|Understanding Changes in Demographics, Preferences, and Markets for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-201
Publication Date: 10/25/2018
This report explores how changes in demographics, traveler preferences, and markets for public transportation affect transit ridership now and in the future. Additionally, it explores how an individual’s demographics affect their longterm values, their current attitudes, and the type of neighborhood they choose to live in. Each of these factors also affects their likelihood to ride transit.
Accompanying the report are seven technical appendices:
Handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination
Report Number: R-202
Publication Date: 10/22/2018
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This report is a handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination. The Medicaid program is the largest federal program for human services transportation, spending approximately $3 billion annually on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT).
The report is accompanied by a companion document that explores the state-by-state profiles for examining the effects of NEMT brokerages on transportation coordination.
Because the Medicaid program is administered by states, which are able to set their own rules within federal regulations and guidelines set by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), coordination of NEMT with public transit and human services transportation is highly dependent on each state Medicaid agency’s policies and priorities. This report provides background information about NEMT and describes the different models available to states for providing NEMT for Medicaid beneficiaries. The handbook also discusses why human services transportation and public transportation providers encourage coordination of NEMT with other transportation services.
Contracting Fixed-Route Bus Transit Service
Report Number: S-136
Publication Date: 4/25/2018
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This report documents the state of the practice in contracting bus services. Today many transit agencies contract out their fixed-route bus transit services; however, there is not enough research that focuses on the procurement and oversight process of these contracts. This synthesis will assist transit agencies in their decision-making process as they consider contracting fixed-route transit services instead of directly operating the service. The report is accompanied by Appendix G, which is available online only.
ADA Paratransit Service Models
Report Number: S-135
Publication Date: 4/17/2018
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This report provides information about current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant paratransit service models and the underlying reasons why specific transit agencies have opted to keep or change their service model. ADA paratransit demand continues to grow while resources are dwindling. For that reason, transit agencies nationwide are exploring service models to more effectively meet present and future demand. This synthesis study explains available service delivery models to date, and documents the way various elements of the service and contracts are structured to enhance the likelihood of achieving certain results related to cost efficiency, service quality, or the balance of the two.
Customer-Focused Service Guarantees and Transparency Practices
Report Number: S-134
Publication Date: 3/29/2018
This report documents the nature and prevalence of customer-focused practices among transit providers in North America and supplements the discussion by including information from European transit providers.
A growing number of North American public transit agencies have adopted service guarantees or transparency practices as part of a customer-focused service strategy. Service guarantees describe the level of service customers can expect and the procedures they may follow if standards are not met. Transparency practices might include reporting performance metrics as online dashboards or report cards on the agency’s website. Currently, there is little existing research on these practices and experiences among U.S. transit providers.
Battery Electric Buses - State of the Practice
Report Number: S-130
Publication Date: 3/22/2018
This report documents current practices of transit systems in the planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, operation, and maintenance of battery electric buses (BEBs). The synthesis is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. The synthesis will also be valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.
College Student Transit Pass Program
Report Number: S-131
Publication Date: 3/9/2018
This report focuses on the relationship established between transit agencies and universities and colleges, and documents current state of the practice to better develop and evaluate college student transit pass programs. Many transit agencies currently have student pass programs with colleges and universities. These programs have very different funding, fare and operating structures, and student demographics.
Knowledge Management Resource to Support Strategic Workforce Development for Transit Agencies
Report Number: R-194
Publication Date: 2/14/2018
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This guidebook explores the importance of knowledge management (KM), which is an organization’s process for collecting, storing, and sharing organizational information and knowledge, and provides guidance on implementing KM strategies in transit agencies. In addition, the guidance includes action plans for developing particular aspects of KM, analysis of KM strategies at several transit agencies, and a catalog of KM technology tools and resources.
Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions
Report Number: R-196
Publication Date: 2/5/2018
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This report provides information about private transit services and ways they are addressing transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. The document provides an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, a review of their present scope and operating characteristics, and a discussion of ways they may affect the communities in which they operate along with several case studies and other supporting information. Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans and jitneys—have operated for decades in many American cities. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transit options. These include new types of public-private partnership that are helping to bridge first/last mile gaps in suburban areas. The report also examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits.
Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops
Report Number: S-129
Publication Date: 5/29/2017
This report documents current practices of transit systems to determine methods and procedures used for maintaining transit stops and associated infrastructure during and following such weather events. This synthesis also provides a state-of-the-practice report on transit systems' management of extreme weather events; associated planning; management responsibilities; efforts to respond; standards and specifications; associated legal claims; and communication with customers.
Practices For Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit
Report Number: S-128
Publication Date: 4/17/2017
This report provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.
Addressing Difficult Customer Situations
Report Number: S-127
Publication Date: 3/1/2017
This report explores issues surrounding difficult customers or passengers and the variety of circumstances that can arise when they utilize transit system facilities or vehicles. The report identifies current practices used by transit agencies to prevent, prepare for, and deal with these incidents.
Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems
Report Number: S-124
Publication Date: 2/10/2017
This report documents the state-of-the-practice to address fire and smoke incidents. Fires in underground passenger rail tunnels require implementation of different measures in order to provide safety for the passengers and ensure structural and system integrity of the facilities and operating infrastructure. The publication addresses planning, design, and operations to address fire and smoke incidents, and identifies current practices including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information.
Guide to Value Capture Financing for Public Transportation Projects
Report Number: R-190
Publication Date: 1/6/2017
This report identifies the requirements necessary for successful value creation through transportation infrastructure investment and capturing a portion of that value through specific value capture mechanisms. It includes six case studies that provide practical examples of successful value capture from public transportation investments.
Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies
Report Number: R-187
Publication Date: 9/19/2016
This report presents practical planning and implementation strategies to enhance livability in transit corridors. It provides a resource for planning practitioners, policy makers, and other stakeholders to measure, understand, and improve transit corridor livability.
The handbook provides a definition of transit corridor livability and a set of methods, metrics, and strategies—framed within a five-step visioning and improvement process—that communities can use to improve livability in their transit corridors. It includes a set of tools and techniques that can help in planning and building support for corridor improvements, screening alternatives in preparation for environmental review, identifying a corridor’s livability needs, and developing an action-oriented set of strategies for improving transit corridor livability and quality of life.
A spreadsheet-based Transit Corridor Livability Calculator tool and a separate spreadsheet used for tool testing are also available for download by clicking this link. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/174953.aspx
An instructional file accompanies the spreadsheet.
