|Updated Guide to Buy America Requirements—2015 Supplement
Report Number: LRD-49
Publication Date: 4/28/2017
This report examines various statutory and regulatory Buy America requirements that a state or local governmental entity must examine when receiving funds for a public transportation project from one or more USDOT agencies. The purpose of this Legal Research Digest is to update the earlier TRB legal research to provide a comprehensive and current summary of the FTA Buy America provision.
Practices For Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit
Report Number: S-128
Publication Date: 4/17/2017
This report provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.
Guide to Value Capture Financing for Public Transportation Projects
Report Number: R-190
Publication Date: 1/6/2017
This report identifies the requirements necessary for successful value creation through transportation infrastructure investment and capturing a portion of that value through specific value capture mechanisms. It includes six case studies that provide practical examples of successful value capture from public transportation investments.
Economic Impact Case Study Tool for Transit
Report Number: R-186
Publication Date: 7/14/2016
This report presents the results of a project aimed at creating the prototype for a searchable, web-based database of public transit investment projects and their associated, transit-driven economic and land development outcomes. This information is intended to inform future planning efforts for transit-related projects, and to support better multi-modal planning.
This TCRP project builds upon a database established for highway projects under TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) called Transportation Project Impact Case Studies (TPICS). The purpose of TPICS is to provide transportation planners with a consistent base of data on actual, documented economic and land development impacts of completed transit-related investments, along with descriptions of the nature and associated factors of the impact.
The report covers the design and development of the case study database and web tool, and includes a set of seven prototype case studies. The web tool and prototype cases can be found at http://transit.tpics.us
Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who Are Homeless
Report Number: S-121
Publication Date: 3/14/2016
This report reports on effective practices, approaches, and outcomes regarding interactions within the transit industry with people who are homeless. A literature review summarizes policies and practices used in both the transit and library communities. Because public libraries are similar to public transportation in offering services to all members of the general public and in being viewed as a safe haven for people who are homeless, the literature review includes an examination of library policies and procedures related to people who are homeless.
Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-177
Publication Date: 4/27/2015
This report explores attributes, implementation strategies, and applications of next generation transit fare payment (NGFP) systems. It also documents the state of the practice of emerging fare payments options for public transportation; develops a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States; and evaluates the pros and cons of the options presented in the typology.
Guidance for Developing a Transit Asset Management Plan
Report Number: R-172
Publication Date: 12/23/2014
This report provides tools and guidance to improve asset management. The Transit Asset Prioritization Tool, a spreadsheet that accompanies the report, may assist transit agencies in predicting the future conditions of their assets and prioritizing asset rehabilitation and replacement. The contractor’s final report summarizing the research and methodology of this project is also available online. To access the tools to this report, click the link. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/171285.aspx
Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas
Report Number: S-113
Publication Date: 7/15/2014
This report documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.
Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.
Transit Public-Private Partnerships: Legal Issues
Report Number: LRD-45
Publication Date: 6/25/2014
This digest identifies the legal issues associated with negotiating public-private partnership (PPP) agreements for transit projects. It explores the rationale for using PPP, innovative contracting and financing approaches offered by PPPs, and transfer of risks from the public to the private sector through PPPs. In addition, the digest provides an overview of the legal barriers that PPPs confront in some states, and how PPPs comply with federal law. Funding of PPPs for transit projects and long-term leasing of transit facilities are also covered in the digest.
Common Sense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds
Report Number: S-110
Publication Date: 3/19/2014
This report explores approaches transit agencies have taken to realize gains in average bus speeds. It also identifies metrics pertaining to measures such as changes in travel speed and its components, operating cost, and ridership. It shows the results of each or a combination of approaches implemented.
Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry - A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-162
Publication Date: 10/3/2013
This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.
Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-106
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.
Use of Market Research Panels in Transit
Report Number: S-105
Publication Date: 6/11/2013
This synthesis describes the various types of market research panels, identifies issues that researchers should be aware of when engaging in market research and panel surveys, and provides examples of successful market research panel programs. It also provides information about common pitfalls to be avoided and successful techniques that may help maximize research dollars without jeopardizing the quality of the data or validity of the results.
State of Good Repair: Prioritizing the Rehabilitation and Replacement of existing Capital Assets and Evaluating the Implications for Transit
Report Number: R-157
Publication Date: 8/24/2012
This report presents a framework that builds upon a set of fundamental concepts and provides a basic set of steps for transit agencies to follow when evaluating and prioritizing capital asset rehabilitation and replacement investments. In addition to the printed report, an analytical approach and set of spreadsheet tools were developed to support the framework. These tools address how to evaluate rehabilitation and replacement actions for specific types of transit assets, and how to prioritize candidate rehabilitation and replacement actions. These tools can be located on the TRB website at www.trb.org.
