the transit industry since 1995.
Optimizing Bus Warranty
Report Number: S-111
Publication Date: 4/10/2014
This synthesis explores how some transit agencies address key aspects of their warranty programs. The report examines the steps taken to more accurately monitor warranty coverage periods, optimize the warranty process, and maximize warranty reimbursement to fulfill U.S. Federal Transit Administration requirements and taxpayer expectations. Click on the link to order a hard copy. https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7145
Community Tools to Improve Transportation Options for Veterans, Military Service Members, and Their Families
Report Number: R-164
Publication Date: 3/27/2014
This report explores ways to enhance transportation options for veterans, military service members, and their families by building on the concepts of transportation coordination and mobility management. It provides guidance and tools to assess transportation needs of veterans, service members and their families, and ways to potentially improve public transit, specialized transportation, volunteer services, and other local transportation options needed to meet those needs.
Common Sense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds
Report Number: S-110
Publication Date: 3/19/2014
This report explores approaches transit agencies have taken to realize gains in average bus speeds. It also identifies metrics pertaining to measures such as changes in travel speed and its components, operating cost, and ridership. It shows the results of each or a combination of approaches implemented.
Research Results Digest 108
Report Number: RRD-108
Publication Date: 1/1/2014
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Transit Bus Operator Distraction Policies
Report Number: S-108
Publication Date: 10/11/2013
TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 108: Transit Bus Operator Distraction Policies is designed to help transit agencies develop policies and programs to address and prevent distracted driving incidents.
Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry - A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-162
Publication Date: 10/3/2013
This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.
Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Report Number: R-165
Publication Date: 8/26/2013
This report provides guidance on transit capacity and quality of service issues and the factors influencing both. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability, comfort, and convenience from the passenger and transit provider points of view.
Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-106
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.
Transit Station and Stop Adoption Programs
Report Number: S-103
Publication Date: 5/1/2013
This synthesis explores transit agency programs in which local organizations, individuals, or other partners “adopt” a transit station or stop and receive recognition or incentives in exchange for, periodically, performing duties such as removing litter, maintaining vegetation, or reporting suspicious activity.
Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Introduction
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 1
Publication Date: 2/13/2013
This report contains a four-level Table of Contents for the 16 published TCRP Report 95 chapter/volumes. It describes the Traveler Response Handbook and its development. It also offers guidance to the prospective Handbook users, and includes two Handbook appendices plus known errata. The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.
Transforming Public Transportation Institutional and Business Models
Report Number: R-159
Publication Date: 12/14/2012
This report offers strategy for defining and implementing transformative change in institutional and business models, thus facilitating the operation and maintenance of public transportation systems. The report identifies the components of transformative change and examines potential consequences of change.
Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems
Report Number: S-101
Publication Date: 7/13/2012
This synthesis highlights the experiences of public transit agencies that have planned, implemented, and operated fare-free transit systems. The report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or subrecipients of federal transit grants and that furnish fare-free services to everyone in a service area on every mode provided.
Ridersharing as a Complement to Transit
Report Number: S-98
Publication Date: 4/2/2012
This synthesis explores current practices in using ridesharing to complement public transit and highlights ways to potentially enhance ridesharing and public transit.
Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations
Report Number: R-153
Publication Date: 3/29/2012
This report is intended to aid in the planning, developing, and improving of access to high capacity commuter rail, heavy rail, light rail, bus rapid transit, and ferry stations. The report includes guidelines for arranging and integrating various station design elements. The print version of TCRP Report 153 is accompanied by a CD-ROM that includes a station access planning spreadsheet tool that allows trade-off analyses among the various access modes--automobile, transit, bicycle, pedestrian, and transit-oriented development--for different station types. The appendices to TCRP Report 153 are also available on the CD-ROM at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166516.aspx
Improving Bus Transit Safety Through Rewards and Discipline
Report Number: S-97
Publication Date: 3/23/2012
This synthesis addresses the practices and experiences of public transit agencies in applying both corrective actions and rewards to recognize, motivate, and reinforce a safety culture within their organizations.
Sustainable Public Transportation: Environmentally Friendly Mobility
Report Number: RRD-103
Publication Date: 12/12/2011
This digest is an overview of an international study mission that explored how public transportation systems in several cities in India and China have implemented plans, policies, technologies, and strategies for creating more livable communities through bus, metro, bus rapid transit, rail, and light rail systems. The Indian and Chinese systems visited were designed to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, lower operating costs, and provide safe and accessible transportation services.
Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies
Report Number: R-148
Publication Date: 11/19/2011
This report provides strategies to recruit minorities for chief executive officer (CEO) positions and offers resources to assist governing boards of public transportation agencies in the recruitment of minority CEOs. It also assesses the transit industry's recruitment processes for CEOs and provides a case for diversity that documents the benefits of minorities in public transportation leadership positions. Additionally, the report describes strategies for retaining CEOs at public transportation agencies.
Improving Safety-Related Rules Compliance in the Public Transportation Industry
Report Number: R-149
Publication Date: 10/19/2011
This report identifies potential best practices for all of the elements of a comprehensive approach to safety-related rules compliance. The categories of best practices, which correspond to the elements of a safety-related rules compliance program, include screening and selecting employees, training and testing, communication, monitoring rules compliance, responding to noncompliance, and safety management. This report also outlines the features of a prototype safety reporting system for public transportation.
Toolkit for Estimating Demand for Rural Intercity Bus Services
Report Number: R-147
Publication Date: 8/29/2011
This report provides a sketch-planning guide and supporting CD-ROM-based tools that can be used to forecast demand for rural intercity bus services. The tools use several methods to estimate demand, and the report describes key considerations when estimating such demand. The CD-ROM is included with the print version of the report and is also available for download from TRB's website as an ISO image. A Microsoft PowerPoint presentation that provides some background on the model and a worked example showing how to estimate ridership on a proposed rural intercity bus route is available for download on TRB's website.
