|Use of Market Research Panels in Transit
Report Number: S-105
Publication Date: 6/11/2013
This synthesis describes the various types of market research panels, identifies issues that researchers should be aware of when engaging in market research and panel surveys, and provides examples of successful market research panel programs. It also provides information about common pitfalls to be avoided and successful techniques that may help maximize research dollars without jeopardizing the quality of the data or validity of the results.
Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Introduction
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 1
Publication Date: 2/13/2013
This report contains a four-level Table of Contents for the 16 published TCRP Report 95 chapter/volumes. It describes the Traveler Response Handbook and its development. It also offers guidance to the prospective Handbook users, and includes two Handbook appendices plus known errata. The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.
Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation
Report Number: S-99
Publication Date: 5/3/2012
This synthesis explores the use of social media among transit agencies and documents successful practices in the United States and Canada. For the purposes of the report, social media are defined as a group of web-based applications that encourage users to interact with one another, such as blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Foursquare, and MySpace.
Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services
Report Number: R-152
Publication Date: 2/23/2012
This report examines the history and characteristics of ferry systems throughout North America and develops guidelines for planning, marketing, operating, and managing a ferry system as a component of an overall transportation network. The report also explores the potential benefits of and impediments to ferry transportation services and identifies potential planning, operational, and management benchmarks.
Performance Measurement and Outcomes
Report Number: RRD-95
Publication Date: 4/23/2010
This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Transit, Call Centers, and 511: A Guide for Decision Makers
Report Number: R-134
Publication Date: 8/20/2009
This report explores the operational characteristics of 511 telephone traveler information systems and examines how 511 systems interact with transit system call centers. This report inventories existing 511 systems throughout the country, documents the extent of transit participation and transit agency experiences with 511, and presents guidance to assist transit agencies and 511 system administrators in determining a transit-511 telephone strategy.
Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues
Report Number: R-133
Publication Date: 7/22/2009
This report explores strategies designed to significantly increase transit's share of total advertising expenditures. The report examines advertising decision makers' perceptions about current and future transit advertising products and highlights a strategic responsive communications plan designed to improve those perceptions and increase transit revenue.
First Amendment Implications for Transit Facilities: Speech, Advertising, and Loitering
Report Number: LRD-29
Publication Date: 6/19/2009
Transit agencies face numerous challenges in providing passengers with a safe and efficient means of travel while respecting the freedom of expression protected by the First Amendment. In May 1998, the Transportation Research Board published Transit Cooperative Research Program Legal Research Digest (LRD) 10, Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities ("LRD 10"), a survey of the relevant law and its development up to the time of publication. This digest supplements LRD No. 10, summarizing and analyzing the status of this important area of the law in light of court decisions and other developments that have arisen in subsequent years.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services
Report Number: S-76
Publication Date: 12/4/2008
This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.
Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel
Report Number: R-128
Publication Date: 10/2/2008
This report explores the demographics of transit-oriented development (TOD) residents and employers, and their motives for locating in TODs. The report also examines the travel characteristics of residents before and after moving to a TOD and ways to increase transit ridership among these residents. In addition, the report reviews the potential effect of land-use and design features on travel patterns, transit ridership, and the decision to locate in a TOD. This report will be helpful to project, land-use, and transportation planners; transit agencies; the development community; and federal, state, and local decision makers considering transit oriented development.
Leveraging ITS Data for Transit Market Research: A Practitioner's Guidebook
Report Number: R-126
Publication Date: 7/8/2008
This publication describes currently used intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and Transit ITS technologies that have the greatest promise for transit market research. This guidebook documents ITS and Transit ITS technologies currently in use, assesses their potential to provide market research data, and presents methods for collecting and analyzing these data. Also, the guidebook provides three in-depth case studies that illustrate how ITS data have been successfully used to improve market research practices.
Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards
Report Number: LRD-25
Publication Date: 5/12/2008
This publication examines basic privacy issues associated with the acquisition and storage of financial and trip data associated with the use of a transit smart card. The report explores who can access the data collected, what data may be accessed and under what conditions, and how the information can be used.
