|Multiagency Electronic Payment Fare Systems
Report Number: S-125
Publication Date: 3/27/2017
This report describes the current practice, challenges, and benefits of utilizing electronic fare payment systems (EFPS), such as smart cards. The synthesis reviews current systems and identifies their major challenges and benefits; describes the use of electronic fare systems in multimodal, multiagency environments; and reviews next-generation approaches through existing implementation case examples.
Legal Issues Concerning Transit Agency Use of Electronic Customer Data
Report Number: LRD-48
Publication Date: 3/22/2017
This report explores the advantages, disadvantages, risks, and benefits for transit agencies moving to electronic, cloudbased, and other computerized systems for fare purchases and for communicating with customers. “Smart” fare cards are now commonplace, and private businesses and transit agencies are using or planning to use smartphones, smart cards and credit cards, and other systems to obtain payment, location, and other personal data from customers.
The digest updates TCRP LRD 14: Privacy Issues in Public Transportation (2000) and TCRP LRD 25: Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards (2008) and covers additional dimensions of collection and use of personal information using new technologies developed since those studies. Appendix A-D are available online only at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/175848.aspx
Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-177
Publication Date: 4/27/2015
This report explores attributes, implementation strategies, and applications of next generation transit fare payment (NGFP) systems. It also documents the state of the practice of emerging fare payments options for public transportation; develops a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States; and evaluates the pros and cons of the options presented in the typology.
Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verfication
Report Number: S-96
Publication Date: 3/5/2012
This Synthesis examines the application of proof-of-payment (PoP) on transit systems in North America and internationally. It updates TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection. The Issues address by Synthesis 96 include evasion rates, inspection rates, enforcement techniques, duties of fare inspection personnel, adjudication processes, and the kinds of penalties involved for evasion.
Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees
Report Number: S-82
Publication Date: 6/16/2010
This report explores the state of the practice for transit agencies in terms of fare arrangements for public employees. It also examines issues such as leadership of the program; barriers, obstacles, and constraints; administrative procedures; implementation; lessons learned; cost, financing, and pricing; and program evaluation.
Performance Measurement and Outcomes
Report Number: RRD-95
Publication Date: 4/23/2010
This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Local and Regional Funding Mechanisms for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-129
Publication Date: 3/11/2009
This report explores a series of transit funding mechanisms with a primary focus on traditional tax- and fee-based funding; and common business, activity, and related funding sources. It includes an online regional funding database that provides an extensive list of funding sources that are in use or have the prospect of being used at the local and regional level to support public transportation. A user manual for the database is also available on the TCRP website.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Uses of Fees or Alternatives to Fund Transit
Report Number: LRD-28
Publication Date: 12/16/2008
This report explores the use of impact fees for transit in the United States. The report examines policy and legal considerations relating to the use of impact fees and developer exactions for transit, reviews various methodologies currently in use, and identifies cases that exemplify strategies transit agencies may pursue when considering impact fees as an alternative funding source.
Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards
Report Number: LRD-25
Publication Date: 5/12/2008
This publication examines basic privacy issues associated with the acquisition and storage of financial and trip data associated with the use of a transit smart card. The report explores who can access the data collected, what data may be accessed and under what conditions, and how the information can be used.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation
Report Number: R-119
Publication Date: 12/11/2007
This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.
Smartcard Interoperability Issues for the Transit Industry
Report Number: R-115
Publication Date: 1/30/2007
This report defines interoperability; identifies key information needed by public agencies to implement smartcard payment systems interoperability; describes the necessary information flows; and outlines a set of functions needed for a standard public domain application programming interface that may be used in the development of a uniform application protocol data unit (APDU).
Bus Routing and Coverage
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 10
Publication Date: 8/17/2004
This report addresses traveler response to, and related impacts of, conventional bus transit alterations. Included are routing changes at both the individual route and system levels, new bus systems and system clousures, bus system expansion and retrenchment, increases and decreases in geographic coverage, and routing and coverage changes made together with fare changes. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers, professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MOPs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Bus Rapid Transit - Implementation Guidelines
Report Number: R-90 Volume 2
Publication Date: 1/7/2004
This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT - running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.
Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update
Report Number: R-94
Publication Date: 10/13/2003
This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.
Developing a Recommended Standard for Automated Fare Collection for Transit
Report Number: RRD-57
Publication Date: 2/5/2003
This digest provides guidance on how best to apply automated fare collection in multiagency, regional environments. It identifies a representative sample of existing regional fare management programs, reviews their structure, and offers suggested procedures for implementing such regional programs.
A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection
Report Number: R-80
Publication Date: 10/18/2002
A significant number of rail transit operators are not or will be looking to adopt lower-cost, less-infrastructure-intensive ways to carry out certain system functions such as fare collection. This report addresses the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection (SSFC) systems, including those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues. The Toolkit is designed for use by agencies at various points in the fare collection decision process.
Multipurpose Transit Payment Media
Report Number: R-32
Publication Date: 5/15/1998
This report will be of interest to transit managers, transit operations personnel involved with fare collection, parking professionals, and the financial services community. It closely examines the potential for incorporating multipurpose payment "smart cards" that can be used to purchase transit services from multiple operators, and potentially, other goods and services (e.g., parking and retail products). The report explores smart card technology, legal and institutional issues linked with introducing multipurpose card programs, cost and revenue impacts, and customer attitudes. On the basis of experiences around the world, guidelines are provided for development of multipurpose programs.
Transit Markets of the Future: The Challenge of Change
Report Number: R-28
Publication Date: 1/15/1998
This report will be of interest to transit policymakers, managers, planners, marketing professionals, and others interested in the effects of current trends (e.g., demographic, economic, social, land use, and transport policy) and trends expected over the next 15 years on current and future transit markets. Although many of these trends are not favorable to public transit, a number are identified that provide opportunities for maintaining current transit markets and creating new, expanded, or different transit markets. The report identifies 40 transit service concepts that appear to offer the most effective means of adjusting to these societal trends.
Bus Transit Fare Collection Practices
Report Number: S-26
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, operations planning and scheduling, finance, and accounting staffs, as well as public relations, marketing, and security staffs. It documents fixed route bus fare collection practices at selected transit agencies. Survey responses about fare policy, fare collection equipment, fare disputes, and fare evasion issues, as well as customer information and the impact of reduced financial assistance is offered.
Multipurpose Fare Media: Developments and Issues
Report Number: RRD-16
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest presents the interim findings of Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project A-14, Potential of Multipurpose Fare Media, which is being conducted by Multisystems, Inc., in collaboration with Dove Associates, Inc., and Mundle & Associates, Inc. Included in the digest are (1) a summary of the emerging developments, (2) a discussion of key issues and concerns, and (3) a technical appendix presenting the results of a survey of transit operators' fare collection practices and plans. This digest should be of interest to transit managers, transit planners, transit financial officers, and other financial professionals.
Passenger Transfer System Review
Report Number: S-19
Publication Date: 12/1/1996
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, and agency staff in customer service, operations, budget, marketing, and financial divisions. It offers user information on a variety of transit agencies' approaches to transfer programs. Policy and operational issues, service design, and transfer automation are discussed, based on the experience of transit agencies in the United States and in Europe. This report of the Transportation Research Board documents a wide diversity in implicit transfer policies and many different approaches used at selected transit agencies. It covers practices dealing with restricting or allowing back riding or stopovers, fare levels, and alternatives to transferring.
Fare Policies, Structures, and Technologies
Report Number: R-10
Publication Date: 1/15/1996
This report will be of interest to policy makers and managers at transit agencies developing and implementing fare policies to meet their social, financial, and service needs. The report includes the results of a comprehensive study of the major parameters of the transit fare decision-making process, and it provides guidance for making decisions related to fare policy, structure, and technology.
Evaluation of Economic Feasibility and Innovative Payment Plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN)
Report Number: IDEA-18
This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.