Practices for Utility Coordination in Transit Projects
Report Number: S-118
Publication Date: 4/10/2015
This synthesis summarizes utility coordination practices at transit agencies around the country. Specifically, the report focuses on utility coordination issues that transit agencies undertake during typical phases of project development and delivery, including planning, designing, and constructing civil infrastructure facilities.
Most utility relocation appears to be associated with rail and streetcar projects, and very rarely, bus projects. The topic panel and consultant chose to work closely with the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) to extract information about general trends around the country as reported here and to identify the potential agencies with whom to conduct more detailed interviews.
Quantifying Transit's Impact on GHG Emissions and Energy Use - The Land Use Component
Report Number: R-176
Publication Date: 4/2/2015
This report examines interrelationships between transit and land use patterns to understand their contribution to compact development and the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction benefits.
The report is accompanied by an Excel-based tool that applies the research findings. The calculator tool estimates the land use benefits of existing or planned transit projects. The report and tool will enable users to determine quantifiable impacts of transit service on compact development, energy use, and air quality in urbanized areas. To obtain a hard copy of this report, and the Excel-based tool, click on the link. Please note the software disclaimer. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172110.aspx
Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume 1: Transit Integrtion Manual
Report Number: R-173
Publication Date: 1/8/2015
This Manual provides guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple transit providers. The report accompanies TCRP Report 173, Volume II: Research Report. Together, these documents demonstrate benefits of transit integration; illustrate the range of potential types of integration activities; and describe procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success.
Community Tools to Improve Transportation Options for Veterans, Military Service Members, and Their Families
Report Number: R-164
Publication Date: 3/27/2014
This report explores ways to enhance transportation options for veterans, military service members, and their families by building on the concepts of transportation coordination and mobility management. It provides guidance and tools to assess transportation needs of veterans, service members and their families, and ways to potentially improve public transit, specialized transportation, volunteer services, and other local transportation options needed to meet those needs.
Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry - A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-162
Publication Date: 10/3/2013
This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.
Guidebook for Evaluating Fuel Purchasing Strategies for Public Transit Agencies
Report Number: R-156
Publication Date: 8/13/2012
This report is designed to help identify and evaluate risks and uncertainties with respect to fuel prices. The report also describes tools and techniques for minimizing the impact of fuel price uncertainties over time. As a guidebook this report introduces the concept of fuel price risk management, identifies alternative purchasing strategies, and outlines steps necessary to implement a risk management program. It also defines and evaluates alternative cost-effective fuel purchasing strategies designed to benefit public transportation agencies of varying sizes, and provides a management framework to assist transit agencies through the fuel purchasing process.
Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems
Report Number: S-101
Publication Date: 7/13/2012
This synthesis highlights the experiences of public transit agencies that have planned, implemented, and operated fare-free transit systems. The report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or subrecipients of federal transit grants and that furnish fare-free services to everyone in a service area on every mode provided.
A Guide for Implementing Bus on Shoulder (BOS) Systems
Report Number: R-151
Publication Date: 7/10/2012
This report provides guidelines for the planning, design, and implementation of BOS operations along urban freeways and major arterials. The project that developed TCRP Report 151 also produced a PowerPoint presentation that describes the process that was used to develop the report on the TRB website at www.trb.org.
Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook
Report Number: R-154
Publication Date: 7/9/2012
This report offers guidance about the various steps for planning and implementing a tribal transit system. The steps that are described may be used for planning a new transit system, enhancing an existing service, or taking action to sustain services. The report also provides an overview of the tribal transit planning process. In addition, the project also produced a 16-page full-color brochure, published in 2011 as "Native Americans on the Move: Challenges and Successes", with an accompanying PowerPoint presentation; and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project which is located on the TRB website at www.trb.org.
Guidelines for Ferry Transportation Services
Report Number: R-152
Publication Date: 2/23/2012
This report examines the history and characteristics of ferry systems throughout North America and develops guidelines for planning, marketing, operating, and managing a ferry system as a component of an overall transportation network. The report also explores the potential benefits of and impediments to ferry transportation services and identifies potential planning, operational, and management benchmarks.
Transit Asset Condition Reporting
Report Number: S-92
Publication Date: 10/24/2011
This synthesis examines and documents the current state of the practice in transit asset condition management. It defines transit asset management as a strategic planning process that supports informed capital investment planning and programming. This report objective is to provide transit agencies and their federal, state, and local funding partners with a review of current practices in order to help encourage an industry-wide discussion on standards and the data needed to measure conditions and use the information in making effective investment decisions.
Transit Oriented Joint Development: Case Studies and Legal Issues
Report Number: LRD-36
Publication Date: 10/12/2011
This digest examines a combination of large, medium, and small Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and joint development projects since 1999 and provides comprehensive case studies, with an emphasis on what made the project succeed and how legal issues relate to TODs in general. Sample documents are included with the print version of the publication in CD-ROM format. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB's website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided as well.
Resource Guide for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders
Report Number: R-143
Publication Date: 1/26/2011
The core features of this Resource Guide are two decision-making processes: (1) planning and (2) operations. The Resource Guide presents important lessons learned from transit agencies that have made decisions both to commingle and not to commingle their ADA paratransit and non-ADA paratransit riders. Non-ADA paratransit riders include non-sponsored older adults, non-sponsored persons with disabilities, other agency funded persons, the general public, persons receiving Medicaid, Title III persons, non-sponsored low income persons, and persons in the Head Start program.
Managing Increasing Ridership Demand
Report Number: RRD-96
Publication Date: 9/14/2010
This digest documents a 2009 study mission to Guayaquil, Ecuador; Santiago, Chile; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Porto Alegre, Brazil, that investigated how transit operators and agencies in these cities accommodated sudden and significant growth in the number of riders and increasing demand for service.
A Guide for Planning and Operating Flexible Public Transportation Services
Report Number: R-140
Publication Date: 7/26/2010
This report explores the types of flexible transportation service strategies that are potentially appropriate for small, medium, and large urban and rural transit agencies. It also examines financial and political realities, operational issues, and institutional mechanisms related to implementing and sustaining flexible transportation services.
Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects
Report Number: R-138
Publication Date: 4/29/2010
This report defines and describes soft costs and provides a new suggested methodology to estimate soft costs based on historical projects. The report also examines detailed technical information about the data collection, methodology, and statistical analysis that was used to develop the suggested methodology.
Performance Measurement and Outcomes
Report Number: RRD-95
Publication Date: 4/23/2010
This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Technology
Report Number: R-132
Publication Date: 12/19/2009
This report explores decision-making guidelines coupled with a comprehensive life cycle cost (LCC) model designed to assist transit managers in evaluating, selecting, and implementing hybrid-electric technology options for transit buses. The LCC model allows the user to compare the total life cycle costs across several cost categories for up to 6 different purchase scenarios. The LCC model is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-71), with the printed version of the report and available for download as an ISO image online.
Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments
Report Number: R-137
Publication Date: 12/14/2009
This report examines pedestrian and motorist behaviors contributing to light rail transit (LRT) safety and explores mitigating measures available designed to improve safety along LRT alignments. The report also includes suggestions to facilitate the compilation of accident data in a coordinated and homogeneous manner across LRT systems. Finally, the report provides a catalog of existing and innovative safety devices, safety treatments, and practices along LRT alignments. Appendices B through E of TCRP Report 137 were published as TCRP Web-Only Document 42.
Balancing Infrastructure Reinvestment with System Expansion
Report Number: RRD-92
Publication Date: 11/6/2009
This report explores how public transport agencies in Australia are balancing the need to increase capacity and expand service while maintaining and upgrading their existing bus, tram, rail, and ferry infrastructure.
First Amendment Implications for Transit Facilities: Speech, Advertising, and Loitering
Report Number: LRD-29
Publication Date: 6/19/2009
Transit agencies face numerous challenges in providing passengers with a safe and efficient means of travel while respecting the freedom of expression protected by the First Amendment. In May 1998, the Transportation Research Board published Transit Cooperative Research Program Legal Research Digest (LRD) 10, Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities ("LRD 10"), a survey of the relevant law and its development up to the time of publication. This digest supplements LRD No. 10, summarizing and analyzing the status of this important area of the law in light of court decisions and other developments that have arisen in subsequent years.
A Guidebook for the Evaluation of Project Delivery Methods
Report Number: R-131
Publication Date: 5/12/2009
This report examines various project delivery methods for major transit capital projects. The report also explores the impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of including operations and maintenance as a component of a contract for a project delivery method.
Public Transportation's Role in Addressing Global Climate Change
Report Number: RRD-89
Publication Date: 3/25/2009
This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation's role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.
Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner's Guide
Report Number: R-130
Publication Date: 3/2/2009
This report examines a business case for the shared use of non-Federal Railroad Administration-compliant public transit rail vehicles (e.g., light rail vehicles) with freight operations and highlights a business model for such shared-use operations. This report also explores potential advantages and disadvantages of shared-use operations and the issues and barriers that can arise in the course of implementation.
Passenger Counting Systems
Report Number: S-77
Publication Date: 1/28/2009
This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services
Report Number: S-76
Publication Date: 12/4/2008
This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.
Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel
Report Number: R-128
Publication Date: 10/2/2008
This report explores the demographics of transit-oriented development (TOD) residents and employers, and their motives for locating in TODs. The report also examines the travel characteristics of residents before and after moving to a TOD and ways to increase transit ridership among these residents. In addition, the report reviews the potential effect of land-use and design features on travel patterns, transit ridership, and the decision to locate in a TOD. This report will be helpful to project, land-use, and transportation planners; transit agencies; the development community; and federal, state, and local decision makers considering transit oriented development.
Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service
Report Number: S-75
Publication Date: 7/10/2008
This publication explores the use of higher capacity (HC) public transit buses in trunk, express, long-distance commuter, Bus Rapid Transit, and special (e.g., sports and special events) services in North America. For purposes of this study, HC buses included articulated, double-deck, 45-ft, and other buses that have a significant increase in passenger capacity compared with conventional 40-ft buses.
Leveraging ITS Data for Transit Market Research: A Practitioner's Guidebook
Report Number: R-126
Publication Date: 7/8/2008
This publication describes currently used intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and Transit ITS technologies that have the greatest promise for transit market research. This guidebook documents ITS and Transit ITS technologies currently in use, assesses their potential to provide market research data, and presents methods for collecting and analyzing these data. Also, the guidebook provides three in-depth case studies that illustrate how ITS data have been successfully used to improve market research practices.
Understanding How Individuals Make Travel and Location Decisions: Implications for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-123
Publication Date: 3/31/2008
Residential location and travel behavior have a large effect on society's consumption of energy, levels of pollution, and on health. There is a great value in increasing the understanding of the mechanism of choice. Better understanding leads to better insights as to how to predict choice and how to influence it through better polices, education and communication. This report aids to improve the understanding of how people make travel and location decisions, and to derive practical implications and policy guidance for encouraging more use of public transportation and walking.
Understanding How to Motivate Communities to Support and Ride Public Transportation
Report Number: R-122
Publication Date: 3/13/2008
This report provides a comprehensive discussion on the methods and strategies used by public transportation agencies in the United States and Canada to enhance their public images and motivate the support and use of public transportation. It identifies and describes methods and strategies used by other industries comparable to public transportation, it examines the perceptions, misperceptions, and use of public transit, and the extent to which these affect support, it identifies effective communication strategies, campaigns, and platforms for motivating individuals to action in support of public transportation, and it recommends ways to execute those communication strategies, campaigns and platforms.
Toolkit for Integrating Non-Dedicated Vehicles in Paratransit Service
Report Number: R-121
Publication Date: 3/4/2008
This report can be used to determine the appropriate split between dedicated and non-dedicated paratransit services to increase cost-effectiveness and meet peak demand needs. This report includes a Non-Dedicated Vehicle Optimization Model and User Manual. The NDV model can be used to assist with making decisions regarding appropriate serivce ratios for specific conditions and environments.
Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet
Report Number: S-72
Publication Date: 2/23/2008
Synthesis 72 - “ Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet“ - This synthesis will be of interest to transit professionals involved in developing a program to actively manage the implementation of biodiesel fuel and its use in a bus transit fleet. It documents a full range of benefit offered by biodiesel with the thought that once the subject is understood, transit agencies can make informed decisions regarding its use.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation
Report Number: R-119
Publication Date: 12/11/2007
This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.
Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 13
Publication Date: 10/15/2007
This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.
Transit Oriented Development: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 17
Publication Date: 8/1/2007
Transit oriented development (TOD) generally refers to higher-density development, with pedestrian priority, located within easy walking distance of a major public transit station or stop(s). TODs are viewed as offering the potential to boost transit ridership, increase walking activity, mitigate sprawl, accommodate growth, and create interesting places. This chapter focuses on the TOD land use strategy and its transportation impacts. It is complementary with Chapter 15, "Land Use and Site Design," and does not seek to duplicate general information on the impacts of density, diversity, and site design presented there. Similarly, it is not intended to cover the same ground as Chapter 16, "Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities." Chapters 15 and 16 should be referred to for additional background on density, land use mix, site layout, and pedestrian-friendly design effects on travel demand. This chapter highlights the key reasons planners pursue TOD; outlines what constitutes TOD and the various dimensions along which response to it may vary; identifies approaches that are used to evaluate the impacts of transit oriented development and discussing their potential limitations; provides an encapsulization of travel behavior findings detailed in the remainder of the chapter. This chapter will be of interest to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Design, Operation, and Safety of At-Grade Crossing of Exclusive Busways
Report Number: R-117
Publication Date: 7/6/2007
This report provides guidelines for the safe design and operation of at-grade crossing of exclusive busways. The guidelines are based on a detailed literature review, interviews with selected transit agencies, and site visits to Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, Orlando, and Richmond (British Columbia). The guidelines are intended to assist transit, traffic engineering, and highway design agencies in planning, designing, and operating various kinds of busways through roadway intersections.
Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide
Report Number: R-118
Publication Date: 7/3/2007
This report provides information on the costs, impacts, and effectiveness of implementing selected bus rapid transit (BRT) components. It includes practical information that can be readily used by transit professionals and policy makers in planning and decision making related to implementing different components of BRT systems.
Coordinated Approaches to Expanding Access to Public Transportation
Report Number: RRD-81
Publication Date: 2/26/2007
This digest summarizes the mission performed May 4, May 19, 2006 International Transit Studies Program. Study mission participants are transit management personnel with substantial knowledge and experience in transit activities. The mission experience helps transit managers to better evaluate current and proposed transit improvements and serve to generate potential public transportation research topics. Team members are encouraged to share their international experience and findings with peers in the public transportation community throughout the United States.
Bus Transit Service in Land Development Planning
Report Number: S-67
Publication Date: 12/26/2006
This synthesis documents the relationships between bus transit service and planning for new developments. It identifies successful strategies that assist in the incorporation of bus transit service into land developments, as well as the challenges that transit agencies face when attempting to do so. It also provices the state of the practice regarding the use and components of transit agency development guidelines.
Fixed-Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods
Report Number: S-66
Publication Date: 12/18/2006
This synthesis documents the state of the practice in fixed-routed transit ridership forecasting and service planning. It identifies forecasting methodologies, resource, requirements, data inputs, and organizational issues. It also analyzes the impacts of service changes and reviews transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methods and of desired improvements.
HOV Facilities: Travelers Response to Transportation Systems Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 2
Publication Date: 11/17/2006
The "HOV Facilities" chapter covers the traveler response to High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) applications, except for busways primarily on their own alignment, which are addressedn in Chapter 4, "Busways, BRT and Express Buys." This chapter covers the bredth of HOV facilities, inclusive of supportive features, but without examining supportive features in detail. Express bus operations and park-and-ride and park-and-pool facilities are supportive features that ehnance the operations of many HOV facilites.
Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services
Report Number: R-116
Publication Date: 11/13/2006
TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.
Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Funded Public Transportation Projects
Report Number: RRD-78
Publication Date: 10/25/2006
This digest contains recommendations for strategies, tools, and techniques to better manage major transit capital projects over $100 million. Information is presented on various stimation, project-management, and cost-containment approaches that were applied successfully to 14 case studies. The results, which indicate which tools and techniques contributed to more effective project management, will be useful to transit systems and communities endeavoring to plan or implement major transit investments.
Using Archived AVL - APC Data to Improve Transit Performance and Management
Report Number: R-113
Publication Date: 9/12/2006
This report developed guidance on the effective collection and use of archieved AVL-APC data to improve the performance and management of transit systems. It offers guidance on five subjects: Analyses that use AVL-APC data to improve management and performance; AVL-APC system design to facilitate the capture of data with the accuracy and detail needed for off-line data analysis; ata structure and analysis software for facilitating analysis of AVL-APC data; Screening, parsing, and balancing automatic passenger counts; Use of APC systems for estimating passenger-miles for National Tansit Database reporting.
Bus Use of Shoulders
Report Number: S-64
Publication Date: 7/5/2006
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.
On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques
Report Number: S-63
Publication Date: 12/3/2005
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with planning and implementing on-board and intercept surveys. On-board/intercept surveys used throughout the report refer to sel-administered surveys distributed on board buses and railcars, and in stations, as well as interviews conducted in these environments. This report provides an overview of industry prictices and covers a broad range of issues addressed in planning a given survey.
Continuity of Operations (COOP) Planning Guidelines for Transportation Agencies
Report Number: R-86 volume 08
Publication Date: 11/18/2005
This report is designed to assist transportation agencies in evaluating and modifying existing plans, policies, and procedures, as called for in the National Incident Management (NIMs). NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, territorial, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity."
Analyzing the Effectiveness of Commuter Benefits Programs
Report Number: R-107
Publication Date: 11/9/2005
This report is designed to help employers, transit agencies, and other organizations that promote transit benefits, and policy makers better understand the impacts of a transit benefits program and how to qualify these impacts for their own programs. The report has three chapters: Chapter 1 provides an overview of commuter benefits and a discussion of the study objective and the organization of the report. Chapter 2 provides guidance on how to evaluate the effectiveness of a transit benefits program. Chapter 3 based on research from metropolitan areas across the United States, examines the effects of transit benefits programs on employee travel behavior and on transit agency ridership, revenues, and costs.
Public Transportation Emergency Mobilization and Emergency Operations Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 7
Publication Date: 8/15/2005
This report exaimes activities that may be taken by public transportation agencies working with their local communities to promote the early recognition of emergency events, expedite response to emergency events, establish multi-agency coordination, and ensure that public transportation resources are available to support the response to an emergency event.
Vanpools and Buspools
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 5
Publication Date: 8/12/2005
This report highlights the travel demand findings for vanpooling and buspooling. It examines the effects of travel times, pricing, and a number of related tangibles and intangibles on the decision to vanpool in particular; quantifies vanpooling and buspooling as best can be done. It also lookes at vanpooling trends; examines rider survey information; identifies indicators of market potential; and explores cost implications.
Innovations in Bus, Rail and Specialized Transit Operations in Latin America
Report Number: RRD-70
Publication Date: 6/3/2005
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovations in bus, rail and specialized transit operations in Latin America. It is based on individual reports provided by team members, and it reflects the views of the members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data.
Strategic Planning and Management in Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-59
Publication Date: 5/3/2005
This report examines the value and benefits of strategic planning and management in transit agencies. It also provides case studies from five transit agencies based on the comprehensiveness of process or presence of innovative or noteworthy practices.
Geographic Information Systems Applications in Transit
Report Number: S-55
Publication Date: 2/11/2005
This synthesis illustrates the value of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to transit agencies in service provision and in potential cost savings. It summarizes the experiences of a variety of transit agencies, with information provided from small and medium sized transit operators, as well as from large transit agencies. It also documents current practices, effective applications, and challenges. In additon, this synthesis includes a broad-based literature review, supplemented by information from a survey of transit agencies and case studies of five large transit operators. It covers the full range of transit services including planning, operations, management, information technology, and customer services.
Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation
Report Number: S-56
Publication Date: 1/24/2005
This synthesis explores current perspectives, practices, and experiences in the use of performance measures for the allocation of financial assistance of local transit systems. It focuses primarily on the extent to which traditional measures of transit performance, internal measures of economic efficiency, service effectiveness, and productivity are used in allocating funds. The report summarizes the experences of a variety of transit agencies, it would be of interest to transit practitioners and transportation professionals, including technical and research staff.
Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture
Report Number: R-84 Volume 5
Publication Date: 10/25/2004
TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.
Maintenance Productivity Practices
Report Number: S-54
Publication Date: 10/4/2004
This synthesis reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. This report documments and summarize transit agency experiences, using various maintenance productivity improvement and programming. It summarizes the experienes of agencies that vary in size, union affiliation, and operating condition, as well as provides decriptions of successful programs and creative modifications to existing programs.
Transit Pricing and Fares
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 12
Publication Date: 9/13/2004
This report addresses transit ridership response to fare changes as applied to conventional urban area bus and rail transit services. Topics covered are: changes in general fare level, changes in fare structure including relationships among fare categories, and free transit. It does not cover the combined outcome of implementing fare and service in the same time frame. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Transit Design, Construction, and Operations in the Mediterranean Region
Report Number: RRD-66
Publication Date: 9/1/2004
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated transit design, construction, and operation in the Mediterranean region. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.
Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects
Report Number: R-102
Publication Date: 8/25/2004
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of the practice and the benefits of transit-oriented development (TOD) and joint develoment throughout the United States. This report defines TOD and joint development and offers insight into the various aspects of implementing TOD, including political and institutional factors; planning and land-use strategies, benefits, and impacts; fiscal considerations and partnerships; and design challenges and considerations. Benefits attributable to TOD initiatives include improved air quality, preservation of open space, pedestrian-friendly environments, increased ridership and revenue, reduction of urban sprawl, and reorientation of urban development patterns around both rail and bus transit facilities. This report will be helpful to transit agencies, the development community, and local decision makers considering TOD.
Operational Experiences with Flexible Transit Services
Report Number: S-53
Publication Date: 8/20/2004
This synthesis documents and summarizes tansit agency experiences with "flexible transit services," including all types of hybrid services that are not pure demand-responsive (including dial-a-ride and ADA paratransit) or fixed-route services, but that fall somewhere in between those traditional serivce models. In addition, it doucments six types of flexible transit service: request stops,flexible route segments, route deviation, point deviation, zone routes, and demand-responsive connector service. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agnecy staff responsible for vehicle operations and planning, and to those who work with them in this regard.
Bus Routing and Coverage
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 10
Publication Date: 8/17/2004
This report addresses traveler response to, and related impacts of, conventional bus transit alterations. Included are routing changes at both the individual route and system levels, new bus systems and system clousures, bus system expansion and retrenchment, increases and decreases in geographic coverage, and routing and coverage changes made together with fare changes. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers, professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MOPs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 3
Publication Date: 8/16/2004
This chapter covers travel demand and related aspects of providing and supporting park-and-ride and park-and-pool facilities. It addresses the facilities working together with supportive features and in coordination with high occupancy vehicle lanes; busways; bus rapid transit and other express bus services; light rail transit, commuter rail, and heavy rail transit facilities and services.
Public Transportation Operating Agencies as Employers of Choice
Report Number: R-103
Publication Date: 6/18/2004
This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in workforce recruitment, development, and retention. It includes a companion document, communications Strategy and Implementation Plan, Positioning the Public Transportation Operating Agency as an Employer of Choice that describes strategies and solutions that offer the greatest potential for positioning public transportation operating agencies as an employer of choice. The toolkit will assist transportation policy makers and practitioners in implementing more effective human resources business planning processes.
Transit Scheduling and Frequency
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 9
Publication Date: 5/25/2004
This report's objective is to equip members of the transportation profession with a comprehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from, different types of transportation system changes and policy actions and alternative land use and site development design approaches.
Transit Information and Promotion
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 11
Publication Date: 3/2/2004
A subset of transit marketing, namely transit information and promotion, is the focus of this chapter. Traveler response to mass market information, mass market promotions, targeted information, targeted promotions, customer information services, and real-time transit information dissemination are examined. This report will be of interest to transit marketing staff and general managers, as well as strategic planners, educators, and researchers.
A New Vision of Mobility: Guidance to Foster Collaborative Multimodal Decision Making
Report Number: RRD-65
Publication Date: 2/26/2004
This digest summarizes the results of Phase I of a cooperative research effort jointly funded by TCRP Project H-29 and NCHRP Project 8-45 titled "A New Vision of Mobility: Guidance to Foster Collaborative Multimodal Decision Making." This research effort will produce two products: (1) a short document for popular distribution serving as a guidance resource in a "handbook" format and (2) a "compendium" of case examples upon which the guidance document is based.
Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual
Report Number: R-100
Publication Date: 1/27/2004
This manual is intended to be a fundamental reference document for public transit practitioners and policy makers. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability and quality of service from the passenger point of view. The manual contains quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity of bus, rail, and ferry transit services, and transit stops, stations, and terminals. Examples problems are included.
Bus Rapid Transit - Implementation Guidelines
Report Number: R-90 Volume 2
Publication Date: 1/7/2004
This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT - running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.
Resource Requirements for Demand-Responsive Transportation Services
Report Number: R-98
Publication Date: 12/11/2003
This report documents a methodology for determining the resources required (I.e., vehicles and vehicle service hours) to provide demand-responsive transportation (DRT) for different levels of demand and different levels of service in a given service area. It also documents the supporting research and development of a model for roughly estimating the number of vehicles needed to operate a DRTservice. The accompanying software can be used for the initial planning of new DRT services or for the expansion of existing services.
Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes:
Report Number: RRD-61
Publication Date: 12/8/2003
This digest is structured to serve as an "Interim Introduction" for the evolving Traveler Response Handbook, replacing Chapter 1, Introduction" of the "Interim Handbook" (available as TCRP Web Document 12), and facilitating the transition to final multi-volume publication as TCRP Report 95. This digest describes the Traveler Response Handbook, contains the publication schedule and information on availability, provides guidance to the prospective Handbook user, and includes two Handbook appendices.