Understanding How Individuals Make Travel and Location Decisions: Implications for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-123
Publication Date: 3/31/2008
Residential location and travel behavior have a large effect on society's consumption of energy, levels of pollution, and on health. There is a great value in increasing the understanding of the mechanism of choice. Better understanding leads to better insights as to how to predict choice and how to influence it through better polices, education and communication. This report aids to improve the understanding of how people make travel and location decisions, and to derive practical implications and policy guidance for encouraging more use of public transportation and walking.
Understanding How to Motivate Communities to Support and Ride Public Transportation
Report Number: R-122
Publication Date: 3/13/2008
This report provides a comprehensive discussion on the methods and strategies used by public transportation agencies in the United States and Canada to enhance their public images and motivate the support and use of public transportation. It identifies and describes methods and strategies used by other industries comparable to public transportation, it examines the perceptions, misperceptions, and use of public transit, and the extent to which these affect support, it identifies effective communication strategies, campaigns, and platforms for motivating individuals to action in support of public transportation, and it recommends ways to execute those communication strategies, campaigns and platforms.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation
Report Number: R-119
Publication Date: 12/11/2007
This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.
Web-Based Survey Techniques
Report Number: S-69
Publication Date: 2/23/2007
This synthesis describes how web-based surveys are being used by transit agencies and other transit researchers, and documents the experiences of web-based survey research as applied to transit.
Transit Advertising Sales Agreements
Report Number: S-51
Publication Date: 3/19/2004
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agency experiences with advertising sales and synthesizes current practices for advertising sales, contracting, and display. This report will be of interest to transit agency staff responsible for advertising sales in their agencies. They can use this report to learn from the experiences of other transit agencies and to compare their experiences with those of others.
Transit Information and Promotion
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 11
Publication Date: 3/2/2004
A subset of transit marketing, namely transit information and promotion, is the focus of this chapter. Traveler response to mass market information, mass market promotions, targeted information, targeted promotions, customer information services, and real-time transit information dissemination are examined. This report will be of interest to transit marketing staff and general managers, as well as strategic planners, educators, and researchers.
Bus Rapid Transit - Implementation Guidelines
Report Number: R-90 Volume 2
Publication Date: 1/7/2004
This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT - running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.
Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-83
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.
Supplemental Analysis of National Survey on Contracting Transit Services
Report Number: RRD-46
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This digest describes findings from a follow-on study designed to analyze in greater detail the data obtained from the agency and general manager surveys on contracting conducted as part of the study, "Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience," The original study was published as TRB Special Report 258.
Effective Use of Transit Websites
Report Number: S-43
Publication Date: 1/10/2002
This report synthesizes current practices and recent experiences concerning website content, design, marketing, and administration, based on information collected from 47 transit agencies representing a cross section of the U.S. transit industry. For each is a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. Transit executives and website managers and designers can use this report to learn from the experiences of other agenices and to compare their own experiences with those of others.
Enhancing the Visibility and Image of Transit in the United States and Canada
Report Number: R-63
Publication Date: 9/15/2000
This report will be of interest to transit managers, marketing professionals, and others at the local, regional, and national levels, interested in improving the visibility and image of transit in the United States and Canada through the implementation of image campaigns. This report documents and presents how the image of transit can be strengthened by building on existing positive perceptions.
Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems
Report Number: R-54
Publication Date: 10/14/1999
This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and "how to" instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the "cross-cutting" topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.
Low Cost and Cost-Effective Marketing Techniques for Public Transit Agencies
Report Number: R-50
Publication Date: 5/26/1999
Marketing plays a critical role in assisting transit agencies in attracting new riders, retaining existing ones, and ensuring support from the community at-large. To maximize its effectiveness, marketing must be viewed as a comprehensive process through which transit agencies develop and provide transit service and communicate the benefits to their employees, patrons, and the general public. TCRP Report #50 "A Handbook of Proven Marketing Strategies for Public Transit," a "how-to" handbook for selecting and implementing marketing techniques and strategies at transit agencies identifies and describes low-cost and cost-effective marketing techniques currently used at large, medium, and small, urban and rural transit agencies throughout the transit industry. The complete range of low-cost marketing activities includes traditional, broad marketing activities such as pricing, promotions, advertising, planning, and service delivery targeted at specific sub-markets. A method was developed to define the criteria that would be used to assess and select creative and promising marketing techniques. A general overview of each strategy is provided.
