|Handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination
Report Number: R-202
Publication Date: 7/10/2018
This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. Handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination. The Medicaid program is the largest federal program for human services transportation, spending approximately $3 billion annually on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT).
The report is accompanied by a companion document that explores the state-by-state profiles for examining the effects of NEMT brokerages on transportation coordination.
Because the Medicaid program is administered by states, which are able to set their own rules within federal regulations and guidelines set by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), coordination of NEMT with public transit and human services transportation is highly dependent on each state Medicaid agency’s policies and priorities. This report provides background information about NEMT and describes the different models available to states for providing NEMT for Medicaid beneficiaries. The handbook also discusses why human services transportation and public transportation providers encourage coordination of NEMT with other transportation services.
Understanding Changes in Demographics, Preferences, and Markets for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-201
Publication Date: 6/4/2018
This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. It explores how changes in demographics, traveler preferences, and markets for public transportation affect transit ridership now and in the future. The report explores how an individual’s demographics affect their longterm values, their current attitudes, and the type of neighborhood they choose to live in. Each of these factors also affects their likelihood to ride transit.
Contracting Fixed-Route Bus Transit Service
Report Number: S-136
Publication Date: 4/25/2018
This report documents the state of the practice in contracting bus services. Today many transit agencies contract out their fixed-route bus transit services; however, there is not enough research that focuses on the procurement and oversight process of these contracts. This synthesis will assist transit agencies in their decision-making process as they consider contracting fixed-route transit services instead of directly operating the service. The report is accompanied by Appendix G, which is available online only.
A Transit Agency Guide to Evaluating Secondary Train Detection/Protection Systems in Communications-Based Train Control Systems
Report Number: Web-Only Document 71
Publication Date: 3/23/2018
This guide provides a practical approach to evaluating the appropriate level of secondary train detection/protection systems (STD/PS) for a given communications-based train control system application. In terms of detection, track circuits and axle counters are both considered and compared, including the broken rail detection capabilities of track circuits and the possibility of having no secondary detection at all.
The first part of this guide presents different technologies, and discusses communications-based train control deployment trends and feedback on operations from rail transit agencies around the world. The second part provides guidance for selection of an appropriate level of STD/PS, in terms of candidate technologies, product maturity, and potential risks. The document is accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation.
Battery Electric Buses - State of the Practice
Report Number: S-130
Publication Date: 3/22/2018
This report documents current practices of transit systems in the planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, operation, and maintenance of battery electric buses (BEBs). The synthesis is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. The synthesis will also be valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.
Legal Implications of Video Surveillance on Transit Systems
Report Number: LRD-52
Publication Date: 3/15/2018
This report explores the use of video surveillance systems on buses, trains, and stations. The widespread use of such video surveillance systems has generated numerous legal issues, such as a system’s ability to utilize video to discipline union and non-union employees, safety issues associated with such use, public access to such video, and retention policies regarding video, among others. This digest explores federal and state laws to address these issues, along with the current practices employed by transit agencies to comply with those laws.
College Student Transit Pass Program
Report Number: S-131
Publication Date: 3/9/2018
This report focuses on the relationship established between transit agencies and universities and colleges, and documents current state of the practice to better develop and evaluate college student transit pass programs. Many transit agencies currently have student pass programs with colleges and universities. These programs have very different funding, fare and operating structures, and student demographics.
Tools for a Sustainable Transit Agency
Report Number: R-197
Publication Date: 2/27/2018
This report explores the development of two practical tools for improving sustainability at transit agencies:
- The Sustainability Routemap: An interactive PDF, similar to a website, that guides the user to improve a transit agency’s sustainability program through application of change management principles, best practice examples, and references to online tools.
- The S+ROI Calculator: An Excel workbook that quantitatively evaluates potential sustainability projects in terms of financial, social, and environmental returns.