Guidebook for Evaluating Fuel for Post-2010 Transit Bus Procurements
Report Number: R-146
Publication Date: 7/21/2011
This report is designed to help those considering the deployment of, or conversion to, alternative fuel buses. The guidebook and life-cycle emissions model spreadsheet (FuelCost2) are intended to aide individuals who, while being quite knowledgeable about the transit industry, may not be familiar with alternative fuels and implementation issues. The guidebook and FuelCost2 provide tools to simplify the process of developing an alternative fuel strategy by clearly identifying the issues, and the costs and benefits associated with the conversion to various available alternative fuel technologies. FuelCost2 life-cycle costs and life-cycle emissions spreadsheet is available for download in a Microsoft Excel format. Appendix C of TCRP Report 146 is the user's guide for the tool. The spreadsheet includes additional instruction for using FuelCost2. This report updates, expands on, and replaces TCRP Report 38: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Fuel Choices for Transit Bus Operations.
Public Participation Strategies for Transit
Report Number: S-89
Publication Date: 7/19/2011
This synthesis documents the state-of-the-practice in terms of public participation strategies to inform and engage the public for transit-related activities. It also provides ideas and insights into practices and techniques that agencies have found to be most successful, and discusses challenges relating to engaging the public.
Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains
Report Number: S-88
Publication Date: 6/30/2011
This report documents the state of the practice of transit agencies managing capacity on vehicles carrying customers with large items. The synthesis also includes a discussion of vehicle designs to accommodate these various large items.
Funding for Infrastructure Maintenance: Achieving and Sustaining a State of Good Repair
Report Number: RRD-101
Publication Date: 6/27/2011
This digest examines how bus and rail agencies and operators in several European cities develop community support for public transportation and how those communities implement sustainable funding strategies for transit assets, operations, and maintenance. The digest is based on the results of a scanning mission performed from June 11 through 25, 2010, under TCRP's International Transit Studies Program.
Transit Agency Compliance with Title VI: Limited English Proficiency Requirements
Report Number: RRD-97
Publication Date: 2/2/2011
This digest explores the legal issues associated with transit operators' limited English proficiency (LEP) compliance efforts. It s designed to serve as a single source of information concerning the development and current status of transit LEP implementation efforts by state and local legislative and operational bodies.
Resource Guide for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders
Report Number: R-143
Publication Date: 1/26/2011
The core features of this Resource Guide are two decision-making processes: (1) planning and (2) operations. The Resource Guide presents important lessons learned from transit agencies that have made decisions both to commingle and not to commingle their ADA paratransit and non-ADA paratransit riders. Non-ADA paratransit riders include non-sponsored older adults, non-sponsored persons with disabilities, other agency funded persons, the general public, persons receiving Medicaid, Title III persons, non-sponsored low income persons, and persons in the Head Start program.
Managing Increasing Ridership Demand
Report Number: RRD-96
Publication Date: 9/14/2010
This digest documents a 2009 study mission to Guayaquil, Ecuador; Santiago, Chile; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Porto Alegre, Brazil, that investigated how transit operators and agencies in these cities accommodated sudden and significant growth in the number of riders and increasing demand for service.
Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations
Report Number: R-142
Publication Date: 9/9/2010
This report provides guidance for understanding the relationships that influence and enhance operator recruitment, retention, and performance in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit services. Appendixes to TCRP Report 142 were published electronically as TCRP Web-Only Document 50: Survey Instrument, Productivity Charts, and Interview Protocol for Case Studies for TCRP Report 142.
Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic
Report Number: S-83
Publication Date: 8/11/2010
This synthesis explores the application of different transit preferential treatments in mixed traffic. It also examines the decision-making process that may be applied in deciding which preferential treatment might be the most applicable in a particular location.
A Guide for Planning and Operating Flexible Public Transportation Services
Report Number: R-140
Publication Date: 7/26/2010
This report explores the types of flexible transportation service strategies that are potentially appropriate for small, medium, and large urban and rural transit agencies. It also examines financial and political realities, operational issues, and institutional mechanisms related to implementing and sustaining flexible transportation services.
Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies -- Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 19
Publication Date: 7/19/2010
This report pair-uses wise comparisons to explore the relative importance of particular categories of TDM strategies, such as support versus incentives, as well as the particular strategies themselves, such as transit subsidy versus a high-occupancy vehicle parking discount. TDM (transportation demand management or travel demand management) is a process that can encompass a variety of measures intended to influence travel choices. TDM is used to manage heavy traffic demand and parking requirements, and to enhance the effectiveness of transit services.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Transit, Call Centers, and 511: A Guide for Decision Makers
Report Number: R-134
Publication Date: 8/20/2009
This report explores the operational characteristics of 511 telephone traveler information systems and examines how 511 systems interact with transit system call centers. This report inventories existing 511 systems throughout the country, documents the extent of transit participation and transit agency experiences with 511, and presents guidance to assist transit agencies and 511 system administrators in determining a transit-511 telephone strategy.
A Guidebook for the Evaluation of Project Delivery Methods
Report Number: R-131
Publication Date: 5/12/2009
This report examines various project delivery methods for major transit capital projects. The report also explores the impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of including operations and maintenance as a component of a contract for a project delivery method.
Passenger Counting Systems
Report Number: S-77
Publication Date: 1/28/2009
This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service
Report Number: S-75
Publication Date: 7/10/2008
This publication explores the use of higher capacity (HC) public transit buses in trunk, express, long-distance commuter, Bus Rapid Transit, and special (e.g., sports and special events) services in North America. For purposes of this study, HC buses included articulated, double-deck, 45-ft, and other buses that have a significant increase in passenger capacity compared with conventional 40-ft buses.
AVL Systems for Bus Transit: Update
Report Number: S-73
Publication Date: 5/20/2008
This publication explores the uses of computer-aided dispatch/automatic vehicle location (CAD/AVL) systems in fixed-route and demand-responsive services (bus AVL), as well as changes in agency practices related to the use of AVL systems.