A Guidebook for Marketing Transit Services to Business
Report Number: R-51
Publication Date: 5/17/1999
The guidebook provides information on successful business-to-business marketing lessons from the private sector as well as the transit industry, guidance on how to implement a business-to-business marketing program, tools and techniques for business-to-business marketing, and evaluation measures. The report should be useful to transit planners, managers, marketing professionals, and others interested in the use of marketing strategies to build ridership.
A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality
Report Number: R-47
Publication Date: 4/27/1999
A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality" developed a methodology to assist transit agencies in identifying, implementing, and evaluating customer-defined service quality, and in defining performance indicators that include customer-defined quality service measures for fixed-route transit. The report focuses on how to measure customer satisfaction and how to develop transit agency performance measures. Methods for benchmarking and tracking information are also identified. The report includes rural, suburban, and urban markets.
Building Transit Ridership
Report Number: R-27
Publication Date: 12/30/1998
An Exploration of Transit's Market Share and the Public Policies That Influence It. State and local transportation officials constitute the primary intended audience for this report. This includes elected and appointed board members who deal with local transportation policy, transit agency officials, transit agency professionals, and metropolitan area transportation planners. The report addresses transit's ridership and its share of the travel market. The research explored a variety of different public policies and transit management actions that can potentially influence transit ridership, particularly in comparison to local travel by private vehicle. The policies are presented through case studies, which are summarized in the report and documented in greater detail in the accompanying appendices.
Continuing Examination of Successful Transit
Report Number: RRD-29
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This digest provides the results of Task 19 of Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project J-6, Quick Response for Special Needs. It identifies key factors and initiatives that have led to ridership increases at more than 50 transit agencies during the period from 1994 through 1996. This information will be of particular use to transit managers and planners interested in better understanding various mechanisms that have played a role in recent ridership increases.
Transit Advertising Revenue: Traditional and New Sources and Structures
Report Number: S-32
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, their marketing and advertising staffs, as well as to others dealing with revenue generation on behalf of transit agencies. It offers information from selected North American and other transit agencies about the existing environment for advertising on transit property and describes agency experiences. It also explores innovative revenue- generating practices. This report of the Transportation Research Board reports on the notion that there are as many opportunities to generate advertising revenue, as there are pieces of equipment, property, and printed material at the transit agency.
A Handbook: Integrating Market Research into Transit Management
Report Number: R-37
Publication Date: 9/15/1998
This report will of significance to the likes of transit managers, marketing professionals, planners and others that hold a keen interest towards the implementation of market segmentation strategies to increase transit ridership. The handbook provides an overview of market segmentation in terms of what it is and why it is relevant to public transit agencies. Its primary function is to act as an introduction for managers to the general concepts of market segmentation and provides steps and procedures for marketers or researchers who hold the responsibility for implementing a market segmentation program.
A Handbook: Using Market Segmentation to Increase Transit Ridership
Report Number: R-36
Publication Date: 8/15/1998
This handbook focuses on the status of market research as practiced in transit agencies and identifies major market issues confronting them. It also evaluates market research strategies that are appropriate for transit and provides guidance to integrate and institutionalize market research into decision-making processes of transit agencies. In an overall perspective it examines some barriers that limit the use of market research. The handbook is designed to expose transit managers and staff to up-to-date market research practices and cutting-edge ideas in market research.
Transit Markets of the Future: The Challenge of Change
Report Number: R-28
Publication Date: 1/15/1998
This report will be of interest to transit policymakers, managers, planners, marketing professionals, and others interested in the effects of current trends (e.g., demographic, economic, social, land use, and transport policy) and trends expected over the next 15 years on current and future transit markets. Although many of these trends are not favorable to public transit, a number are identified that provide opportunities for maintaining current transit markets and creating new, expanded, or different transit markets. The report identifies 40 transit service concepts that appear to offer the most effective means of adjusting to these societal trends.