Guidebook for Evaluating Fuel Purchasing Strategies for Public Transit Agencies
Report Number: R-156
Publication Date: 8/13/2012
This report is designed to help identify and evaluate risks and uncertainties with respect to fuel prices. The report also describes tools and techniques for minimizing the impact of fuel price uncertainties over time. As a guidebook this report introduces the concept of fuel price risk management, identifies alternative purchasing strategies, and outlines steps necessary to implement a risk management program. It also defines and evaluates alternative cost-effective fuel purchasing strategies designed to benefit public transportation agencies of varying sizes, and provides a management framework to assist transit agencies through the fuel purchasing process.
Transit Asset Condition Reporting
Report Number: S-92
Publication Date: 10/24/2011
This synthesis examines and documents the current state of the practice in transit asset condition management. It defines transit asset management as a strategic planning process that supports informed capital investment planning and programming. This report objective is to provide transit agencies and their federal, state, and local funding partners with a review of current practices in order to help encourage an industry-wide discussion on standards and the data needed to measure conditions and use the information in making effective investment decisions.
Transit Oriented Joint Development: Case Studies and Legal Issues
Report Number: LRD-36
Publication Date: 10/12/2011
This digest examines a combination of large, medium, and small Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and joint development projects since 1999 and provides comprehensive case studies, with an emphasis on what made the project succeed and how legal issues relate to TODs in general. Sample documents are included with the print version of the publication in CD-ROM format. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB's website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided as well.
Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit
Report Number: R-144 Volume 1
Publication Date: 3/17/2011
The report explores issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit leads the user through the process of setting up the necessary cost accounting system, identifying the data requirements and the measurement parameters, and describing procedures for applying the model. This volume includes instructions for using the actual Cost Sharing Model for setup and application on a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB's website as an ISO image. An executive summary of the report is included.
Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 2: Research Report
Report Number: R-144 Volume 2
Publication Date: 3/16/2011
The report explore issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 2: The Research Report summarizes all of the study components that contributed to formation of the Toolkit. It includes an extended evaluation of current experiences, and describes the regulatory environment that frames transportation service delivery requirements. An executive summary of the report is included.
Reconciling Security, Disclosure, and Record-Retention Requirements in Transit Procurements
Report Number: LRD-32
Publication Date: 8/16/2010
This digest highlights the legal requirements that are relevant to the transit procurement process of balancing the competing needs of open government and public security. The report explores federal and state requirements concerning record retention and disclosure, as well as practices transit agencies have adopted to meet their responsibilities in balancing these competing public policy interests.
Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects
Report Number: R-138
Publication Date: 4/29/2010
This report defines and describes soft costs and provides a new suggested methodology to estimate soft costs based on historical projects. The report also examines detailed technical information about the data collection, methodology, and statistical analysis that was used to develop the suggested methodology.
Performance Measurement and Outcomes
Report Number: RRD-95
Publication Date: 4/23/2010
This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Technology
Report Number: R-132
Publication Date: 12/19/2009
This report explores decision-making guidelines coupled with a comprehensive life cycle cost (LCC) model designed to assist transit managers in evaluating, selecting, and implementing hybrid-electric technology options for transit buses. The LCC model allows the user to compare the total life cycle costs across several cost categories for up to 6 different purchase scenarios. The LCC model is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-71), with the printed version of the report and available for download as an ISO image online.
Balancing Infrastructure Reinvestment with System Expansion
Report Number: RRD-92
Publication Date: 11/6/2009
This report explores how public transport agencies in Australia are balancing the need to increase capacity and expand service while maintaining and upgrading their existing bus, tram, rail, and ferry infrastructure.
Public Transportation's Role in Addressing Global Climate Change
Report Number: RRD-89
Publication Date: 3/25/2009
This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation's role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.
Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner's Guide
Report Number: R-130
Publication Date: 3/2/2009
This report examines a business case for the shared use of non-Federal Railroad Administration-compliant public transit rail vehicles (e.g., light rail vehicles) with freight operations and highlights a business model for such shared-use operations. This report also explores potential advantages and disadvantages of shared-use operations and the issues and barriers that can arise in the course of implementation.
Passenger Counting Systems
Report Number: S-77
Publication Date: 1/28/2009
This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.
Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services
Report Number: S-76
Publication Date: 12/4/2008
This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.
Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel
Report Number: R-128
Publication Date: 10/2/2008
This report explores the demographics of transit-oriented development (TOD) residents and employers, and their motives for locating in TODs. The report also examines the travel characteristics of residents before and after moving to a TOD and ways to increase transit ridership among these residents. In addition, the report reviews the potential effect of land-use and design features on travel patterns, transit ridership, and the decision to locate in a TOD. This report will be helpful to project, land-use, and transportation planners; transit agencies; the development community; and federal, state, and local decision makers considering transit oriented development.
Leveraging ITS Data for Transit Market Research: A Practitioner's Guidebook
Report Number: R-126
Publication Date: 7/8/2008
This publication describes currently used intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and Transit ITS technologies that have the greatest promise for transit market research. This guidebook documents ITS and Transit ITS technologies currently in use, assesses their potential to provide market research data, and presents methods for collecting and analyzing these data. Also, the guidebook provides three in-depth case studies that illustrate how ITS data have been successfully used to improve market research practices.
Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet
Report Number: S-72
Publication Date: 2/23/2008
Synthesis 72 - “ Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet“ - This synthesis will be of interest to transit professionals involved in developing a program to actively manage the implementation of biodiesel fuel and its use in a bus transit fleet. It documents a full range of benefit offered by biodiesel with the thought that once the subject is understood, transit agencies can make informed decisions regarding its use.
Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation
Report Number: R-119
Publication Date: 12/11/2007
This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.
Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 13
Publication Date: 10/15/2007
This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.
Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services
Report Number: R-116
Publication Date: 11/13/2006
TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.
Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Funded Public Transportation Projects
Report Number: RRD-78
Publication Date: 10/25/2006
This digest contains recommendations for strategies, tools, and techniques to better manage major transit capital projects over $100 million. Information is presented on various stimation, project-management, and cost-containment approaches that were applied successfully to 14 case studies. The results, which indicate which tools and techniques contributed to more effective project management, will be useful to transit systems and communities endeavoring to plan or implement major transit investments.
Bus Use of Shoulders
Report Number: S-64
Publication Date: 7/5/2006
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.
Car-Sharing: Where and How it Succeeds
Report Number: R-108
Publication Date: 12/1/2005
Car-sharing is an innovative mobility option that allows individuals to pay for and use automobiles on an as-need basis through membership programs. This report is a substantive resource with considerable information and useful tools for the development and implementation of car-sharing serivces. It would be of interest to individuals, organizaitons, and communities who are interested in knowing more about car-sharing and to those who may want to introduce car-sharing as a new mobility alternative.
Analyzing the Effectiveness of Commuter Benefits Programs
Report Number: R-107
Publication Date: 11/9/2005
This report is designed to help employers, transit agencies, and other organizations that promote transit benefits, and policy makers better understand the impacts of a transit benefits program and how to qualify these impacts for their own programs. The report has three chapters: Chapter 1 provides an overview of commuter benefits and a discussion of the study objective and the organization of the report. Chapter 2 provides guidance on how to evaluate the effectiveness of a transit benefits program. Chapter 3 based on research from metropolitan areas across the United States, examines the effects of transit benefits programs on employee travel behavior and on transit agency ridership, revenues, and costs.
Vanpools and Buspools
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 5
Publication Date: 8/12/2005
This report highlights the travel demand findings for vanpooling and buspooling. It examines the effects of travel times, pricing, and a number of related tangibles and intangibles on the decision to vanpool in particular; quantifies vanpooling and buspooling as best can be done. It also lookes at vanpooling trends; examines rider survey information; identifies indicators of market potential; and explores cost implications.
Innovations in Bus, Rail and Specialized Transit Operations in Latin America
Report Number: RRD-70
Publication Date: 6/3/2005
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovations in bus, rail and specialized transit operations in Latin America. It is based on individual reports provided by team members, and it reflects the views of the members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data.
Geographic Information Systems Applications in Transit
Report Number: S-55
Publication Date: 2/11/2005
This synthesis illustrates the value of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to transit agencies in service provision and in potential cost savings. It summarizes the experiences of a variety of transit agencies, with information provided from small and medium sized transit operators, as well as from large transit agencies. It also documents current practices, effective applications, and challenges. In additon, this synthesis includes a broad-based literature review, supplemented by information from a survey of transit agencies and case studies of five large transit operators. It covers the full range of transit services including planning, operations, management, information technology, and customer services.
Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation
Report Number: S-56
Publication Date: 1/24/2005
This synthesis explores current perspectives, practices, and experiences in the use of performance measures for the allocation of financial assistance of local transit systems. It focuses primarily on the extent to which traditional measures of transit performance, internal measures of economic efficiency, service effectiveness, and productivity are used in allocating funds. The report summarizes the experences of a variety of transit agencies, it would be of interest to transit practitioners and transportation professionals, including technical and research staff.