The tools are available through downloading a .zip file. This project aims to build on existing knowledge and tools addressing transit sustainability through simplifying, translating, and implementing existing knowledge in new ways.
Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.
Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions
Report Number: R-196
Publication Date: 2/5/2018
This report provides information about private transit services and ways they are addressing transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. The document provides an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, a review of their present scope and operating characteristics, and a discussion of ways they may affect the communities in which they operate along with several case studies and other supporting information. Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans and jitneys—have operated for decades in many American cities. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transit options. These include new types of public-private partnership that are helping to bridge first/last mile gaps in suburban areas. The report also examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits.
Updated Guide to Buy America Requirements—2015 Supplement
Report Number: LRD-49
Publication Date: 4/28/2017
This report examines various statutory and regulatory Buy America requirements that a state or local governmental entity must examine when receiving funds for a public transportation project from one or more USDOT agencies. The purpose of this Legal Research Digest is to update the earlier TRB legal research to provide a comprehensive and current summary of the FTA Buy America provision.
Addressing Difficult Customer Situations
Report Number: S-127
Publication Date: 3/1/2017
This report explores issues surrounding difficult customers or passengers and the variety of circumstances that can arise when they utilize transit system facilities or vehicles. The report identifies current practices used by transit agencies to prevent, prepare for, and deal with these incidents.
Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies
Report Number: R-187
Publication Date: 9/19/2016
This report presents practical planning and implementation strategies to enhance livability in transit corridors. It provides a resource for planning practitioners, policy makers, and other stakeholders to measure, understand, and improve transit corridor livability.
The handbook provides a definition of transit corridor livability and a set of methods, metrics, and strategies—framed within a five-step visioning and improvement process—that communities can use to improve livability in their transit corridors. It includes a set of tools and techniques that can help in planning and building support for corridor improvements, screening alternatives in preparation for environmental review, identifying a corridor’s livability needs, and developing an action-oriented set of strategies for improving transit corridor livability and quality of life.
A spreadsheet-based Transit Corridor Livability Calculator tool and a separate spreadsheet used for tool testing are also available for download by clicking this link. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/174953.aspx
An instructional file accompanies the spreadsheet.
Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who Are Homeless
Report Number: S-121
Publication Date: 3/14/2016
This report reports on effective practices, approaches, and outcomes regarding interactions within the transit industry with people who are homeless. A literature review summarizes policies and practices used in both the transit and library communities. Because public libraries are similar to public transportation in offering services to all members of the general public and in being viewed as a safe haven for people who are homeless, the literature review includes an examination of library policies and procedures related to people who are homeless.
Sustainable Public Transportation: Environmentally Friendly Mobility
Report Number: RRD-103
Publication Date: 12/12/2011
This digest is an overview of an international study mission that explored how public transportation systems in several cities in India and China have implemented plans, policies, technologies, and strategies for creating more livable communities through bus, metro, bus rapid transit, rail, and light rail systems. The Indian and Chinese systems visited were designed to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, lower operating costs, and provide safe and accessible transportation services.
Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit
Report Number: R-144 Volume 1
Publication Date: 3/17/2011
The report explores issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit leads the user through the process of setting up the necessary cost accounting system, identifying the data requirements and the measurement parameters, and describing procedures for applying the model. This volume includes instructions for using the actual Cost Sharing Model for setup and application on a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB's website as an ISO image. An executive summary of the report is included.
Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 2: Research Report
Report Number: R-144 Volume 2
Publication Date: 3/16/2011
The report explore issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 2: The Research Report summarizes all of the study components that contributed to formation of the Toolkit. It includes an extended evaluation of current experiences, and describes the regulatory environment that frames transportation service delivery requirements. An executive summary of the report is included.
Developing and Implementing a Transit Advertising Policy
Report Number: LRD-33
Publication Date: 9/24/2010
This digest provides information pertaining to transit systems use of various strategies to implement advertising content policies that further the system's reasonable interests and protect free speech rights.