Transit Bus Stops: Ownership, Liability, and Access
Report Number: LRD-24
Publication Date: 4/10/2008
This digest will inform transit providers and government officials of the different levels of ownership, liability, and maintenance associated with bus stops and bus shelters; identify the categories of legal issues that are associated with ownership and liability; and provide information on the problems and practices of others who have dealt with such problems including protective provisions in franchise agreements and service provider contracts.
Guidebook for Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance of Demand-Response Transportation
Report Number: R-124
Publication Date: 4/4/2008
This guidebook is a resource to assist Demand-Response Transportation (DRT) systems to measure, assess, and improve performance, focusing on DRT in urban areas. It addresses the diversity of DRT systems, service areas, and passengers; identifies the important controllable factors affecting DRT performance; and includes performance assessment methods based on the reliable data and meaningful measures. Such methods will allow relevant assessments of DRT performance over time and across DRT systems.
Guidebook for Mitigating Fixed-Route Bus-and-Pedestrian Collisions
Report Number: R-125
Publication Date: 3/24/2008
This guidebook will assist transit agencies in understanding bus-and-pedestrian collisions, and in determining preventative or remedial strategies for reducing the frequency and severity of these types of collisions. It provides transit agencies and stakeholders with an array of strategies from which to choose for mitigating the frequency and severity of bus-and-predestrian collisions as well as approaches for doing so.
Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet
Report Number: S-72
Publication Date: 2/23/2008
Synthesis 72 - “ Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet“ - This synthesis will be of interest to transit professionals involved in developing a program to actively manage the implementation of biodiesel fuel and its use in a bus transit fleet. It documents a full range of benefit offered by biodiesel with the thought that once the subject is understood, transit agencies can make informed decisions regarding its use.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifications, and Needs
Report Number: S-71
Publication Date: 11/21/2007
This synthesis documents current requirements for being a paratransit manager and actual experiences of current paratransit managers in their positions. Transit mangers, policy makers, educators, trainers, human resource directors, and stakeholders, as well as current and future paratransit professionals, will find the results valuable in determining action steps needed to enhance the profession and paratransit service delivery. In addition, it offers information from general managers, chief operating officers, and paratransit advisory committees about college degrees desired and guidance offered aspiring paratransit managers. Technology proficiency and knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act were identified as the most needed skills. College educations were recommended by a majority of the professionals, with business management identified as the most desirable area of study; however, aside from this, successes in the field were attributed to specifics such as ethics, customer relations, communications, management and supervision, and sensitivity.
Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 13
Publication Date: 10/15/2007
This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.
Design, Operation, and Safety of At-Grade Crossing of Exclusive Busways
Report Number: R-117
Publication Date: 7/6/2007
This report provides guidelines for the safe design and operation of at-grade crossing of exclusive busways. The guidelines are based on a detailed literature review, interviews with selected transit agencies, and site visits to Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, Orlando, and Richmond (British Columbia). The guidelines are intended to assist transit, traffic engineering, and highway design agencies in planning, designing, and operating various kinds of busways through roadway intersections.
Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide
Report Number: R-118
Publication Date: 7/3/2007
This report provides information on the costs, impacts, and effectiveness of implementing selected bus rapid transit (BRT) components. It includes practical information that can be readily used by transit professionals and policy makers in planning and decision making related to implementing different components of BRT systems.
Elements Needed to Create High Ridership Transit Systems
Report Number: R-111
Publication Date: 6/21/2007
This report describes the strategies used by transit agencies to create high ridership and includes case studies of successful examples of increased or high ridership. The case studies focuses on the internal and external elements that contributed to successful ridership increases and describes how the transit agencies influenced or overcame internal and external challenges to increase ridership.
Coordinated Approaches to Expanding Access to Public Transportation
Report Number: RRD-81
Publication Date: 2/26/2007
This digest summarizes the mission performed May 4, May 19, 2006 International Transit Studies Program. Study mission participants are transit management personnel with substantial knowledge and experience in transit activities. The mission experience helps transit managers to better evaluate current and proposed transit improvements and serve to generate potential public transportation research topics. Team members are encouraged to share their international experience and findings with peers in the public transportation community throughout the United States.
Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure
Report Number: R-86 Volume 12
Publication Date: 2/1/2007
This report is designed to provide transportation tunnel owners and operators with guidelines for protecting their tunnels by minimizing the damage potential from extreme events such that, if damaged, they may be returned to full functionality in relatively short periods. This report will be of interest to tunnel authorities, state and local transportation departments, other agencies responsible for tunnel operation and maintenance, enforcement personnel and first responders responsible for tunnel safety and security, and tunnel designers. The objective of this report is to provide safety and security guidelines for owners and operators of transportation tunnels to use in identifying (1) principal vulnerabilities of tunnels to various hazards and threats; (2) potential physical countermeasures; (3) potential operational countermeasures; and (4) deployable, integrated systems for emergency-related command, control, communications, and information.
Bus Transit Service in Land Development Planning
Report Number: S-67
Publication Date: 12/26/2006
This synthesis documents the relationships between bus transit service and planning for new developments. It identifies successful strategies that assist in the incorporation of bus transit service into land developments, as well as the challenges that transit agencies face when attempting to do so. It also provices the state of the practice regarding the use and components of transit agency development guidelines.
Fixed-Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods
Report Number: S-66
Publication Date: 12/18/2006
This synthesis documents the state of the practice in fixed-routed transit ridership forecasting and service planning. It identifies forecasting methodologies, resource, requirements, data inputs, and organizational issues. It also analyzes the impacts of service changes and reviews transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methods and of desired improvements.
