|Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Agency Liability
Report Number: LRD-54
Publication Date: 12/12/2018
This report explores the types of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and legal claims against transit agencies. The ADA has transformed U.S. transit agencies, which now have sophisticated programs to address a wide variety of accessibility goals in such areas as the design of transit stations, bus and rail vehicle design, media stop announcements, paratransit programs, website design and content, and many other tools that address ADA requirements. This research presents an assessment of challenges in implementing the ADA from the perspective of transit operators. Additionally, this digest summarizes relevant guidance from the U.S. Federal Transit Administration. Download the following appendix that accompanies the report:
- Appendix D: Transit Agencies' Policies, Procedures, and Other Materials
ADA Paratransit Service Models
Report Number: S-135
Publication Date: 4/17/2018
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This report provides information about current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant paratransit service models and the underlying reasons why specific transit agencies have opted to keep or change their service model. ADA paratransit demand continues to grow while resources are dwindling. For that reason, transit agencies nationwide are exploring service models to more effectively meet present and future demand. This synthesis study explains available service delivery models to date, and documents the way various elements of the service and contracts are structured to enhance the likelihood of achieving certain results related to cost efficiency, service quality, or the balance of the two.
Administration of ADA Paratransit Eligibility Appeal Program
Report Number: S-133
Publication Date: 3/30/2018
This report processes and documents current practices of transit systems.
ADA paratransit eligibility appeal programs allow appellants the opportunity to present new information not provided or available during the initial eligibility decision that may warrant a change in eligibility determination. At the same time, any appeal program must consistently apply the decision-making standards established by the agency’s ADA paratransit certification program. As more agencies employ some form of conditional eligibility, eligibility appeal processes are emerging as a significant area of vulnerability. If the eligibility appeal process is not administered properly, transit agencies run the risk of violating applicants’ civil rights under the ADA or Title VI requirements.
Although several reports describe transit agency practices for determining eligibility for ADA paratransit service, little has been documented about how transit agencies manage appeals by applicants who are determined to be “not eligible” or who are found “conditionally eligible,” including temporary eligibility.
Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit
Report Number: R-188
Publication Date: 9/15/2016
This report examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand-responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. Additionally, it examines issues and explores opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes.
Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults
Report Number: S-119
Publication Date: 3/1/2016
This report summarizes how taxis may be used by public transportation agencies to provide disabled or older adults with greater mobility and access to their destinations. The report also identifies potential advantages and challenges that public transportation agencies may face when using taxis.
Practices for Establishing ADA Paratransit Eligibility Assessment Facilities
Report Number: S-116
Publication Date: 3/24/2015
This synthesis examines practices that transit agencies use to determine if a user is eligible for paratransit under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Specifically, it reviews the processes, facilities, equipment, and tools used by transit agencies, through data collection that included in-person interviews and functional assessments.
Guidebook on Pedestrian Crossing of Public Transit Rail Services
Report Number: R-175
Publication Date: 3/2/2015
This report presents a wide array of engineering treatments designed to help improve pedestrian safety for three types of public transit rail services: light rail, commuter rail, and streetcar.
The Guidebook addresses key pedestrian safety issues associated with public transit rail services; presents pedestrian crossing issues associated with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Americans with Disabilities Act; summarizes readily available decision flowcharts used to make decisions regarding pedestrian treatments at rail crossings; presents information for 34 pedestrian treatments used at rail crossings, grouped into eight appropriate categories; and includes four case studies that examine specific decisions with respect to pedestrian rail crossings. Click the link to obtain a hard copy of this report. https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7685
This report is supplemented by a final research report, TCRP Web-Only Document 63: Treatments Used at Pedestrian Crossings of Public Transit Rail Services. Click the link to view Web-only report. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172337.aspx
Travel Training for Older Adults Part II: Research Report and Case Studies
Report Number: R-168 Volume II
Publication Date: 9/13/2014
This report, Part II presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. This supplemental research report reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.
The Handbook, Part I, addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.
Travel Training for Older Adults Part 1: A Handbook and Part II: Research and Case Studies
Report Number: R-168
Publication Date: 9/3/2014
This report, Part I: A Handbook presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It also addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program and provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.
The supplemental research report, Part II, reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.
Use of Mobility Devices on Paratransit Vehicles and Buses
Report Number: R-171
Publication Date: 8/11/2014
This report describes the current and emerging issues which limit the use of mobility devices in paratransit vehicles and buses, and includes a guidance document to assist transit systems, manufacturers, and transit users in the implementation of potential accessible design and accommodation solutions for the short and long term.
Strategy Guide to Enable and Promote the Use of Fixed-Route Transit by People with Disabilities
Report Number: R-163
Publication Date: 4/30/2014
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This report is designed to help transit agencies fulfill the primary goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) by making mainstream fixed-route bus and rail systems accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The focus of the Strategy Guide is to offer guidance on providing public services in the most integrated setting possible. The project that developed the Strategy Guide, also produced the following, which are available only in PDF format at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170626.aspx
• a final research report that includes a summary of the literature, description of the research methodology, copies of the survey instruments used, and detailed tabulations of the survey responses; and
• information briefs that summarize key findings and findings of the research in the following five areas: – the overall strategy that is suggested, – current use of fixed-route transit by persons with disabilities, – bus stop and pedestrian infrastructure improvement efforts, – fare incentive programs, and – ADA paratransit eligibility determination programs.