Performance Measurement and Outcomes
Report Number: RRD-95
Publication Date: 4/23/2010
This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the Peopleâ€™s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan
Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses
Report Number: S-81
Publication Date: 4/1/2010
This report explores preventive maintenance measures taken by a sampling of transit agencies to ensure buses are on time, protect taxpayer investments, and promote passenger satisfaction and public safety.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments
Report Number: R-137
Publication Date: 12/14/2009
This report examines pedestrian and motorist behaviors contributing to light rail transit (LRT) safety and explores mitigating measures available designed to improve safety along LRT alignments. The report also includes suggestions to facilitate the compilation of accident data in a coordinated and homogeneous manner across LRT systems. Finally, the report provides a catalog of existing and innovative safety devices, safety treatments, and practices along LRT alignments. Appendices B through E of TCRP Report 137 were published as TCRP Web-Only Document 42.
First Amendment Implications for Transit Facilities: Speech, Advertising, and Loitering
Report Number: LRD-29
Publication Date: 6/19/2009
Transit agencies face numerous challenges in providing passengers with a safe and efficient means of travel while respecting the freedom of expression protected by the First Amendment. In May 1998, the Transportation Research Board published Transit Cooperative Research Program Legal Research Digest (LRD) 10, Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities ("LRD 10"), a survey of the relevant law and its development up to the time of publication. This digest supplements LRD No. 10, summarizing and analyzing the status of this important area of the law in light of court decisions and other developments that have arisen in subsequent years.
Public Transportation's Role in Addressing Global Climate Change
Report Number: RRD-89
Publication Date: 3/25/2009
This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation's role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Civil Rights Implications of the Allocation of Funds between Bus and Rail
Report Number: LRD-27
Publication Date: 9/5/2008
This publication examines complaints filed under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the Federal Transit Administration. The report also explores the number of Title VI challenges, the nature of transit agencies' responses to these challenges, U.S. Supreme Court decisions associated with Section 602 disparateimpact violations, intentional discrimination claims, immunity, and more.
Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards
Report Number: LRD-25
Publication Date: 5/12/2008
This publication examines basic privacy issues associated with the acquisition and storage of financial and trip data associated with the use of a transit smart card. The report explores who can access the data collected, what data may be accessed and under what conditions, and how the information can be used.
Understanding How Individuals Make Travel and Location Decisions: Implications for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-123
Publication Date: 3/31/2008
Residential location and travel behavior have a large effect on society's consumption of energy, levels of pollution, and on health. There is a great value in increasing the understanding of the mechanism of choice. Better understanding leads to better insights as to how to predict choice and how to influence it through better polices, education and communication. This report aids to improve the understanding of how people make travel and location decisions, and to derive practical implications and policy guidance for encouraging more use of public transportation and walking.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 13
Publication Date: 10/15/2007
This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.
The Americans with Disabilities Act: The Federal Transit Administration's Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments
Report Number: LRD-23
Publication Date: 9/17/2007
This document consists of findings, decisions, and five compliance assessments interpreting or pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments includes FTA interpretations of Part III of the ADA, which pertains to public accommodations and transportation. FTA interpretations can be in letter findings, decisions on complaints, and compliance assessments. FTA's interpretations are available for download as an ISO image.
Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner's Guide
Report Number: R-118
Publication Date: 7/3/2007
This report provides information on the costs, impacts, and effectiveness of implementing selected bus rapid transit (BRT) components. It includes practical information that can be readily used by transit professionals and policy makers in planning and decision making related to implementing different components of BRT systems.
Methods of Rider Communication
Report Number: S-68
Publication Date: 1/22/2007
This synthesis's purpose is to document effective methods of communicating with riders. It views the state of the practice in agency communications with customers using specific elements as a way to determine what constitutes successful communication:
Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services
Report Number: R-116
Publication Date: 11/13/2006
TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.
Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Funded Public Transportation Projects
Report Number: RRD-78
Publication Date: 10/25/2006
This digest contains recommendations for strategies, tools, and techniques to better manage major transit capital projects over $100 million. Information is presented on various stimation, project-management, and cost-containment approaches that were applied successfully to 14 case studies. The results, which indicate which tools and techniques contributed to more effective project management, will be useful to transit systems and communities endeavoring to plan or implement major transit investments.
Bus Use of Shoulders
Report Number: S-64
Publication Date: 7/5/2006
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.
Analyzing the Effectiveness of Commuter Benefits Programs
Report Number: R-107
Publication Date: 11/9/2005
This report is designed to help employers, transit agencies, and other organizations that promote transit benefits, and policy makers better understand the impacts of a transit benefits program and how to qualify these impacts for their own programs. The report has three chapters: Chapter 1 provides an overview of commuter benefits and a discussion of the study objective and the organization of the report. Chapter 2 provides guidance on how to evaluate the effectiveness of a transit benefits program. Chapter 3 based on research from metropolitan areas across the United States, examines the effects of transit benefits programs on employee travel behavior and on transit agency ridership, revenues, and costs.
Practices in No-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit
Report Number: S-60
Publication Date: 9/13/2005
This report examines current and innovative practices of U.S. transit agencies in the development and implementation of passenger no-show and late cancellation policies for paratransit programs operated under the regulatory requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). It reviews the administration, community response, and effectiveness of policies in small, medium, and large transit agencies. It also addresses policies as a way to improve system productivity, efficiency, and capacity, and as a means to better service riders with disabilities who may experience difficulties with the advance reservation aspect of most ADA complementary paratransit operations.
Strategic Planning and Management in Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-59
Publication Date: 5/3/2005
This report examines the value and benefits of strategic planning and management in transit agencies. It also provides case studies from five transit agencies based on the comprehensiveness of process or presence of innovative or noteworthy practices.
Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation
Report Number: S-56
Publication Date: 1/24/2005
This synthesis explores current perspectives, practices, and experiences in the use of performance measures for the allocation of financial assistance of local transit systems. It focuses primarily on the extent to which traditional measures of transit performance, internal measures of economic efficiency, service effectiveness, and productivity are used in allocating funds. The report summarizes the experences of a variety of transit agencies, it would be of interest to transit practitioners and transportation professionals, including technical and research staff.
Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture
Report Number: R-84 Volume 5
Publication Date: 10/25/2004
TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.
Public Transportation Operating Agencies as Employers of Choice
Report Number: R-103
Publication Date: 6/18/2004
This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in workforce recruitment, development, and retention. It includes a companion document, communications Strategy and Implementation Plan, Positioning the Public Transportation Operating Agency as an Employer of Choice that describes strategies and solutions that offer the greatest potential for positioning public transportation operating agencies as an employer of choice. The toolkit will assist transportation policy makers and practitioners in implementing more effective human resources business planning processes.
Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual
Report Number: R-100
Publication Date: 1/27/2004
This manual is intended to be a fundamental reference document for public transit practitioners and policy makers. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability and quality of service from the passenger point of view. The manual contains quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity of bus, rail, and ferry transit services, and transit stops, stations, and terminals. Examples problems are included.
Bus Rapid Transit - Implementation Guidelines
Report Number: R-90 Volume 2
Publication Date: 1/7/2004
This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT - running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.
Land Use and Site Design
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 15
Publication Date: 11/11/2003
Transportation, acting through enhanced accessibility, is a long acknowledge influence in the shaping of cities and the determination of land development potential. The reverse, however, the impact of land use decisions on transportation outcomes, has only gradually achieved recognition. It is these reverse impacts of interest in the treatment of land use and site design options as "transportation" strategies, a facet of "smart growth" that provides the impetus for this chapter. This chapter provides information on what is known or surmised about the relationships between land use/site design and travel behavior. This chapter summarizes key reasons why planners and decisionmakers view the land-use transportation connection as important; charaterizes the types of strategies of concern to transportation analysts, and relate them to elements of land use and site design; identify analytic approaches that have been used to examine the transportation-land use link, and offer guidance as to their reliability. This report will be of interest to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update
Report Number: R-94
Publication Date: 10/13/2003
This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.