HOV Facilities: Travelers Response to Transportation Systems Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 2
Publication Date: 11/17/2006
The "HOV Facilities" chapter covers the traveler response to High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) applications, except for busways primarily on their own alignment, which are addressedn in Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Buys." This chapter covers the bredth of HOV facilities, inclusive of supportive features, but without examining supportive features in detail. Express bus operations and park-and-ride and park-and-pool facilities are supportive features that ehnance the operations of many HOV facilites.
Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services
Report Number: R-116
Publication Date: 11/13/2006
TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.
Using Archived AVL - APC Data to Improve Transit Performance and Management
Report Number: R-113
Publication Date: 9/12/2006
This report developed guidance on the effective collection and use of archieved AVL-APC data to improve the performance and management of transit systems. It offers guidance on five subjects: Analyses that use AVL-APC data to improve management and performance; AVL-APC system design to facilitate the capture of data with the accuracy and detail needed for off-line data analysis; ata structure and analysis software for facilitating analysis of AVL-APC data; Screening, parsing, and balancing automatic passenger counts; Use of APC systems for estimating passenger-miles for National Tansit Database reporting.
Transit Agency Participation in Medicaid Transportation Programs
Report Number: S-65
Publication Date: 8/24/2006
This synthesis documents and summaries the tasks necessary for a public transit Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) partnership to be successful. The purpose is to report on the real and perceived barriers to NEMT and public transit coordination and to discribe case studies of Medicaid transportation program participation by transit agencies.
Bus Use of Shoulders
Report Number: S-64
Publication Date: 7/5/2006
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.
Hazard and Security Plan Workshop: Instructor Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 10
Publication Date: 2/6/2006
This report will assist rural, small urban, and community-based passenger transportation agencies in creating hazards and security plans or evaluating and modifying existing plans, policies, and procedures consistent with the National Incident. Management System (NIMS) "NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal State, territorial, tribal, and local government to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity." To excess the accompany appendices to this report and additional resources, click the link. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/152464.aspx
Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Department in Europe
Report Number: RRD-71
Publication Date: 12/9/2005
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated the application of new technologies in bus and rail transit operations in Germany, Austria, and France. The theme of the study mission was Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Departments in Europe. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members. This digest includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited.
On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques
Report Number: S-63
Publication Date: 12/3/2005
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with planning and implementing on-board and intercept surveys. On-board/intercept surveys used throughout the report refer to sel-administered surveys distributed on board buses and railcars, and in stations, as well as interviews conducted in these environments. This report provides an overview of industry prictices and covers a broad range of issues addressed in planning a given survey.
Integration of Bicycles and Transit
Report Number: S-62
Publication Date: 11/22/2005
This synthesis reflects the additional knowledge gained by transit agencies in the past 10 years about integrating bicycles and transit. It documents many different types of transit agencies in the United States and Canada. The experiences that are documented can help transit agencies improve existing services and assist other communities in developing new bicycle and transit services.
The Case for Searches on Public Transportation
Report Number: LRD-22
Publication Date: 11/2/2005
This report provides information concerning the ability of public transportation systems or their agents, within the context of federal or state law, to conduct either random searches or targeted searches of passengers on public transportation vehicles or on public transportation property.
E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-84 Volume 7
Publication Date: 8/19/2005
This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. It describes how web-based tools have been used to assist with controlling and managing active and planned construction projects, including schedules and cost of the projects, through three organizations that have successfully used web-based collaborative software: The Chicago Transit Authority, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and Raytheon.
Innovations in Bus, Rail and Specialized Transit Operations in Latin America
Report Number: RRD-70
Publication Date: 6/3/2005
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovations in bus, rail and specialized transit operations in Latin America. It is based on individual reports provided by team members, and it reflects the views of the members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data.
Evaluation of Recent Ridership Increases
Report Number: RRD-69
Publication Date: 4/21/2005
This digest assess key factors and initiatives that led to ridership increases at 28 transit agencies, nationwide, for the period 2000 to 2002. The assessment is based on review of transit ridership statistics published by APTA, on operating statistics reported to and published in the FTA's National Transit Database, and on interviews and discussions with more than 35 senior transit managers.
Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture
Report Number: R-84 Volume 5
Publication Date: 10/25/2004
TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.
Transit Pricing and Fares
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 12
Publication Date: 9/13/2004
This report addresses transit ridership response to fare changes as applied to conventional urban area bus and rail transit services. Topics covered are: changes in general fare level, changes in fare structure including relationships among fare categories, and free transit. It does not cover the combined outcome of implementing fare and service in the same time frame. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Transit Design, Construction, and Operations in the Mediterranean Region
Report Number: RRD-66
Publication Date: 9/1/2004
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated transit design, construction, and operation in the Mediterranean region. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.
Operational Experiences with Flexible Transit Services
Report Number: S-53
Publication Date: 8/20/2004
This synthesis documents and summarizes tansit agency experiences with "flexible transit services," including all types of hybrid services that are not pure demand-responsive (including dial-a-ride and ADA paratransit) or fixed-route services, but that fall somewhere in between those traditional serivce models. In addition, it doucments six types of flexible transit service: request stops,flexible route segments, route deviation, point deviation, zone routes, and demand-responsive connector service. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agnecy staff responsible for vehicle operations and planning, and to those who work with them in this regard.
Bus Routing and Coverage
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 10
Publication Date: 8/17/2004
This report addresses traveler response to, and related impacts of, conventional bus transit alterations. Included are routing changes at both the individual route and system levels, new bus systems and system clousures, bus system expansion and retrenchment, increases and decreases in geographic coverage, and routing and coverage changes made together with fare changes. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers, professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MOPs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 3
Publication Date: 8/16/2004
This chapter covers travel demand and related aspects of providing and supporting park-and-ride and park-and-pool facilities. It addresses the facilities working together with supportive features and in coordination with high occupancy vehicle lanes; busways; bus rapid transit and other express bus services; light rail transit, commuter rail, and heavy rail transit facilities and services.