Land Use and Site Design
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 15
Publication Date: 11/11/2003
Transportation, acting through enhanced accessibility, is a long acknowledge influence in the shaping of cities and the determination of land development potential. The reverse, however, the impact of land use decisions on transportation outcomes, has only gradually achieved recognition. It is these reverse impacts of interest in the treatment of land use and site design options as "transportation" strategies, a facet of "smart growth" that provides the impetus for this chapter. This chapter provides information on what is known or surmised about the relationships between land use/site design and travel behavior. This chapter summarizes key reasons why planners and decisionmakers view the land-use transportation connection as important; charaterizes the types of strategies of concern to transportation analysts, and relate them to elements of land use and site design; identify analytic approaches that have been used to examine the transportation-land use link, and offer guidance as to their reliability. This report will be of interest to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Road Value Pricing:Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 14
Publication Date: 10/16/2003
This chapter focuses on automobile-oriented pricing, including discussion of its impact on other travel modes. The emphasis is on areawide, corridor, and individual facility pricing schemes for urbanized areas, although one particularly instructive example of an intercity value pricing project is offered. Toll roads with static pricing are not considered within the realm of road value pricing or the scope of this chapter, but are looked to for specific relevant lessons. Pricing of parking, which can have similarities to road value pricing, is covered in Chapter 13. This chapter, Chapter 14, will be of interest to transit and transportation planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Yield to Bus - State of the Practice
Report Number: S-49
Publication Date: 10/13/2003
This report offers information on existing Yield to Bus programs and documents transit agency experiences for the benefit of others considering implementation of similar programs. It reports on curent knowledge and practice, in a compact format. The report documents information gathered about the legislative process and history; program implementtion, including public awareness and education campaigns, employee awareness and training, and the design and location of the yield display on the bus; as well as transit agency experiences covering transit operational issues, taffic operational issues, and public aceptance. It focuses on YTB programs in California, Florida, Oregon, Washington State, and British Columbia.
Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Operations
Report Number: LRD-19
Publication Date: 10/2/2003
This digest provides the nation's transit agencies with access to authoritative research, specfic, limited-scope studies of legal issues and problems having significance and applications to their business. It reports on a review of applicable statutes, a survey of state and local transit providers, and an analysis of developments pertaining to employment infrastructure and service requirements. This digest should be helpful to administrators, attorneys, financial officials, human resourcess personnel, and planners in public transportation.
Economic Benefits of Coordinating Human Service Transportaiton
Report Number: R-91
Publication Date: 9/5/2003
This report examines the net economic benefits associated with various strategies and practices for coordinating human service transportation and general public transit, provides quantitative estimates of these strategies and practices, and identifies innovative and promising coordination strategies and practices. The report provides an executive summary that provides a brief overview of basic coordination concepts and strategies that may enable transportation operators to achieve significant economic benefits from coordinating their operations. This information may be used by federal, state, and local officials in developing strategies and policies for coordinating transportation resources.
Characteristics of State Funding for Public Transportation 2002
Report Number: RRD-60
Publication Date: 7/18/2003
This digest provides information on the nature and magnitude of FY 2002 state transit funding for 46 states and the District of Columbia in an easy-to-read graphic format. The information includes state transit funding sources and amounts, programs, eligible uses and allocation, and per capital state transit funding. The digest also includes an overview of the results of 28 transit-related state and local ballot initiatives held in 2002.
E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation - Advanced Features of Transit Websites
Report Number: R-84 Volume 4
Publication Date: 5/28/2003
This report explores the potential of the following advanced website features for the transit industry: automated intinerary planning systems, real-time transit information, e-mail notification, and the application of custoemr relationship management concepts to these services. It provides an overview of the implementation, technology, value creation, lessons learned, and best practices associated with web-based advanced features.
Improving Public Transit Options for Older Persons
Report Number: R-82 Vols 1 & 2
Publication Date: 2/13/2003
This report describes how to improve public transit services to make them more attractive to older persons. This report will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers in agencies and organizations that plan, provide, administer, and fund public transit that may serve older persons. The report provides information for public transportation providers and planners to address future transportation challenges generated by an increasingly older society. It describes exemplary transportation services and innovative transportation alternatives that will enable older persons in the United States to maintain the independence they want.
A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: R-88
Publication Date: 1/29/2003
This guidebook will assist transit system managers in developing a performance-measurement system or program that uses traditional and non-traditional performance measures to address customer and community issues. The measures presented in the book will also be of interest to metorpolitan planning organizations interested in assessing the community benefits provided by transit service.
A Summary of TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: RRD-56
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This digest provides senior transit mangers with an easy-to-read summary of the contents of and tools in TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System. The guidebook provides a step-by-step process for developing a performance-measurement program that includes both traditional and non-traditional performance indicators that addresses customer-oriented and community issues. It is intended to introduce agency staff and decision-makers to the key performance-measurement concepts described in the guidebook. Information on obtaining the guidebook is on page 25.
Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-83
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.
A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection
Report Number: R-80
Publication Date: 10/18/2002
A significant number of rail transit operators are not or will be looking to adopt lower-cost, less-infrastructure-intensive ways to carry out certain system functions such as fare collection. This report addresses the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection (SSFC) systems, including those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues. The Toolkit is designed for use by agencies at various points in the fare collection decision process.
Use of Flexible Funds for Transit Under ISTEA and TEA-21
Report Number: S-42
Publication Date: 6/10/2002
This report is intended to provide greater familiarity with emerging techniques in the use of flexible funding, and to point out issues that may need further attention. It is also intended to provide a review of how current flexible funding provisions are being used to support transit invetment and to examine, through a limited number of specified experiences, lessons that may have the broadest relevance throughout the transit industry. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency professionals and the consultants who work with them in dealing with flexible funding opportunities.
Costs of Sprawl
Report Number: R-74
Publication Date: 5/20/2002
This report is the second and final phase of Report 39 "The Cost of Sprawl - Revisited". It will be of interest to those engaged in the discussions and debates about urban sprawl and its effects.
Identification of the Critical Workforce Development Issues in the Transit Industry
Report Number: RRD-45
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This digest identifies the key workforce challenges facing the public transportation industry, identifies current approaches to addressing those challenges, and suggests an agenda that the public transportation industry can use to move forward in the important area of work-force development.
Transportation on College and University Campuses
Report Number: S-39
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This report offers survey information from 30 campus transit agencies including insights into the lessons learned and issues related to planning, implementing, and operating campus transit service. The focus is on the recent trend toward unlimited access funding systems for campus transit service, whereby students, faculty, staff, and in some cases, nonuniversity-affiliated residents of a campus community are afforded unlimited use of transit service without paying a fare.