Improving ADA Paratransit Demand Estimation: Regional Modeling
Report Number: R-158
Publication Date: 9/7/2012
This report presents a sketch planning model and regional models designed to help metropolitan planning organizations and transit operators better estimate the probable future demand for Americans with Disability Act (ADA) complementary paratransit service, as well as predict travel by ADA paratransit-eligible individuals on all public transportation modes. Both models permit more detailed forecasts and deeper understanding of the travel behavior of ADA paratransit-eligible people. All model parameters and coefficients are contained in the report and a fully implemented version is available on a CD-ROM that is included with the print version of the report.
Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation and Emergency Management Toolkit
Report Number: R-150
Publication Date: 10/5/2011
This report describes how to create a communication process to reach vulnerable populations regarding their transportation options in emergencies. The toolkit provides a guiding framework and tools for constructing a scalable, adaptable communication process built on a network of agencies from public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Together, the partners form interconnected communication channels with the ability to carry out the function of emergency communication not necessarily possible by working alone. A PowerPoint slide show, which summarizes the toolkit, is available online at TRB.org.
Guidebook for Recruiting, Developing, and Retaining Transit Managers for Fixed-Route Bus and Paratransit Systems
Report Number: R-139
Publication Date: 9/13/2010
This report explores resources for fixed-route bus, general public demand response, and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) paratransit systems resources to assist in the recruitment, development, and retention of managers. The Guidebook is accompanied by CRP-CD-77, which provides Model Job Descriptions for 32 broad job titles that indicate the structure and content for job descriptions for manager jobs. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB's website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided.
Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations
Report Number: R-142
Publication Date: 9/9/2010
This report provides guidance for understanding the relationships that influence and enhance operator recruitment, retention, and performance in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit services. Appendixes to TCRP Report 142 were published electronically as TCRP Web-Only Document 50: Survey Instrument, Productivity Charts, and Interview Protocol for Case Studies for TCRP Report 142.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments
Report Number: R-137
Publication Date: 12/14/2009
This report examines pedestrian and motorist behaviors contributing to light rail transit (LRT) safety and explores mitigating measures available designed to improve safety along LRT alignments. The report also includes suggestions to facilitate the compilation of accident data in a coordinated and homogeneous manner across LRT systems. Finally, the report provides a catalog of existing and innovative safety devices, safety treatments, and practices along LRT alignments. Appendices B through E of TCRP Report 137 were published as TCRP Web-Only Document 42.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services
Report Number: S-76
Publication Date: 12/4/2008
This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.
Transit Bus Stops: Ownership, Liability, and Access
Report Number: LRD-24
Publication Date: 4/10/2008
This digest will inform transit providers and government officials of the different levels of ownership, liability, and maintenance associated with bus stops and bus shelters; identify the categories of legal issues that are associated with ownership and liability; and provide information on the problems and practices of others who have dealt with such problems including protective provisions in franchise agreements and service provider contracts.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
The Americans with Disabilities Act: The Federal Transit Administration's Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments
Report Number: LRD-23
Publication Date: 9/17/2007
This document consists of findings, decisions, and five compliance assessments interpreting or pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments includes FTA interpretations of Part III of the ADA, which pertains to public accommodations and transportation. FTA interpretations can be in letter findings, decisions on complaints, and compliance assessments. FTA's interpretations are available for download as an ISO image.
Practices in No-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit
Report Number: S-60
Publication Date: 9/13/2005
This report examines current and innovative practices of U.S. transit agencies in the development and implementation of passenger no-show and late cancellation policies for paratransit programs operated under the regulatory requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). It reviews the administration, community response, and effectiveness of policies in small, medium, and large transit agencies. It also addresses policies as a way to improve system productivity, efficiency, and capacity, and as a means to better service riders with disabilities who may experience difficulties with the advance reservation aspect of most ADA complementary paratransit operations.
Strategies to Increase Coordination of Transportation Services for the Transportation Disadvantaged
Report Number: R-105
Publication Date: 12/13/2004
This report's goal is to identify strageties for initiating or improving coordination of publicly funded transportation services for transportation-disadvantaged individuals - older adults, people with disabilities, human services agency clients, and others that could be implemented on the regional or lecal level. The rapid growth and suburbanization that has taken place in many communities has made it more costly and difficult to provide publicly funded transportation access to many destinations, at a time when public resources at many levels are constrained. These conditions make the corrdination of transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged an even more desirable goal than ever.
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 6
Publication Date: 5/25/2004
This report includes traveler response and related information for services open to the general public and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) services intended for persons with disabilities.