Transit Scheduling and Frequency
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 9
Publication Date: 5/25/2004
This report's objective is to equip members of the transportation profession with a comprehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from, different types of transportation system changes and policy actions and alternative land use and site development design approaches.
Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs
Report Number: S-52
Publication Date: 5/10/2004
This synthesis documents current information on prevention and intervention strategies and resources that can be used by transit agencies. It offers survey information obtained from individuals with the responsibility for managing health and wellness programs. It also covers the state of the practice at 14 U.S. transit agencies of various sizes, operating different modes, in diverse locales around the nations. This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff concerned with proactively addressing operator health and wellness issues at their agencies.
Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual
Report Number: R-100
Publication Date: 1/27/2004
This manual is intended to be a fundamental reference document for public transit practitioners and policy makers. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability and quality of service from the passenger point of view. The manual contains quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity of bus, rail, and ferry transit services, and transit stops, stations, and terminals. Examples problems are included.
Bus Rapid Transit - Implementation Guidelines
Report Number: R-90 Volume 2
Publication Date: 1/7/2004
This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT - running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.
Travel Matters: Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Surface Transportation
Report Number: R-93
Publication Date: 11/7/2003
This report and the TravelMatters website www.TravelMatters.org provides key strategies for reducing transportation emissions increasing the use of transit, changing land-use patters, and adopting energy-efficient technologis and fuels in transit fleets. It is designed to present information on climate change and to examine how greenhouse gas emissions from transportation may be reduced. Both the print and web-based research products review the capacity of public transportation to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and present this information in a format accessible to transportation professionals and the general public.
Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide
Report Number: R-96
Publication Date: 11/6/2003
The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.
Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook
Report Number: R-86 Volume 4
Publication Date: 10/15/2003
This report is designed to address transit agencies' needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.
Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update
Report Number: R-94
Publication Date: 10/13/2003
This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.
Yield to Bus - State of the Practice
Report Number: S-49
Publication Date: 10/13/2003
This report offers information on existing Yield to Bus programs and documents transit agency experiences for the benefit of others considering implementation of similar programs. It reports on curent knowledge and practice, in a compact format. The report documents information gathered about the legislative process and history; program implementtion, including public awareness and education campaigns, employee awareness and training, and the design and location of the yield display on the bus; as well as transit agency experiences covering transit operational issues, taffic operational issues, and public aceptance. It focuses on YTB programs in California, Florida, Oregon, Washington State, and British Columbia.
Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems
Report Number: S-48
Publication Date: 8/4/2003
This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. The report describes the state of the practice, including both U.S. and international experience. It documents survey information, a review of the relevant literature, as well as interviews with key personnel at agencies that have, or are in the process of, implementing these systems. This report will be of interest to transit staff concerned with implementing real-time bus arrival information systems at their agencies.
Bus Rapid Transit: Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit
Report Number: R-90 Volume 1
Publication Date: 8/1/2003
Transit agencies need guidance on how to successfully implement BRT in the political, institutional, and operational context of the United States. The transit profession lacks a consilidated set of principles for planning, designing, and operating BRT vehicles and facilities. This report provides information on the potential range of BRT applications, planning and implementation background, and system description, including the operations and performance elements.
Safety and Security Issues at All-Bus Systems in Small-to Medium-Sized Cities in Western Europe
Report Number: RRD-58
Publication Date: 5/28/2003
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated safety and security issues at all-bus systems. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the date presented. The report includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited, lessons learned, and discussions of policies and practices that could be applied in the United States.
A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: R-88
Publication Date: 1/29/2003
This guidebook will assist transit system managers in developing a performance-measurement system or program that uses traditional and non-traditional performance measures to address customer and community issues. The measures presented in the book will also be of interest to metorpolitan planning organizations interested in assessing the community benefits provided by transit service.
A Summary of TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: RRD-56
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This digest provides senior transit mangers with an easy-to-read summary of the contents of and tools in TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System. The guidebook provides a step-by-step process for developing a performance-measurement program that includes both traditional and non-traditional performance indicators that addresses customer-oriented and community issues. It is intended to introduce agency staff and decision-makers to the key performance-measurement concepts described in the guidebook. Information on obtaining the guidebook is on page 25.
Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-83
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.
Support for Fundamental Change in Public Transportation
Report Number: RRD-55
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
The aim of this digest is to inform and assist public transportation systems in the United States that are considering fundamental change to their organization. This digest was prepared as part of the third and final phase of "New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations; " it addresses major dimensions of fundamental change; illustrates a few extraordinary, fundamental changes that are being pursued by transit organizations; and calls attention to immediate opportunities to support and sustain fundamental change in the U.S. transit industry.
Report Number: S-45
Publication Date: 12/19/2002
In a number of transit agencies across the country there is an increasing focus on customer service and satisfaction. However, there is a perception among some stakeholders that customers service transit agencies lags behind that of other public and private service providers. There are some service providers and retailers (e.g., Federal Express, Southwest Airlines, Nordstrom's) that enjoy a strong reputation for providing responsive customers service in their overall operation. Often, their reputation places them at a competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the public arena, several state departments of motor vehicles are beginning to enjoy a similar, strong customer service reputation. This is a comprehensive survey of what selected transit agencies are doing to implement agency wide, results oriented customer service programs.
A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection
Report Number: R-80
Publication Date: 10/18/2002
A significant number of rail transit operators are not or will be looking to adopt lower-cost, less-infrastructure-intensive ways to carry out certain system functions such as fare collection. This report addresses the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection (SSFC) systems, including those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues. The Toolkit is designed for use by agencies at various points in the fare collection decision process.
Communication of Threats: A Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 01
Publication Date: 9/5/2002
This is the first volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume offers information on a variety of approaches to improving the sharing of the threat information. Current practices, operational needs, technologies for threat information dissemination, and system functional requirements are discussed. Effective strategies for sharing analyzed and unanalyzed reports of suspicious activities and a path to an interoperable set of national, regional, and local threat-information forums are proposed.
