|Tools and Strategies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators, Volume 1: Research Overview
Report Number: Report 193: Volume 1
Publication Date: 5/4/2018
This report provides the materials and methodology used to produce potential countermeasures and strategies to prevent or mitigate assaults against transit operators. it also documents the materials used to develop Volume 2: User Guide. The User Guide includes an operator assault risk management toolbox developed to support transit agencies in their efforts to prevent, mitigate, and respond to assaults against operators. The User Guide also provides transit agencies with guidance in the use and deployment of the vulnerability self-assessment tool and the route-based risk calculator and includes supportive checklists, guidelines, and methodologies.
Tools and Strategies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators, Volume 2: User Guide
Publication Date: 5/4/2018
This report provides potential countermeasures and strategies to prevent or mitigate assaults against transit operators. The User Guide includes an operator assault risk management toolbox developed to support transit agencies in their efforts to prevent, mitigate, and respond to assaults against operators. The User Guide also provides transit agencies with guidance in the use and deployment of the vulnerability self-assessment tool and the route-based risk calculator and includes supportive checklists, guidelines, and methodologies.
TCRP Report 193: Tools and Strategies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators, Volume 1: Research Overview documents the materials and methodology used to develop Volume 2: User Guide.
Knowledge Management Resource to Support Strategic Workforce Development for Transit Agencies
Report Number: R-194
Publication Date: 2/14/2018
This guidebook explores the importance of knowledge management (KM), which is an organization’s process for collecting, storing, and sharing organizational information and knowledge, and provides guidance on implementing KM strategies in transit agencies. In addition, the guidance includes action plans for developing particular aspects of KM, analysis of KM strategies at several transit agencies, and a catalog of KM technology tools and resources.
Bus Operator Workstation Design for Improving Occupational Health and Safety
Report Number: R-185
Publication Date: 5/26/2016
This report is a pre-publication, non-edited draft. It provides guidance to transit agencies and bus manufacturers as they integrate emerging technologies into current procurement practices and improve bus operator workstation design across the transit industry.
The research produced practical guidance documents and tools applicable to the procurement process and bus design, including a suggested procurement process and strategies for transit agencies to develop, train, and support a bus procurement team; training for the procurement team, including an ergonomics training module for bus operators; guidelines to update TCRP Report 25: Bus Operator Workstation Evaluation and Design Guidelines; and a digital model of a bus operator workstation that may be used by designers and transit agencies to develop specifications.
Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 1: Toolkit
Report Number: R-181: Volume 1
Publication Date: 11/16/2015
This report provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships. The first volume describes:
•The development of a labor–management partnership charter to start or improve a partnership
•Labor–management partnership guidance that provides specific recommended actions for both management and labor union leaders
•A labor–management partnership workshop framework that can be used to develop a cooperative workshop that prepares management and union representatives with essential skills for establishing and managing labor–management partnerships
Volume 2, Final Report, provides background material that was used to develop Volume 1.
Travel Training for Older Adults Part II: Research Report and Case Studies
Report Number: R-168 Volume II
Publication Date: 9/13/2014
This report, Part II presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. This supplemental research report reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.
The Handbook, Part I, addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.
Travel Training for Older Adults Part 1: A Handbook and Part II: Research and Case Studies
Report Number: R-168
Publication Date: 9/3/2014
This report, Part I: A Handbook presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It also addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program and provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.
The supplemental research report, Part II, reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.
How the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Other Privacy Laws Affect Public Transportation Operations
Report Number: LRD-46
Publication Date: 6/27/2014
This digest explores whether the privacy and security rules established by HIPAA apply to transit agencies that possess patrons’ health information.
The first seven sections of this digest discuss HIPAA and whether various entities are subject to HIPAA’s privacy and security provisions applicable to the protection of protected health information, as defined by HIPAA. It also analyzes how protected health information is defined by HIPAA and discusses HIPAA’s Privacy Rule and Security Rule as defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in its most recent final rule. The digest also summarizes other important aspects of HIPAA as well.
Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry - A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-162
Publication Date: 10/3/2013
This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.
Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies
Report Number: R-148
Publication Date: 11/19/2011
This report provides strategies to recruit minorities for chief executive officer (CEO) positions and offers resources to assist governing boards of public transportation agencies in the recruitment of minority CEOs. It also assesses the transit industry's recruitment processes for CEOs and provides a case for diversity that documents the benefits of minorities in public transportation leadership positions. Additionally, the report describes strategies for retaining CEOs at public transportation agencies.
Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees
Report Number: S-82
Publication Date: 6/16/2010
This report explores the state of the practice for transit agencies in terms of fare arrangements for public employees. It also examines issues such as leadership of the program; barriers, obstacles, and constraints; administrative procedures; implementation; lessons learned; cost, financing, and pricing; and program evaluation.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas
Report Number: R-127
Publication Date: 8/21/2008
This report explores salary and benefit characteristics of transit systems in rural and small urban areas. An interactive computer tool, produced as part of this project, is available online and is designed to allow transit managers to quickly and easily obtain compensation and benefit data from comparable transit systems.
Innovative Practices in Transit Workforce Development
Report Number: RRD-88
Publication Date: 7/14/2008
This publication is an overview of the mission that investigated innovative practices in workforce development in several cities in Canada, France, and Belgium. It is based on individual reports provided by the mission team members, and it reflects the observations of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented. The digest does not necessarily reflect the views of TCRP, TRB, the National Academies, American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FTA, or the Eno Transportation Foundation.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifications, and Needs
Report Number: S-71
Publication Date: 11/21/2007
This synthesis documents current requirements for being a paratransit manager and actual experiences of current paratransit managers in their positions. Transit mangers, policy makers, educators, trainers, human resource directors, and stakeholders, as well as current and future paratransit professionals, will find the results valuable in determining action steps needed to enhance the profession and paratransit service delivery. In addition, it offers information from general managers, chief operating officers, and paratransit advisory committees about college degrees desired and guidance offered aspiring paratransit managers. Technology proficiency and knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act were identified as the most needed skills. College educations were recommended by a majority of the professionals, with business management identified as the most desirable area of study; however, aside from this, successes in the field were attributed to specifics such as ethics, customer relations, communications, management and supervision, and sensitivity.
Racial and Gender Diversity in State DOTs and Transit Agencies: A Benchmark Scoping
Report Number: R-120
Publication Date: 9/7/2007
This report documents and analyzes racial and gender diversity in state departments of transportation (state DOTs) and transit agencies for purposes of establishing a baseline that reflects the current status of racial and gender diversity in state DOTs and transit agencies based on existing data.
Methods of Rider Communication
Report Number: S-68
Publication Date: 1/22/2007
This synthesis's purpose is to document effective methods of communicating with riders. It views the state of the practice in agency communications with customers using specific elements as a way to determine what constitutes successful communication:
Transit Passengers and Civil Rights
Report Number: LRD-20
Publication Date: 7/29/2005
This report examines how measures used by transit agencies to protect transit passengers intersect with constitutionally protected rights.
Public Transportation Operating Agencies as Employers of Choice
Report Number: R-103
Publication Date: 6/18/2004
This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in workforce recruitment, development, and retention. It includes a companion document, communications Strategy and Implementation Plan, Positioning the Public Transportation Operating Agency as an Employer of Choice that describes strategies and solutions that offer the greatest potential for positioning public transportation operating agencies as an employer of choice. The toolkit will assist transportation policy makers and practitioners in implementing more effective human resources business planning processes.
Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs
Report Number: S-52
Publication Date: 5/10/2004
This synthesis documents current information on prevention and intervention strategies and resources that can be used by transit agencies. It offers survey information obtained from individuals with the responsibility for managing health and wellness programs. It also covers the state of the practice at 14 U.S. transit agencies of various sizes, operating different modes, in diverse locales around the nations. This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff concerned with proactively addressing operator health and wellness issues at their agencies.
Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide
Report Number: R-96
Publication Date: 11/6/2003
The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.
Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Operations
Report Number: LRD-19
Publication Date: 10/2/2003
This digest provides the nation's transit agencies with access to authoritative research, specfic, limited-scope studies of legal issues and problems having significance and applications to their business. It reports on a review of applicable statutes, a survey of state and local transit providers, and an analysis of developments pertaining to employment infrastructure and service requirements. This digest should be helpful to administrators, attorneys, financial officials, human resourcess personnel, and planners in public transportation.
Corporate Culture as the Driver of Transit Leadership Practices
Report Number: S-47
Publication Date: 7/11/2003
This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff interested in implementing leadership development initiatives at their agencies. This systhesis discusses the state of the practice in leadership recruitment, development, evaluation, and retention. It reports on innovative approaches to the problems faced in today's work environment in transit and other industries, in addition, it covers the manner in which corporate culture affects the hiring, development, evaluation, and retention of the top management team.
Diversity Training Initiatives
Report Number: S-46
Publication Date: 7/11/2003
This synthesis study reports on the kinds of practices currently underway in transit agencies with diversity initiatives. It identifies where in the organization these programs and plans have been placed, who has accountability and oversight for diversity initiatives, and the practices that have been successful. In addition, this study shows how diversity practices and processes have been incorporated into the overall business plans and agendas of transit agencies, as well as resources allocation for diversity initiatives.
Public Transportation Security - Robotic Devices: A Guide for the Transit Environment
Report Number: R-86 Volume 3
Publication Date: 5/28/2003
Emergencies arising from terrorist threats highlight the need for transportation managers to minimize the vulnerability of passengers, employees, and physical assets through incident prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. This volume is a part of a series that focuses on the concerns that transit agencies are addressing when developing programs in response to the terrorist attacks of Septemer 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed. To reduce the chances that transportation vehicles and facilities will be targets or instruments of terrorists attacks, and to be prepared to respond to and recover from such possibilities, transportation agencies are simultaneously prepared to respond to natural disasters such as hurricans, floods, and wildfires, as well as human-caused events such as hazardous materials spills and other incidents.
K9 Units in Public Transportation: A Guide for Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 2
Publication Date: 10/23/2002
This is the second volume of TCRP 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume will focus on the concern that transit agencies are addressing when developing programs in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed. This report will be of interest to federal, state, and local law enforcement K9 program operators. Trained dogs represent the best broad-spectrum, high sensitivity sensory systems. The use of canine (K9) teams to support patrol, narcotics, and explosives-detection activities is routine in major metropolitan areas. This information is based largely on extensive interviews with nine public transportation agencies that currently deploy K9s and four agencies that disbanded their K9 programs in the last 5 years.
Communication of Threats: A Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 01
Publication Date: 9/5/2002
This is the first volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume offers information on a variety of approaches to improving the sharing of the threat information. Current practices, operational needs, technologies for threat information dissemination, and system functional requirements are discussed. Effective strategies for sharing analyzed and unanalyzed reports of suspicious activities and a path to an interoperable set of national, regional, and local threat-information forums are proposed.
A Challenged Employment System: Hiring Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators
Report Number: S-40
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
Transit managers are concerned about attracting and retaining quality applicants, about the ability of new hires to successfully complete training programs, and about how new bus operators will provide quality customer service. This synthesis is intended to provide a snapshot of public transit bus operator practices, addressing hiring, training, performance evaluation, and retention. Each of these four areas is uniquely different, but also highly interrelated.
Treatment of Privacy Issues in the Public Transportation Industry
Report Number: LRD-14
Publication Date: 3/29/2000
This study discusses the development of the law of privacy and examines its continuing evolution within the context of societal and technological changes, particularly how these principles apply to the public transportation industry and its employees.
Toolbox for Transit Operator Fatigue
Report Number: R-81
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
The role that operator fatigue plays in mass transit safety has become one of the central issues that U.S. bus and rail transit agencies must address. Fatigue is increasing cited as a contributing factor in bus and rail transit accidents. The National Transportation Safety Board lists human fatigue as an area where significant improvement is needed in order to increase transportation safety. In addition to reducing accidents, mitigating fatigue can also reduce the cost of transit operations. Costs due to lost productivity, employee absenteeism, employee turnover rate, reduced morale, and increased wear and tear on equipment are affected by employee fatigue.
