|The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality
Report Number: R-198
Publication Date: 4/4/2018
This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. It documents the development of a quantitative method for characterizing service quality and demonstrates how this quantitative measure varies with changes in asset condition. It provides guidance on how asset condition and transit service quality relate in terms of investment prioritization.
Three Excel spreadsheets–a simplified Effective Journey Time (EJT) Calculator, a comprehensive EJT Calculator, and a worked example demonstrating the use of the comprehensive EJT Calculator—provide quantitative methods. Transit agencies may use this report and tools to better manage existing transit capital assets and make more efficient and effective investment decisions.
Disclaimer - This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively "TRB") be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.
Establishing a National Transit Industry Rail Vehicle Technician Qualification Program - Building for Success
Report Number: R-170
Publication Date: 7/21/2014
This report describes a system of qualification that has been developed for rail vehicle technicians. This qualification system is available for implementation through the Transportation Learning Center. The program integrates national training standards, progressive classroom curricula and introductory courseware, on-the-job learning modules, an apprenticeship framework that combines well-designed sequences of learning, mentoring to support learners, and coordination of classroom and on-the-job learning. The qualification system also includes written and hands-on certification assessments to confirm that technicians have the practical knowledge and skills required to perform their jobs at the highest level of expertise.
Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas
Report Number: S-113
Publication Date: 7/15/2014
This report documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.
Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.
Rail Transit Track Inspection Practices
Report Number: S-107
Publication Date: 5/6/2014
This synthesis offers information across a range of older and newer U.S. rail transit agencies on track inspection practices and policies. Since there are no actual rail track safety or maintenance standards promulgated for transit, this report is designed to help to provide rail transit agencies with information that might help it develop its own set of track safety and maintenance standards. Issues addressed in the report include agency staffing, agency organization and characteristics, track inspection program criteria, training and certification, procurement, and track safety practices.
Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-106
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.
Transforming Public Transportation Institutional and Business Models
Report Number: R-159
Publication Date: 12/14/2012
This report offers strategy for defining and implementing transformative change in institutional and business models, thus facilitating the operation and maintenance of public transportation systems. The report identifies the components of transformative change and examines potential consequences of change.
Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition
Report Number: R-155
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
This report provides guidelines and descriptions for the design of various common types of light rail transit (LRT) track. The track structure types include ballasted track, direct fixation (“ballastless”) track, and embedded track. Characteristics and interfaces of vehicle wheels and rail, tracks and wheel gauges, rail sections, alignments, speeds, and track moduli are considered in this report. The report includes chapters on vehicles, alignment, track structures, track components, special track work, aerial structures/bridges, corrosion control, noise and vibration, signals, traction power, and the integration of LRT track into urban streets.
Elevator and Escalator Maintenance and Safety Practices
Report Number: S-100
Publication Date: 6/8/2012
This synthesis documents elevator and escalator maintenance activities, safety practices, and passenger communication efforts at five U.S. transit agencies. The five agencies where information was gathered are MARTA (Atlanta, Georgia), NYCTA (New York, New York), SEPTA (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), CTA (Chicago, Illinois), and BART (San Francisco, California). These five agencies together operate 1,418 elevators and escalators throughout 850 rail stations. Together, they are part of a U.S. Federal Transit Administration-sponsored consortium with the American Public Transportation Association, Amalgamated Transit Union, and the Learning Center, engaged in developing a Transit Elevator/Escalator Maintenance Training and Apprenticeship Program.
Funding for Infrastructure Maintenance: Achieving and Sustaining a State of Good Repair
Report Number: RRD-101
Publication Date: 6/27/2011
This digest examines how bus and rail agencies and operators in several European cities develop community support for public transportation and how those communities implement sustainable funding strategies for transit assets, operations, and maintenance. The digest is based on the results of a scanning mission performed from June 11 through 25, 2010, under TCRP's International Transit Studies Program.