Training for On-Board Bus Electronics
Report Number: S-44
Publication Date: 9/5/2002
This synthesis of current practice documents the procedures and resources used by transit agencies to provide employee training on advanced on-board electrical and electronic equipment and systems. The study is intended for senior managers charged with procuring, implementing, operating, and maintaining on-board E/E equipment, with the primary focus given to maintenance training.
Identification of the Critical Workforce Development Issues in the Transit Industry
Report Number: RRD-45
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This digest identifies the key workforce challenges facing the public transportation industry, identifies current approaches to addressing those challenges, and suggests an agenda that the public transportation industry can use to move forward in the important area of work-force development.
Supplemental Analysis of National Survey on Contracting Transit Services
Report Number: RRD-46
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This digest describes findings from a follow-on study designed to analyze in greater detail the data obtained from the agency and general manager surveys on contracting conducted as part of the study, "Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience," The original study was published as TRB Special Report 258.
The Use of Small Buses in Transit Services
Report Number: S-41
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This synthesis focuses on the use of small buses 30 ft. or less in length, as replacements for large buses in fixed-route deviation or demand-response service. It reports on various practices making specific recommendations where appropriate but without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Offered in this report are responses from 94 public transit agencies in North America - how they were using small buses and their experiences with them.
Transportation on College and University Campuses
Report Number: S-39
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This report offers survey information from 30 campus transit agencies including insights into the lessons learned and issues related to planning, implementing, and operating campus transit service. The focus is on the recent trend toward unlimited access funding systems for campus transit service, whereby students, faculty, staff, and in some cases, nonuniversity-affiliated residents of a campus community are afforded unlimited use of transit service without paying a fare.
Effective Practices to Reduce Bus Accidents
Report Number: R-66
Publication Date: 6/26/2001
This report provides effective accident prevention practices used by small, medium, and large transit systems, as well as by fleet operators outside the transit industry that have reduced bus accidents. Particular emphasis is placed on practices that could be directly linked to reduce accident rates. Most information is obtained from 182 transit systems in the United States and in Canada and from statewide transit insurance pools in six states. The safety practice profile for each transit agency describes the managementâ€™s approach to system safety, recruiting and hiring practices, training programs, programs for providing incentives for safe driving, procedures for monitoring driver performance, and other specialized practices.
Part-time Transit Operations: The Trends and Impacts
Report Number: R-68
Publication Date: 4/9/2001
This report examine how part-time labor has affected the cost and performance of transit systems over the past 25 years and consider how part-time labor can be meaningfully incorporated into the workforce while avoiding potential negative impacts. This research reflects concern for transit system operating costs, safety, service, reliability, customer satisfaction, labor-management relations, and employee satisfaction.
Evaluation of Bus Bulbs
Report Number: R-65
Publication Date: 3/23/2001
This report produces guidelines to assist transit agencies, local government, and other public bodies in locating and designing bus stops that consider bus patronsâ€™ convenience, safety and access to sites as well as safe transit operations and traffic flow. The second phase of this report evaluates bus bulbs, an innovation in the design of bus stops found in several major North American cites. This research project was a continuation of TCRP Project A-10, "Location and Design of Bus Stops on Major Streets and Highways," which culminated with TCRP Report 19, "Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops."
Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-62
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report provides a wealth of information about the current status of public transportation services and their use at large airports in the United States and around the world. It identifies strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through increased awareness of issues and best industry practices. Key factors affecting passenger and employee use of public transportation for airport access is presented. Market trends and factors affecting ridership at nine U.S. airports with direct rail service are presented as well as trends and factors at U.S. airports with rubber-tired access systems such as prearranged limousines, shared-ride vans, express buses, and multistop buses. The report will be of interest to individuals involved in planning and implementing improved public transportation access to large airports.
New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations
Report Number: R-58
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report presents key ideas and principles that point the way to fundamental change. It addresses why fundamental change is now needed in public transportation and how other businesses and industries have responded to similar factors and forces in the recent past. Six broad challenges that currently drive the need for fundamental change in public transportation are presented. The report progress logically from an assessment of the current organization of the transit industry to a summary of the fundamental elements of a public transportation paradigm shift based on lessons learned from other industries.
Guidebook for Developing Welfare-to-Work Transportation Services
Report Number: R-64
Publication Date: 12/8/2000
This guidebook provides information about the role of transportation in supporting welfare-to-work initiatives and identifies practical strategies to improve access to job opportunities for former welfare recipients making the transition to work. It also describes service approaches that include modifications to existing mass transit services, coordination between transportation services, ride-sharing programs, automobile ownership programs, and collaborations between faith-based and community-based groups.
Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring Systems
Report Number: S-34
Publication Date: 12/1/2000
Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring Systems Abstract: This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, their schedule and operations planning staff, and others who are responsible for information about systems operations and ridership. It will also be of interest to others who interact with transit agencies in the reporting of operations data to support regular scheduling and operations planning activities for monitoring trends and reporting to oversight agencies. This synthesis reviews the state of the practice in how data are analyzed. It addresses methods used to analyze data and what computer systems are used to process and store data. It also covers accuracy issues, including measurement errors, and other problems, including errors in estimates. This TRB report addresses agency experience with different data collection systems, giving attention to management error, the need for sampling, and methods for screening, editing, and compensating for data imperfection. Sample reports from selected U.S. and Canadian transit agencies are reproduced in this synthesis.
Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials: Application and Refinement
Report Number: RRD-38
Publication Date: 12/1/2000
This digest analyzes the performance of buses along bus lanes on downtown streets. Additional field observations and measurements were used to test and refine the bus capacity and speed estimating procedures set forth in TCRP Report 26 "Operational Analyses of Bus Lanes on Arterials."