Use of Rear-Facing Position for Common Wheelchairs on Transit Buses
Report Number: S-50
Publication Date: 1/22/2004
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency staff and those who work with them in dealing with common wheelchair securement on transit buses. It offers information on existing programs in many countries and documents transit agency experiences for the benefit of others considering similar deployments, in particular with respect to the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and to its use in U.S. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems. The report describes the state of the practice with respect to the use of rear-facing position for accommodating "common wheelchairs" (as defined by the ADA) on large transit buses (more than 30,000 lb) and identifies pertinent issues related to its transferability to the U.S. context.
Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Operations
Report Number: LRD-19
Publication Date: 10/2/2003
This digest provides the nation's transit agencies with access to authoritative research, specfic, limited-scope studies of legal issues and problems having significance and applications to their business. It reports on a review of applicable statutes, a survey of state and local transit providers, and an analysis of developments pertaining to employment infrastructure and service requirements. This digest should be helpful to administrators, attorneys, financial officials, human resourcess personnel, and planners in public transportation.
Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Transit Environment
Report Number: S-37
Publication Date: 12/1/2000
This synthesis focuses on the communication techniques for persons with sensory and cognitive disabilities, and describes current North American transit practices in information and communication technologies, as well as operations, implementation, and human factor issues. Attention is given to information and communication technologies related to planning, customer service, marketing, and training that can improve the travel experience for all persons traveling in a transit environment.
Potential Tort Liability for Transit Agencies Arising out of the Americans with Disabilities Act
Report Number: LRD-11
Publication Date: 12/15/1998
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Robert A. Hirsch, presents an assessment of problems in implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Public Law 101- 336, enacted in 1990, from the perspective of transit operators.
ADA Paratransit Eligibility Certification Practices
Report Number: S-30
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This report describes the complexities involved in creating an accurate eligibility determination process that complies with ADA requirements and is regionally and politically feasible to implement. This study documents the range of out-comes produced by the different eligibility certification models and offers information about their overall effectiveness. This report also focuses on the range of eligibility certification models that have been adopted nationwide. It presents information in order to generate new approaches for transit agencies attempting to enhance existing procedures. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, the appropriate special services staffs, and any others dealings with ADA paratransit eligibility certification on behalf of transit agencies.
Integrating Americans with Disabilities Act Paratransit Service and Health and Human Service Transportation
Report Number: RRD-10
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
Public transit operators have to be in full compliance with all service criteria for the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) paratransit services by January 1997. This digest will help public transit operators coordinate ADA paratransit and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) transportation programs in an ongoing effort to reduce the cost of providing ADA services. It explains the impact of the implementation of ADA paratransit requirements on public and human services transportation, presents an overview of federal and state coordination activities, and summarizes selected ADA/HHS coordination models.
Guidebook to Attracting Paratransit Patrons to Fixed-Route Services
Report Number: R-24
Publication Date: 6/15/1997
This Guidebook will be of interest to transit managers and planners in transit systems that provide complementary paratransit services under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Paratransit services are more expensive to provide on a per-trip basis than fixed-route transit, so operating efficiencies could be achieved by attracting some paratransit riders to fixed route.
The Impact of Civil Rights Litigation Under Title VI and Related Laws on Transit Decision Making
Report Number: LRD-07
Publication Date: 6/15/1997
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Sandra Van De Walle, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) Affirmative Action Programs for DBEs (Disadvantaged Business Enterprises); (III) Obligation to Provide Equality of Service to Minority and Nonminority Passengers; and (IV) Conclusion.
Transit Operations for Individuals with Disabilities
Report Number: R-9
Publication Date: 12/15/1995
The goal of TCRP Research Project B-1 is to develop information to assist local transit providers in the implementation of appropriate service options and enhancements to serve individuals with disabilities. The specific research objective, consistent with this goal, is the development of a methodology for transit managers and planners to design and evaluate integrated transit systems that (1) provide accessible integrated service complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (2) facilitate the appropriate use of paratransit service; and (3) support service or system enhancements to encourage travel on accessible fixed routes by individuals with disabilities. This Research Results Digest presents the Phase I findings. Phase I, which was completed in Fall 1993, identified service options and described enhancements.
Transit Operations for Individuals with Disabilities
Report Number: RRD-1
Publication Date: 1/1/1994
This digest will assist local transit providers in the implementation of appropriate service options and enhancements to serve individuals with disabilities. The specific research objective, is the development of a methodology for transit managers and planners to design and evaluate integrated transit systems that provide accessible integrated service complying with the ADA, facilitate the appropriate use of paratransit service, and support service or system enhancements to encourage travel on accessible fixed routes by individuals with disabilities.
Evaluation of Economic Feasibility and Innovative Payment Plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN)
Report Number: IDEA-18
This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.
Optimizing Travel Path for People with Disabilities
Report Number: IDEA-23
This project developed a method for people with various types of disabilities to review barriers to travel before embarking on a transit trip so they can plan their routes to more easily reach destinations surrounding transit stations. The research analyzed typical travel barriers for the disabled around transit access points. A database of physical landscapes and barriers was developed and a prototype transit accessibility mapping system was implemented. An interactive 3D model in a CD format for presenting the accessibility information was demonstrated. The model is based on Metrolink light rail transit stops in the St. Louis, Missouri, region.