Coordinated Intermodal Transportation Pricing and Funding Strategies
Report Number: RRD-14
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest will be of interest to transportation officials and planners considering coordinated pricing issues. It provides a summary of Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project H-6, Transit Fare Pricing Strategy in Regional Intermodal Transportation Systems. This project was designed to (1) examine factors that influence the ability to coordinate transportation pricing and funding strategies in a regional intermodal context and (2) develop a conceptual approach for pursuing such coordination. Included in the digest are (1) a summary of the key issues and study findings, and (2) several technical appendices providing key background information.
Leveraging Information for Better Transit-Maintenance
Report Number: RRD-13
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This TCRP Digest summarizes the findings of TCRP Project E-1, Innovative Maintenance Procedures for Transit Buses. The objectives of TCRP Project E-1 were to survey innovative maintenance practices being used in transit agencies or in transportation-related private firms, to evaluate their applicability to the population of transit agencies in the United States, and to develop recommendations and strategies for implementation. No specific area of focus was specified at the onset of the project. Work was executed in two phases: the first was a general survey of candidate new practices; the second was a more detailed study of several candidates identified in the first phase of research. The candidate innovations were grouped into three resource areas--capital, labor, and information. This Digest includes two appendices: (A) Identification of Effective Practices from Site Visits and (B) Phase II Case Studies.
Guidebook to Attracting Paratransit Patrons to Fixed-Route Services
Report Number: R-24
Publication Date: 6/15/1997
This Guidebook will be of interest to transit managers and planners in transit systems that provide complementary paratransit services under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Paratransit services are more expensive to provide on a per-trip basis than fixed-route transit, so operating efficiencies could be achieved by attracting some paratransit riders to fixed route.
Customer Information at Bus Stops
Report Number: S-17
Publication Date: 12/1/1996
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, facilities and maintenance, and marketing and customer service staffs, as well as to other municipal transportation and marketing professionals. It addresses user information systems and describes current transit agency practices regarding customer information at bus stops within the text and through tables and multiple graphic illustrations. Types of signs and supplemental information displays, program implementation considerations, program effectiveness and advanced technology applications are also covered. Transit agency case studies detail five different perspectives on the development and deployment of on-street programs.
Electronic On-Vehicle Passenger Information Displays (Visual and Audible)
Report Number: RRD-5
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This TCRP Digest provides the interim results of TCRP Project A-4, Electronic On-Vehicle Passenger Information Displays (Visual and Audible). The project explores ways in which transit agencies and transit users can benefit from on-board audio and visual display technologies. The major focus of this project is on the information needs of passengers while on board transit vehicles. This Digest summarizes passenger information needs, agency concerns, and the current and emerging display technologies. It is organized as follows: Introduction; Needs Assessment; Synthesis of Technologies; Conclusions; and Future Research.
Research Agenda for Increasing Transit Ridership
Report Number: RRD-6
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This digest summarizes TCRP Project H-5, "National Workshop to Develop a Research Agenda for Increasing U.S. Transit Ridership." The objective of the workshop is to develop problem statements for research on increasing ridership.
Transit Ridership Initiative
Report Number: RRD-4
Publication Date: 12/1/1994
The following TCRP digest provides the results TCRP Research project J-6. The objectives of this task were to (1) Identify and report on transit ridership success stories and (2) Identify research needs to increase U.S. transit ridership. The research ideas presented in this Digest served as a background w material for a workshop sponsored by TCRP project H-5. The project comprises of: Project Purpose; Background; Project Approach; Where have Ridership increases been most pronounced and Transit System Interviews.
Designing Transit Services for the Mode-Choice Market Stage III Planning
Report Number: IDEA-26
This project developed a "mobility index" that is a function of trip time by which to measure and map mobility in a metropolitan region for both auto and transit modes, as well as to identify opportunities and evaluate transit improvements for their impact on regional mobility. This includes a complementary market positioning exercise for mode-choice-focused transit services, employing focus groups and an ethnographic analytical methodology for identifying the explicit "bellwether" segment of the mode-choice market. The research uses the San Diego metropolitan area for a test bed, in collaboration with the major transit agency, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board(MTDB), and local and regional agencies, including the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Please note: This project is still in progress.