Analyzing the Costs of Operating Small Transit Vehicles
Report Number: R-61
Publication Date: 8/28/2000
This User's Guide explains the accompanying Small Transit Vehicle economics (STVe) model -- a tool designed for transit planners and others making decisions about the purchase of small transit vehicles for different services and operating environments. The User's Guide describes how to run the model and interpret its results.
Simulators and Bus Safety: Guidelines for Acquiring and Using Transit Bus Operator Driving Simulators
Report Number: R-72
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report provides guidance to transit agecny managers on whether to purchase a driving simulator and, if so, what kind. Also, this document provides guidance on how to use simulation effectively to improve bus operator training and safety. The guideline are designed to be used by transit-operations management, human resource management, training instructors, operations and safety personnel.
Toolbox for Transit Operator Fatigue
Report Number: R-81
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
The role that operator fatigue plays in mass transit safety has become one of the central issues that U.S. bus and rail transit agencies must address. Fatigue is increasing cited as a contributing factor in bus and rail transit accidents. The National Transportation Safety Board lists human fatigue as an area where significant improvement is needed in order to increase transportation safety. In addition to reducing accidents, mitigating fatigue can also reduce the cost of transit operations. Costs due to lost productivity, employee absenteeism, employee turnover rate, reduced morale, and increased wear and tear on equipment are affected by employee fatigue.
Hazard Assessment of Alternative-Fuel-Related Systems in Transit Bus Operaitons
Report Number: RRD-39
Publication Date: 2/1/2000
A new tool is available for assessing fuel-related hazards on transit buses. It is built on quantitative analysis (summarized in this digest) that shows where the key risks for fuel-related hazards in compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefield natural gas (LNG) are expected. The Alternative-Fuel Transit Bus Hazard Assessment Model (the model) is designed as an Excel spreedsheet tool that can be tailored to the characteristics of a particular fleet and facility after reading the "One-Page User's Guide." Download the model and its accompanying final report/user's guide from the TCRP web site at http://www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+C-11. The model and the final report are also available on CD-ROM as CRP-CD-4 through the American Public Transportation Association's TCRP Dissemination web site at http://www.apta.com/tcrp.
Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems
Report Number: R-54
Publication Date: 10/14/1999
This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and "how to" instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the "cross-cutting" topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.
Joint Operation of Light Rail Transit or Diesel Multiple Unit Vehicles with Railroads
Report Number: R-52
Publication Date: 6/30/1999
The report identifies and discusses issues associated with joint operation focusing on the current regulatory and institutional environment, railroad and rail transit operations, infrastructure, and rolling stock. It also examines issues relevant to the safe operation of rail transit services with railroads; prioritizes the most critical issues affecting such joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles that do not meet current U.S. railroad regulations, standards, or practices; and offers potential guidance on the most critical issues pertaining to implementing joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles. This report will be of interest to transit managers, planning and operations professionals, policy makers, and others interested in the potential for joint operations of light rail transit (LRT) or lightweight diesel multiple unit (DMU) vehicles with freight and/or passenger railroads.
Passenger Information Services: A Guidebook for Transit Systems
Report Number: R-45
Publication Date: 4/7/1999
This guidebook will be of interest to marketing and graphics professionals, customer service personnel, schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the design, distribution, and placement of passenger information materials for public transit systems. This guidebook provides instructions for designing passenger information aids. The research focused on traditional media (e.g., schedules, maps, and signage) for presentation of information. The guidebook consists of three sections. The first section addresses the basic information needs of transit passengers, including wayfinding behavior and decision making during a trip. The second section describes route guidance information and, where appropriates, provides examples to illustrate this information. The third section discusses the design and format details for information aids (e.g., print sizes, visual contrast, use of color and symbols, and map legends).
New Designs and Operating Experiences with Low-Flow Buses
Report Number: R-41
Publication Date: 12/31/1998
This report will be of interest to transit managers, policymakers, operations and maintenance professionals, bus procurement specialists, bus manufacturers and suppliers, and others interested in operating experience to date with low-floor transit buses. The report provides information on the current market for low-floor buses and provides a summary of operating experiences on the basis of discussions with transit agencies and low-floor bus manufacturers. The report includes information on customer satisfaction and acceptance, bus capacity and ridership impacts, bus operating experiences, impacts on maintenance and facilities, safety experiences, and operator and mechanic acceptance and satisfaction. Also included is a discussion of the current market and market trends for low-floor buses, an update of the status of low-floor bus technology and technological developments, and a summary of key specifications for low-floor buses available to the North American transit market. This report will be particularly useful for transit agencies considering the deployment of low-floor transit buses.
Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals
Report Number: R-30
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This manual will be of great interest to new transit schedulers, experienced schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the scheduling process. The manual is divided up into two sections: a basic treatment and an advanced section. The foremost is in an instructional format, designed primarily for novice schedulers and other transit staff. The advanced section covers more complex scheduling requirements.
Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials
Report Number: R-26
Publication Date: 11/19/1997
This report contains guidelines for estimating bus lane capacities and speeds along arterial streets. It recommends level-of-service thresholds for buses based on speed, and it presents procedures for estimating the speed of buses using dedicated bus lanes on arterial streets.
AVL Systems for Bus Transit
Report Number: S-24
Publication Date: 6/1/1997
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, planning, scheduling, safety, and procurement staff, as well as agency communications and engineering staff. It addresses various aspects of developing and deploying automated vehicle location ( AVL) systems over the last 20 years. Current practice, AVL architecture and technologies, and the institutional context of AVL defined in terms of funding, justification, staffing and procurement are discussed. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes the different approaches to AVL deployment used at selected transit agencies. It attempts to define the role of AVL for bus transit by examining objectives of implementation and both technological and operational frameworks.