Transit Pricing and Fares
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 12
Publication Date: 9/13/2004
This report addresses transit ridership response to fare changes as applied to conventional urban area bus and rail transit services. Topics covered are: changes in general fare level, changes in fare structure including relationships among fare categories, and free transit. It does not cover the combined outcome of implementing fare and service in the same time frame. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects
Report Number: R-102
Publication Date: 8/25/2004
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of the practice and the benefits of transit-oriented development (TOD) and joint develoment throughout the United States. This report defines TOD and joint development and offers insight into the various aspects of implementing TOD, including political and institutional factors; planning and land-use strategies, benefits, and impacts; fiscal considerations and partnerships; and design challenges and considerations. Benefits attributable to TOD initiatives include improved air quality, preservation of open space, pedestrian-friendly environments, increased ridership and revenue, reduction of urban sprawl, and reorientation of urban development patterns around both rail and bus transit facilities. This report will be helpful to transit agencies, the development community, and local decision makers considering TOD.
Transit Advertising Sales Agreements
Report Number: S-51
Publication Date: 3/19/2004
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agency experiences with advertising sales and synthesizes current practices for advertising sales, contracting, and display. This report will be of interest to transit agency staff responsible for advertising sales in their agencies. They can use this report to learn from the experiences of other transit agencies and to compare their experiences with those of others.
Economic Benefits of Coordinating Human Service Transportaiton
Report Number: R-91
Publication Date: 9/5/2003
This report examines the net economic benefits associated with various strategies and practices for coordinating human service transportation and general public transit, provides quantitative estimates of these strategies and practices, and identifies innovative and promising coordination strategies and practices. The report provides an executive summary that provides a brief overview of basic coordination concepts and strategies that may enable transportation operators to achieve significant economic benefits from coordinating their operations. This information may be used by federal, state, and local officials in developing strategies and policies for coordinating transportation resources.
Use of Flexible Funds for Transit Under ISTEA and TEA-21
Report Number: S-42
Publication Date: 6/10/2002
This report is intended to provide greater familiarity with emerging techniques in the use of flexible funding, and to point out issues that may need further attention. It is also intended to provide a review of how current flexible funding provisions are being used to support transit invetment and to examine, through a limited number of specified experiences, lessons that may have the broadest relevance throughout the transit industry. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency professionals and the consultants who work with them in dealing with flexible funding opportunities.
Innovative Financing Techniques for Transit Agencies
Report Number: LRD-13
Publication Date: 3/31/2000
This digest describes the identified techniques that have been successfully employed or attempted by transit operators in order to increase revenues available for transit capital or operating needs or to provide development of transit assets in innovative ways. By studying the case studies set forth in this report, transit operators across the country can duplicate these techniques or expand on them with their own innovative financing techniques to produce revenues or transit assets for the commuting public.
Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems
Report Number: R-54
Publication Date: 10/14/1999
This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and "how to" instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the "cross-cutting" topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.
Economic Impact Analysis of Transit Investments
Report Number: R-35
Publication Date: 7/30/1998
This report, will be of particular intrigue to transportation economists and other analysts to help towards selecting methods to conduct economic impact analyses to assist them in the primary goal of public transportation investments to improve mobility, economic benefits are also a key to transit investment decisions. In all, it is important that reliable and defensible analytical approaches are used to support decision-making.
Assessment of the Economic Impacts of Rural Public Transportation
Report Number: R-34
Publication Date: 7/15/1998
Almost 1,200 public transportation systems now exist in rural communities across the United States and receive Federal funding. Many of these systems have been in operation since the 1970s and 1980s, but their economic impacts have seldom been quantified. This report examines the economic impacts of selected rural public transportation services at the local level through case studies, and it estimates the national economic impact of rural public transportation on an average annual per county basis. This report will be of interest to state and local transportation planners, analysts, and decision-makers to assist them in matters pertaining to the introduction and expansion of public transportation services in rural areas.
Measuring and Valuing Transit Benefits and Disbenefits
Report Number: R-20
Publication Date: 12/30/1996
This report will be of interest to transportation professionals and policy makers responsible for transit investment decisions. The report categorizes and describes transit benefits and disbenefits, presents the dimensions of transit's economic impact, addresses the linkages between increased transit investment and use, and changes in long-term, region wide economic conditions that can be measured with current analytic methods, and provides examples of transit benefits and disbenefits based on recent analysis.
Evaluation of Economic Feasibility and Innovative Payment Plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN)
Report Number: IDEA-18
This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.