Economic Benefits of Coordinating Human Service Transportaiton
Report Number: R-91
Publication Date: 9/5/2003
This report examines the net economic benefits associated with various strategies and practices for coordinating human service transportation and general public transit, provides quantitative estimates of these strategies and practices, and identifies innovative and promising coordination strategies and practices. The report provides an executive summary that provides a brief overview of basic coordination concepts and strategies that may enable transportation operators to achieve significant economic benefits from coordinating their operations. This information may be used by federal, state, and local officials in developing strategies and policies for coordinating transportation resources.
Characteristics of State Funding for Public Transportation 2002
Report Number: RRD-60
Publication Date: 7/18/2003
This digest provides information on the nature and magnitude of FY 2002 state transit funding for 46 states and the District of Columbia in an easy-to-read graphic format. The information includes state transit funding sources and amounts, programs, eligible uses and allocation, and per capital state transit funding. The digest also includes an overview of the results of 28 transit-related state and local ballot initiatives held in 2002.
Financing Capital Investment: A Primer for the Transit Practitioner
Report Number: R-89
Publication Date: 4/10/2003
This report provides a valuable resource for people who are responsible for financing public transportation capital projects. The primary objective of the primer is to identify and evaluate financing options for public transportation capital projects. It is organized to provide a wide-ranging audience with easy access to the information they need most regarding capital financing. The primer inlcudes descriptive sections that outline the basic financing approaches and structures available, as well as sections that help system managers and public officials decide when it is most appropriate to apply alternative financing techniques.
Improving Public Transit Options for Older Persons
Report Number: R-82 Vols 1 & 2
Publication Date: 2/13/2003
This report describes how to improve public transit services to make them more attractive to older persons. This report will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers in agencies and organizations that plan, provide, administer, and fund public transit that may serve older persons. The report provides information for public transportation providers and planners to address future transportation challenges generated by an increasingly older society. It describes exemplary transportation services and innovative transportation alternatives that will enable older persons in the United States to maintain the independence they want.
A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection
Report Number: R-80
Publication Date: 10/18/2002
A significant number of rail transit operators are not or will be looking to adopt lower-cost, less-infrastructure-intensive ways to carry out certain system functions such as fare collection. This report addresses the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection (SSFC) systems, including those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues. The Toolkit is designed for use by agencies at various points in the fare collection decision process.
Use of Flexible Funds for Transit Under ISTEA and TEA-21
Report Number: S-42
Publication Date: 6/10/2002
This report is intended to provide greater familiarity with emerging techniques in the use of flexible funding, and to point out issues that may need further attention. It is also intended to provide a review of how current flexible funding provisions are being used to support transit invetment and to examine, through a limited number of specified experiences, lessons that may have the broadest relevance throughout the transit industry. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency professionals and the consultants who work with them in dealing with flexible funding opportunities.
Costs of Sprawl
Report Number: R-74
Publication Date: 5/20/2002
This report is the second and final phase of Report 39 "The Cost of Sprawl - Revisited". It will be of interest to those engaged in the discussions and debates about urban sprawl and its effects.
Identification of the Critical Workforce Development Issues in the Transit Industry
Report Number: RRD-45
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This digest identifies the key workforce challenges facing the public transportation industry, identifies current approaches to addressing those challenges, and suggests an agenda that the public transportation industry can use to move forward in the important area of work-force development.