Bus Occupant Safety
Report Number: S-18
Publication Date: 12/1/1996
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, safety, and risk management staffs, as well as agency human resources, personnel, and training staffs. It offers information on the current practices of transit agencies to reduce injuries to bus occupants during collisions and injuries to passengers while boarding, riding, and leaving the bus. This synthesis covers characteristics of bus occupant safety and transit agency programs for reductions of accidents/incidents such as those addressing driver and customer safety, vehicle improvement needs and safety inspections, bus stops and stations, safety management, and state transit agencies and transit operating companies
Customer Information at Bus Stops
Report Number: S-17
Publication Date: 12/1/1996
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, facilities and maintenance, and marketing and customer service staffs, as well as to other municipal transportation and marketing professionals. It addresses user information systems and describes current transit agency practices regarding customer information at bus stops within the text and through tables and multiple graphic illustrations. Types of signs and supplemental information displays, program implementation considerations, program effectiveness and advanced technology applications are also covered. Transit agency case studies detail five different perspectives on the development and deployment of on-street programs.
Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops
Report Number: R-19
Publication Date: 11/22/1996
This report will be of interest to individuals and groups with a stake in the location and design of bus stops. This includes those associated with public transportation organizations, public works departments, local departments of transportation, developers, and public and private organizations along or near bus routes. The primary objective of this research was to develop guidelines for locating and designing bus stops in various operating environments. These guidelines will assist transit agencies, local governments, and other public bodies in locating and designing bus stops that consider bus patrons' convenience, safety, and access to sites as well as safe transit operations and traffic flow.
Guidelines for Transit Facility Signing and Graphics
Report Number: R-12
Publication Date: 5/15/1996
This report documents and presents the results of a research project to develop a graphics design manual describing the use of signs and symbols which provide for the safe, secure, and efficient movement of passengers to and through transit facilities. During the course of this 18-month project, existing signs and symbols were reviewed worldwide; compliance with ADAAG (Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines) was determined for existing signs; new signs and symbols were developed in five functional categories, namely, Identification, Directional, Processing, Regulatory, and Warning; the key signs were tested by focus groups representing major types of disability, as well as transit users and non-users; a standard design manual of signs and symbols was developed that could be used by transit agencies nationwide; and a plan was developed to achieve maximum dissemination of the guidelines nationwide to transit entities.
Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors
Report Number: S-16
Publication Date: 1/1/1996
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, personnel, human resources and training staffs, bus operations staffs, as well as to other transportation, human resources, and training professionals. The roles and responsibilities of bus field supervisors are addressed, including emerging concerns about how to improve the relationship between supervisors and bus operators, while placing supervisors in a more positive role; how to obtain a greater return from employee productivity with tightening budgets and declining ridership; and how to improve customer service. This report of the Transportation Research Board provides information about current and innovative supervisory practices at selected transit agencies. It covers information about the expectations that organizations have for their supervisors; recruitment and selection; training; new or revised regulations; and the perceived impacts of new technologies at some transit agencies
Transit Operations for Individuals with Disabilities
Report Number: R-9
Publication Date: 12/15/1995
The goal of TCRP Research Project B-1 is to develop information to assist local transit providers in the implementation of appropriate service options and enhancements to serve individuals with disabilities. The specific research objective, consistent with this goal, is the development of a methodology for transit managers and planners to design and evaluate integrated transit systems that (1) provide accessible integrated service complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (2) facilitate the appropriate use of paratransit service; and (3) support service or system enhancements to encourage travel on accessible fixed routes by individuals with disabilities. This Research Results Digest presents the Phase I findings. Phase I, which was completed in Fall 1993, identified service options and described enhancements.
Bus Route Evaluation Standards
Report Number: S-10
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, as well as operations, scheduling, maintenance, and planning personnel. Information on bus route evaluation standards and criteria used by transit agencies in the United States and Canada is summarized. The synthesis provides updated information to the 1984 United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) report entitled Bus Service Evaluation Methods: A Review, however, the results are not directly comparable as the respondents, questions asked, and analytical procedures differ in the 1994 synthesis. It does report what agencies do in the area of bus route, not system, evaluation standards, and how they undertake these efforts.
System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios
Report Number: S-11
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers; operations, planning, maintenance, and finance personnel; as well as to regional, state, and federal funding agencies, and others concerned with the provision of safe and efficient public transit service. This synthesis documents critical site-specific variables that influence transit agencies' spare bus ratio policies. It profiles a select group of transit agencies of varying sizes and geographic locations and describes their operating environments in order to relate how these affect the number of spare buses each agency needs to meet its service requirements. This report of the Transportation Research Board provides information to familiarize transit agency staff with the unique and different operational, environmental, and political factors that affect optimal fleet size at various transit agencies. It describes the efforts of agencies striving to achieve and maintain lower spare ratios while continuously challenged with ridership fluctuations, aging fleets, as well as operating environments, maintenance programs, fleet mixes, roadcalls, training programs, and management and finance considerations.
Integration of Bicycles and Transit
Report Number: S-4
Publication Date: 12/1/1994
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, bicyclists and other personnel interested in the subject of integrating bicycles and transit operations, including the issues of safety, equipment procurement, scheduling, and interjurisdictional cooperation. Information on bicycle-on-ferry programs is included. This report of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) describes the characteristics of various bicycle-transit programs, including operation, equipment, and other issues for bus, rail, and ferry applications. It includes experiences from various transit agencies in the United States that are successfully integrating bicycles into their operations, as well as information derived from the literature on the subject.
Low-Floor Transit Buses
Report Number: S-2
Publication Date: 12/1/1994
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers; operations, maintenance, and planning managers; and other personnel concerned with operational experiences of low-floor transit buses in fixed route service and with the viability of this technology in meeting the transit industry's accessibility goals for the future. Information on low-floor transit buses operating in the United States and Canada, including technical specifications as well as status reports on buses manufactured in North America; buses under development; and buses under development; and buses in Europe, obtained from the contacts with international organizations is included. It contains descriptions of standard low-floor buses, as well as another smaller bus used primarily in paratransit service.