Practices in Assuring Employee Availability
Report Number: S-33
Publication Date: 12/1/1999
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, operations, and human resources staffs responsible for attracting and retaining good employees. It will also be of interest to others who interact with transit agencies to help employees succeed. These synthesis presents state-of-the-practice information's about the various actions transit agencies (and other employers) have taken to help ensure the availability of quality employees in an increasingly competitive employment environment. It focuses on the practices and policies transit agencies have in place to help minimize absenteeism from which other agencies may find useful applications.
Closing the Knowledge Gap for Transit Maintenance Employees: A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-29
Publication Date: 2/15/1998
This report presents guidelines on evaluating and implementing strategies to improve the skills of the transit industry's maintenance workforce in order to keep pace with evolving technology. This report will be of interest to transit decision-makers, maintenance managers, organized labor, vendors, human resources departments, and training personnel. The report is intended to help maintenance departments develop highly skilled, high-performance work organizations. Research was undertaken by Rand Corporation to assess technological demands, document current practices, and examine and propose new approaches to link maintenance-staffing practices with evolving technology to improve effectiveness. The areas addressed in the research included the range of programs currently in place, differences and similarities in current practice, analysis of major pitfalls and keys to success, an examination of vendor roles and responsibilities in training, and the effect of labor relations and work rules.
The Impact of Civil Rights Litigation Under Title VI and Related Laws on Transit Decision Making
Report Number: LRD-07
Publication Date: 6/15/1997
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Sandra Van De Walle, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) Affirmative Action Programs for DBEs (Disadvantaged Business Enterprises); (III) Obligation to Provide Equality of Service to Minority and Nonminority Passengers; and (IV) Conclusion.
Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors
Report Number: S-16
Publication Date: 1/1/1996
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, personnel, human resources and training staffs, bus operations staffs, as well as to other transportation, human resources, and training professionals. The roles and responsibilities of bus field supervisors are addressed, including emerging concerns about how to improve the relationship between supervisors and bus operators, while placing supervisors in a more positive role; how to obtain a greater return from employee productivity with tightening budgets and declining ridership; and how to improve customer service. This report of the Transportation Research Board provides information about current and innovative supervisory practices at selected transit agencies. It covers information about the expectations that organizations have for their supervisors; recruitment and selection; training; new or revised regulations; and the perceived impacts of new technologies at some transit agencies
Transit Labor Protection - A Guide to Section 13c Federal Transit Act
Report Number: LRD-4
Publication Date: 12/15/1995
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report has the same title as this digest and is authored by G. Kent Woodman, Jane Sutter Starke, and Leslie D. Schwartz. Section 13(c) of the Federal Transit Act is an especially complex Federal requirement. It has a unique history, which must be appreciated. Two Federal agencies, primarily the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) and secondarily the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) administer it, which do not always share the same policies or interpretations.
State Limitations on Tort Liability of Public Transit Operations
Report Number: LRD-3
Publication Date: 12/15/1994
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Larry W. Thomas, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) State and Local Immunity Statutes in Relation to Public Transit Agencies; (III) Substantive Limitations on Tort Actions Against Public Transit Agencies; (IV) Discussion of the Governmental- Proprietary Test of Immunity; (V) Duty and Degree of Care Owed to the Traveling Public; (VI) Procedural Limitations on Actions or Recoveries in Tort Against Public Transit Agencies; (VII) Other Matters of Interest to Public Transit Agencies (A. Transit Agency's Compliance with Federal and State Laws and Regulations and B. Significance of Insurance Coverage in Tort Actions); (VIII) Changes in the Law That Would Reduce Tort Liability; and (IX) Conclusion.
Employee Incentive Programs to Improve Transit Performance
Report Number: S-3
Publication Date: 12/1/1994
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, human resource officials, compensation managers, operations and maintenance managers, labor officials, and others interested in an overview of current practice in employee incentive programs. Information on incentive programs that provide a one-time payment or recognition for a particular job accomplishment is presented as gleaned from survey responses from a varied group of public transit agencies.