Supplementing & Updating TCRP Report 52: Joint Operation of Light Rail Transit or Diesel Multiple Unit Vehicles with Railroad
Report Number: RRD-43
Publication Date: 12/1/2001
This digest supplements and updates TCRP Report 52, "Joint Operation of Light Rail Transit or Diesel Multiple Unit Vehicles with Railroads." The digest updates information in TCRP Report 52 to recognize the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and Federal Transit Administration (FTA) joint statement of policy concerning shared use issued in July 2000, provides supplemental information concerning the international experience with joint operation, and updates a disucssion of the key issues and conclusions. This digest also defines joint operation as commingled, simultaneous train operation on shared track by railroad trains (freight, passenger, or both) and rail transit vehicles that are not fully compliant with current FRA regulations.
Using Geographic Information Systems for Welfare to Work Transportation Planning and Service Delivery
Report Number: R-60
Publication Date: 12/31/2000
This handbook will be of interest to transportation planners, human service agencies transportation providers, and others concerned with using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to support welfare to work transportation planning and service delivery. The handbook includes guidance on how agencies can either implement GIS or enhance their current GIS applications for this purpose. Accompany this handbook is a CD-Rom containing case study descriptions and color illustrations of GIS applications for transit planning and welfare to work purposes.
New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations
Report Number: R-58
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report presents key ideas and principles that point the way to fundamental change. It addresses why fundamental change is now needed in public transportation and how other businesses and industries have responded to similar factors and forces in the recent past. Six broad challenges that currently drive the need for fundamental change in public transportation are presented. The report progress logically from an assessment of the current organization of the transit industry to a summary of the fundamental elements of a public transportation paradigm shift based on lessons learned from other industries.
Guidebook for Developing Welfare-to-Work Transportation Services
Report Number: R-64
Publication Date: 12/8/2000
This guidebook provides information about the role of transportation in supporting welfare-to-work initiatives and identifies practical strategies to improve access to job opportunities for former welfare recipients making the transition to work. It also describes service approaches that include modifications to existing mass transit services, coordination between transportation services, ride-sharing programs, automobile ownership programs, and collaborations between faith-based and community-based groups.
Treatment of Privacy Issues in the Public Transportation Industry
Report Number: LRD-14
Publication Date: 3/29/2000
This study discusses the development of the law of privacy and examines its continuing evolution within the context of societal and technological changes, particularly how these principles apply to the public transportation industry and its employees.
Strategies to Attract Users to Pub Transportation
Report Number: R-40
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report will be of interest to transportation and urban planners and to local decision-makers. The effectiveness of automobile parking strategies as a means of increasing transit ridership was analyzed. Eight strategies affecting the price and availability of parking and transit service levels were examined, alone and in combination, to assess their effects on travel mode choice, particularly transit. The study concludes that no single strategy is both effective and politically feasible enough to warrant implementation throughout a metropolitan area. Rather, the researchers recommend that policy-makers implement combinations of parking strategies, in response to the policy and transportation objectives of specific geographical areas. The final chapter of the report, an implementation guide, provides forms, examples, and other information to assist agencies in selecting combinations of parking strategies that will be appropriate for local needs.
New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations
Report Number: R-53
Publication Date: 8/2/1999
The Transit Cooperative Research Program has identified key aspects of public transportation where new ideas and methods are, in the current vernacular, new paradigms. This report is intended to (1) present the case for a paradigm shift in local public transportation in terms strong enough that a consensus can be reached on the need for action and (2) trigger a wide-ranging debate and dialogue on the basic premises that necessitate a paradigm shift in local public transportation. It also looks closely at selected organizations, both within and outside the transportation sector, which have pursued and achieved dramatic change.
Joint Operation of Light Rail Transit or Diesel Multiple Unit Vehicles with Railroads
Report Number: R-52
Publication Date: 6/30/1999
The report identifies and discusses issues associated with joint operation focusing on the current regulatory and institutional environment, railroad and rail transit operations, infrastructure, and rolling stock. It also examines issues relevant to the safe operation of rail transit services with railroads; prioritizes the most critical issues affecting such joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles that do not meet current U.S. railroad regulations, standards, or practices; and offers potential guidance on the most critical issues pertaining to implementing joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles. This report will be of interest to transit managers, planning and operations professionals, policy makers, and others interested in the potential for joint operations of light rail transit (LRT) or lightweight diesel multiple unit (DMU) vehicles with freight and/or passenger railroads.