Using Geographic Information Systems for Welfare to Work Transportation Planning and Service Delivery
Report Number: R-60
Publication Date: 12/31/2000
This handbook will be of interest to transportation planners, human service agencies transportation providers, and others concerned with using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to support welfare to work transportation planning and service delivery. The handbook includes guidance on how agencies can either implement GIS or enhance their current GIS applications for this purpose. Accompany this handbook is a CD-Rom containing case study descriptions and color illustrations of GIS applications for transit planning and welfare to work purposes.
Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-62
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report provides a wealth of information about the current status of public transportation services and their use at large airports in the United States and around the world. It identifies strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through increased awareness of issues and best industry practices. Key factors affecting passenger and employee use of public transportation for airport access is presented. Market trends and factors affecting ridership at nine U.S. airports with direct rail service are presented as well as trends and factors at U.S. airports with rubber-tired access systems such as prearranged limousines, shared-ride vans, express buses, and multistop buses. The report will be of interest to individuals involved in planning and implementing improved public transportation access to large airports.
New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations
Report Number: R-58
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report presents key ideas and principles that point the way to fundamental change. It addresses why fundamental change is now needed in public transportation and how other businesses and industries have responded to similar factors and forces in the recent past. Six broad challenges that currently drive the need for fundamental change in public transportation are presented. The report progress logically from an assessment of the current organization of the transit industry to a summary of the fundamental elements of a public transportation paradigm shift based on lessons learned from other industries.
Guidebook for Developing Welfare-to-Work Transportation Services
Report Number: R-64
Publication Date: 12/8/2000
This guidebook provides information about the role of transportation in supporting welfare-to-work initiatives and identifies practical strategies to improve access to job opportunities for former welfare recipients making the transition to work. It also describes service approaches that include modifications to existing mass transit services, coordination between transportation services, ride-sharing programs, automobile ownership programs, and collaborations between faith-based and community-based groups.
Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring Systems
Report Number: S-34
Publication Date: 12/1/2000
Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring Systems Abstract: This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, their schedule and operations planning staff, and others who are responsible for information about systems operations and ridership. It will also be of interest to others who interact with transit agencies in the reporting of operations data to support regular scheduling and operations planning activities for monitoring trends and reporting to oversight agencies. This synthesis reviews the state of the practice in how data are analyzed. It addresses methods used to analyze data and what computer systems are used to process and store data. It also covers accuracy issues, including measurement errors, and other problems, including errors in estimates. This TRB report addresses agency experience with different data collection systems, giving attention to management error, the need for sampling, and methods for screening, editing, and compensating for data imperfection. Sample reports from selected U.S. and Canadian transit agencies are reproduced in this synthesis.
Integrating School Bus and Public Transportation in Non-Urban Communities
Report Number: R-56
Publication Date: 12/13/1999
This report identifies and discusses issues related to coordination and integration and provides numerous case studies of communities that have successfully coordinated or integrated some aspect of school and public transportation services. The report is primarily geared towards those who are interested in the potential for coordinating or integrating school bus and public transportation services in non-urban areas. For those that reside in a non-urban environment, it provides an implementation guide that suggests "next steps" for the introduction and coordination of school and public transportation.
Highlights of the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual First Edition
Report Number: RRD-35
Publication Date: 12/1/1999
This digest and its companion, TCRP Web Document 6, will be of interest to anyone who designs or sponsors transit services. It contains the basic capacity and quality of service concepts for bus service, paratransit services, light rail service, and heavy rail service. It is intended to familiarize practitioners with these concepts and encourage the use of the detailed analytical procedures contained in TCRP Web Document 6, Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual: First Edition.
Light Rail Service: Vehicular and Pedestrian Safety
Report Number: RRD-34
Publication Date: 12/1/1999
This digest contains information to facilitate the safe, orderly, and integrated movement of all traffic, including light rail vehicles (LRVs), throughout the public highway system, but especially at light rail transit (LRT) crossing. This report is intended to assist those involved in the planning, design, operation, and maintenance of LRT systems by providing a consistent set of guidelines and standards for LRT operations through higher speed LRT crossing.
Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation
Report Number: R-55
Publication Date: 9/14/1999
These guidelines identify, assess, and document the current practices that transit operators use to enhance their bus networks to better serve suburban travel needs. Taking into consideration the range of environments implied by the term "suburb", the guidelines identify six types of suburban environments and the applicability of individual types of transit service to each.
Integrated Urban Models for Simulation of Transit Land Use Policies
Report Number: R-48
Publication Date: 6/17/1999
These guidelines describe how transit agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, and state DOTs can act today to initiate or expand their analytical tools for integrated land use-transportation planning. The guidelines are intended for the general reader having an interest in the effects of transit on land use. The guidelines describe currently available integrated models, the characteristics of an "ideal' integrated model and steps that a planning organization should take in order to support and expand such modeling capability.
The Zoning and Real Estate Implications of Transit-Oriented Development
Report Number: LRD-12
Publication Date: 4/14/1999
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by S. Mark White, provides information on legal and other issues associated with transit-oriented development. The report should be useful to transit and development attorneys, financial officials, planners, development officials, and anyone interested in transit- oriented development. It is organized as follows: (1) Introduction; ( 2) Elements of Transit-Oriented Development Policies; (3) Legal Basis for Transit-Oriented Development; (4) Conclusion; Appendix A - Survey Questions; Appendix B - Techniques Used by Survey Respondents to Encourage TOD; and Appendix C - Survey Participants Engaged in Joint Development Projects.
Passenger Counting Technologies and Procedures
Report Number: S-29
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, their planning and scheduling, operations and maintenance, computer services, and budget and finance staffs, as well as to technology providers. It summarizes information from selected transit agencies about benefits and problems associated with each passenger counting technology, as reported by current users. It also presents advice for agencies considering each technology. Issues considered deal with data collection methodology, data processing, end uses of ridership data, organizational responsibilities, and resource requirements.
Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals
Report Number: R-30
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This manual will be of great interest to new transit schedulers, experienced schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the scheduling process. The manual is divided up into two sections: a basic treatment and an advanced section. The foremost is in an instructional format, designed primarily for novice schedulers and other transit staff. The advanced section covers more complex scheduling requirements.
Strategies to Minimize Liability under Federal and State Environment Laws
Report Number: LRD-9
Publication Date: 6/15/1998
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by G. Martin Cole and Christine M. Brookbank, provides insight into the potential liability of transit agencies for hazardous waste, and methods and policies that would avoid or reduce the potential liability. The report should be useful to transit administrators, attorneys, planners, engineers, financial officials, development and contracting officers, and contract managers.