Using Public Transportation to Reduce the Economic, Social and Human Costs of Personal Immobility
Report Number: R-49
Publication Date: 5/6/1999
This report provides a method to define and measure the costs of personal immobility at a local level and contains a compendium of public transportation practices that address immobility, help reduce costs, and possibly provide economic benefits to both the riders and the larger community. The focus is on practices that assist people who need transportation to health care or who are transitioning from welfare to work. This report should be of interest to planners, decision-makers, and social service and transportation providers. It should also serve as a resource to assist decision-makers and transportation service providers in using their services more effectively to address the issue of personal immobility.
Consequences of the Interstate Highway System for Transit: Summary of Findings
Report Number: R-42
Publication Date: 12/31/1998
This report will be of interest to transportation and urban planners, local decision-makers, and historians. The research project examined the consequences of the interstate highway system for transit. A literature review and case studies of urbanized areas were done, with each of the case studies representing a different relationship between highways, transit, and urban development.
Building Transit Ridership
Report Number: R-27
Publication Date: 12/30/1998
An Exploration of Transit's Market Share and the Public Policies That Influence It. State and local transportation officials constitute the primary intended audience for this report. This includes elected and appointed board members who deal with local transportation policy, transit agency officials, transit agency professionals, and metropolitan area transportation planners. The report addresses transit's ridership and its share of the travel market. The research explored a variety of different public policies and transit management actions that can potentially influence transit ridership, particularly in comparison to local travel by private vehicle. The policies are presented through case studies, which are summarized in the report and documented in greater detail in the accompanying appendices.
Coordinating Public Transportation with Other Federal Programs
Report Number: RRD-23
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This digest identifies and briefly describes federal programs that can fund passenger transportation for various purposes. Opportunities for coordination of services provided under these programs are discussed and highlighted by case studies of successful coordination. The disadvantages to coordination are discussed, and topics for further research are proposed. This digest was written as part of TCRP Project J-6, Quick Response for Special Needs.
Creating a New Future for Public Transportation: TCRP's Strategic Road Map
Report Number: RRD-24
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This digest summarizes the findings from TCRP Project J-8A, New Paradigms for Public Transportation: A Scoping Study. A future-search conference was held May 12-14, 1997, to identify research that could lead to new paradigms for a better future for public transportation. The future search process, findings, and recommendations are presented here.
Trends in Single-Occupant Vehicle and Vehicle Miles of Travel Growth in the US
Report Number: RRD-30
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This digest presents key findings from the recently completed Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project H-13B, Trends in Single- Occupant Vehicle (SOV) and Vehicle Miles of Travel Growth in the United States. The research developed trends and predictions of drive-alone commuting in the United States and addressed the policy implications that will be useful to transportation planners and decision-makers. The objective of the study was to provide a stronger quantitative understanding of the factors that have been affecting the dynamics of commuter mode choices and vehicle occupancy levels in recent years, and to assess the role of public policy in the trends observed. On the basis of this quantitative analysis, the study offers comments on the potential efficacy of policies designed to increase transit ridership and/or to increase average vehicle occupancy levels.
Funding Strategies for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-31
Publication Date: 4/15/1998
This report addresses the current state of funding for public transportation in the United States, the various circumstances that have contributed to today's funding environment, and specific strategies that transit agencies are pursuing to identify new sources of funding. The report is presented in two parts, firstly, a final report which details a national perspective on public transportation funding and secondly, a casebook detailing innovative methods for generating revenue for public transportation capital and operating costs. The report would be of great interest to federal, state, and local transportation officials, policy makers, and professionals concerned with funding for local public transportation services during the past decade and in the near future.