Transit-Friendly Streets: Design and Traffic Management Strategies to Support Livable Communities
Report Number: R-33
Publication Date: 6/15/1998
This report will be of interest to individuals seeking to improve the livability of their communities and to those concerned with the role that local streets and public transportation can play in pursuing this goal. The report presents 10 strategies used in both the United States and Europe to create transit-friendly streets. The strategies are followed by case studies of five communities that have pursued different initiatives to improve their livability by making their streets more transit-friendly. The report culminates with lessons learned from the case studies. The report is very practical and will be useful to transit professionals, transportation planners, engineers, city officials, and local communities.
Transit Markets of the Future: The Challenge of Change
Report Number: R-28
Publication Date: 1/15/1998
This report will be of interest to transit policymakers, managers, planners, marketing professionals, and others interested in the effects of current trends (e.g., demographic, economic, social, land use, and transport policy) and trends expected over the next 15 years on current and future transit markets. Although many of these trends are not favorable to public transit, a number are identified that provide opportunities for maintaining current transit markets and creating new, expanded, or different transit markets. The report identifies 40 transit service concepts that appear to offer the most effective means of adjusting to these societal trends.
Consequences of the Development of the Interstate Highway Systems for Transit
Report Number: RRD-21
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest presents the literature review for TCRP Project H-13A, Consequences of the Development of the Interstate Highway System. The aim of this project is to determine the effects of the interstate highway system on urban and suburban areas, focusing particularly on the effects for public transportation as an industry and as a service. The digest summarizes what is known about the consequences of the interstate highway system for public transportation as an industry and as a service.
Public Agency Guidance on Employer-Based TDM Programs
Report Number: RRD-18
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest summarizes the results of Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project B-4, Cost-Effectiveness of Transportation Demand Management Strategies, which was conducted by COMSIS Corporation. It describes information collected and guidance developed for use by public agencies and employers interested in implementing employer-based transportation demand management (TDM) strategies to reduce employee reliance on single-occupant vehicles. Summaries are included of two final reports that have been produced as a result of the research: Public Agency Guidance on Employer-Based TDM Programs and Employer Technical Memorandum: Characteristics of Effective TDM Programs.
Report Number: S-20
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, their planning, operations, and other development-orientated staffs, as well as to various stakeholders in the community development process. It offers information on a variety of municipalities' and transit agencies' attitudes toward the built environment around rail stations. Policy and implementation issues, completed and unimplemented projects are discussed. Administrators, practitioners, and researchers are continually faced with issues or problems on which there is much information, either in the form of reports or in terms of undocumented experience and practice. Unfortunately, this information often is scattered or not readily available in the literature, and as a consequence, in seeking solutions, full information on what has been learned about an issue or problem is not assembled. The report clearly defines public policy and action frameworks used to support transit-focused development. It illustrates some key ingredients to effect positive change in the built environment. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available can be expected to be added to that now in hand.
The Role of Transit in Creating Livable Metropolitan Communities
Report Number: R-022
Publication Date: 3/15/1997
This report will be of interest to individuals seeking to improve the livability of their communities and to those concerned with the role public transportation can play in pursuing this goal. The report combines guidelines and case studies to provide a comprehensive approach for improving community livability and transit ridership in the United States. It is directed toward a broad range of individuals and groups in the public and private sectors associated with community, business, and civic organizations, including public transportation providers, local and metropolitan governments, community groups, and private businesses.
Integration of light Rail Transit Into City Street
Report Number: R-17
Publication Date: 12/10/1996
This report documents and presents the results of a study to improve the safety of light rail transit (LRT) operations in shared rights-of- way where LRT operates on, adjacent to, or across city streets at low to moderate speeds (35 mph or less). Safety problems and potential solutions were identified through a literature review, field observations, videotapes, and structured interviews with ten LRT properties in the U.S. and Canada. From the system surveys, an alignment classification scheme was developed, and an inventory of traffic control devices was compiled. Accident data were analyzed to examine where, how, and why conflicts between light rail vehicles, motor vehicles, and pedestrians arise.
Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops
Report Number: R-19
Publication Date: 11/22/1996
This report will be of interest to individuals and groups with a stake in the location and design of bus stops. This includes those associated with public transportation organizations, public works departments, local departments of transportation, developers, and public and private organizations along or near bus routes. The primary objective of this research was to develop guidelines for locating and designing bus stops in various operating environments. These guidelines will assist transit agencies, local governments, and other public bodies in locating and designing bus stops that consider bus patrons' convenience, safety, and access to sites as well as safe transit operations and traffic flow.
Bus Route Evaluation Standards
Report Number: S-10
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, as well as operations, scheduling, maintenance, and planning personnel. Information on bus route evaluation standards and criteria used by transit agencies in the United States and Canada is summarized. The synthesis provides updated information to the 1984 United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) report entitled Bus Service Evaluation Methods: A Review, however, the results are not directly comparable as the respondents, questions asked, and analytical procedures differ in the 1994 synthesis. It does report what agencies do in the area of bus route, not system, evaluation standards, and how they undertake these efforts.
Innovative Suburb-to-Suburb Transit Practices
Report Number: S-14
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers and their marketing planning staffs. It will also be of interest to state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, and professionals in the private sector concerned with provision of suburban transportation services.
The Cost of Sprawl-Revisited (see final report R-74)
Report Number: R-39
Publication Date: 11/15/1995
This report will be of interest to individuals involved in ongoing discussions and debates about urban sprawl and its effects. Section I provides a working definition of sprawl and its associated costs, then provides historical discussion, dating back to the early 1920s when zoning acts were initially developed, and to the 1950s when the term sprawl entered the planning literature. Section II contains a Literature Synthesis. This section systematically presents the literature on sprawl in chapters that focus on the following major areas of impact: public/private capital and operating costs; transportation and travel costs; land/natural habitat preservation; quality of life; and social issues. Section III of the report presents annotations of studies, organized in chapters that focus on the same five major impact areas as Section II. While this report will not resolve the debate on the benefits and costs of urban sprawl, it provides an important repository of information for the debaters.
Designing Transit Services for the Mode-Choice Market Stage III Planning
Report Number: IDEA-26
This project developed a "mobility index" that is a function of trip time by which to measure and map mobility in a metropolitan region for both auto and transit modes, as well as to identify opportunities and evaluate transit improvements for their impact on regional mobility. This includes a complementary market positioning exercise for mode-choice-focused transit services, employing focus groups and an ethnographic analytical methodology for identifying the explicit "bellwether" segment of the mode-choice market. The research uses the San Diego metropolitan area for a test bed, in collaboration with the major transit agency, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board(MTDB), and local and regional agencies, including the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Please note: This project is still in progress.