Consequences of the Development of the Interstate Highway Systems for Transit
Report Number: RRD-21
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest presents the literature review for TCRP Project H-13A, Consequences of the Development of the Interstate Highway System. The aim of this project is to determine the effects of the interstate highway system on urban and suburban areas, focusing particularly on the effects for public transportation as an industry and as a service. The digest summarizes what is known about the consequences of the interstate highway system for public transportation as an industry and as a service.
Strategies to Assist Local Transportation Agencies in Becoming Mobility Managers
Report Number: R-21
Publication Date: 11/13/1997
This report will be of interest to individuals and organizations seeking to better understand the concept of mobility management and those seeking to make the transition from traditional transit operating agency to mobility manager. The report presents a useful compendium of mobility management functions; identifies barriers to mobility management; includes findings drawn from seven case studies, which are documented as Appendix A; presents actions to promote mobility management; and documents the results of technical assistance provided to two transit systems in Appendixes C and D.
Measuring and Valuing Transit Benefits and Disbenefits
Report Number: R-20
Publication Date: 12/30/1996
This report will be of interest to transportation professionals and policy makers responsible for transit investment decisions. The report categorizes and describes transit benefits and disbenefits, presents the dimensions of transit's economic impact, addresses the linkages between increased transit investment and use, and changes in long-term, region wide economic conditions that can be measured with current analytic methods, and provides examples of transit benefits and disbenefits based on recent analysis.
Transit and Urban Forum
Report Number: R-16
Publication Date: 10/25/1996
This report will be of interest to a broad cross section of individuals involved in transportation and land use planning and development. The research addressed many facets of the relationships between land use and public transportation. These relationships are reexamined, explained, evaluated, and documented to facilitate cost-effective multimodal public transportation investment decisions. The research team, four of which are published in this two-volume report, produced six reports. This volume, Volume 1, contains two of these reports. The first one synthesizes the overall findings and conclusions of TCRP Project H-1, An Examination of the Relationships between Transit and Urban Form, and the existing body of literature on transit and urban form.
Institutional Barriers to Intermodal Transportation Policies and Planning in Metropolitan Areas
Report Number: R-14
Publication Date: 8/15/1996
This report will be of value to those individuals involved in implementing the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), in particular, those involved in planning, approving, and financing intermodal surface passenger transportation projects. The report identifies institutional barriers to intermodal transportation procedures and planning, examines opportunities for improvement, and provides ten strategies to mitigate current barriers and more importantly implement ISTEA.
An Evaluation of the Relationships Between Transit and Urban Form
Report Number: RRD-7
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This TCRP Digest summarizes the results of Phase I of TCRP Project H- 1, An Evaluation of the Relationships Between Transit and Urban Form. The objectives of this phase were to 1) review the existing literature on transit and urban form relations, 2) develop a framework to synthesize this knowledge, 3) identify gaps in current knowledge, and 4) develop the research plan for the balance of the project. This Digest, which brings together the results of more than 30 years of theoretical and practical examinations of transit and urban form relationships, provides a base of knowledge for future planning and decision making.
The Cost of Sprawl-Revisited (see final report R-74)
Report Number: R-39
Publication Date: 11/15/1995
This report will be of interest to individuals involved in ongoing discussions and debates about urban sprawl and its effects. Section I provides a working definition of sprawl and its associated costs, then provides historical discussion, dating back to the early 1920s when zoning acts were initially developed, and to the 1950s when the term sprawl entered the planning literature. Section II contains a Literature Synthesis. This section systematically presents the literature on sprawl in chapters that focus on the following major areas of impact: public/private capital and operating costs; transportation and travel costs; land/natural habitat preservation; quality of life; and social issues. Section III of the report presents annotations of studies, organized in chapters that focus on the same five major impact areas as Section II. While this report will not resolve the debate on the benefits and costs of urban sprawl, it provides an important repository of information for the debaters.