Transit Agency Compliance with Title VI: Limited English Proficiency Requirements
Report Number: RRD-97
Publication Date: 2/2/2011
This digest explores the legal issues associated with transit operators' limited English proficiency (LEP) compliance efforts. It s designed to serve as a single source of information concerning the development and current status of transit LEP implementation efforts by state and local legislative and operational bodies.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
A Guidebook for the Evaluation of Project Delivery Methods
Report Number: R-131
Publication Date: 5/12/2009
This report examines various project delivery methods for major transit capital projects. The report also explores the impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of including operations and maintenance as a component of a contract for a project delivery method.
Public Transportation's Role in Addressing Global Climate Change
Report Number: RRD-89
Publication Date: 3/25/2009
This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation's role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Design of Track Transitions
Report Number: RRD-79
Publication Date: 10/26/2006
This digest reviews and analyzes various track transition designs among ballasted and nonballasted track forms and structures and offers guidance to improve track and operating performance. The research is based on similar work conducted for freight railroads, modified, as necessary, for the transit operating environment. The results should be of interest to engineers involved in the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of rail transit systems.
Maintenance Staffing Levels for Light Rail Transit
Report Number: S-61
Publication Date: 10/18/2005
This synthesis documents light rail maintenance staffing practices and factors important in their development at U.S. transit agencies, It covers the areas of maintenance functions new light rail start-up, and management in attempting to give better insight into the variables affecting maintenance staffing.
Track-Related Research - Direct-Fixation Track Design Specifications, Research, and Related Material
Report Number: R-71 Volume 6
Publication Date: 10/6/2005
This report provides guidance on the design and construction of direct-fixation track systems. Part A includes sections describing track-design principles and material-evaluation methods for direct-fixation fasteners and tracks, as well as example specifications and commentary for direct-fixation fasteners, direct-fixation fastener qualificationa and production tests, direct-fixation tact construction, and materials used in direct-fixation applications. Part B of the report provides data, evaluations, field reviews, and analyses of direct-fixation fasteners from a variety of sources to understand their characteristics and proper applications more fully.
Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide
Report Number: R-96
Publication Date: 11/6/2003
The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.
Transit Switch Design Analysis (Phase I)
Report Number: R-71 Volume 2
Publication Date: 8/28/2003
Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) modeled the performance of Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), B-IV cars operating over a SEPTA tangential design spiraled geometry Number 8 lateral turnout, an American Railway Engineering Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA) Number 8 lateral turnout with a 13-ft curved switch design, and several variations of these two designs. The study was designed to determine which switch design features contribute to the good performance and long service life of the SEPTA switches. These design elements will be applied to current switch design to develop a low-cost,high-performance switch for future use.
Part-time Transit Operations: The Trends and Impacts
Report Number: R-68
Publication Date: 4/9/2001
This report examine how part-time labor has affected the cost and performance of transit systems over the past 25 years and consider how part-time labor can be meaningfully incorporated into the workforce while avoiding potential negative impacts. This research reflects concern for transit system operating costs, safety, service, reliability, customer satisfaction, labor-management relations, and employee satisfaction.
Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular Safety
Report Number: R-69
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report provides documentation and presents the results of a study to improve the safety of light transit (LRT) in semi-exclusive rights-of-way where light rail vehicles (LRVs) operate at speeds greater than 35 mph through crossings with streets and pedestrians pathways. It also presents the results of field tests conducted to improve the safety of high speed LRT systems through grade crossing design. This report will be useful to LRT system designers, LRT operations and maintenance personnel, transit operations planners, traffic engineers, light rail safety officials, transit managers, and transit law enforcement officials.
Demonstration of Artificial Intelligence Technology for Transit Railcar Diagnostics
Report Number: R-44
Publication Date: 2/15/1999
This report will be of interest to railcar maintenance professionals concerned with improving railcar maintenance fault-diagnostic capabilities through the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. The report documents the results of a demonstration of an AI-based program that acts as a diagnostic assistant for transit railcar propulsion systems. The diagnostic program uses a hybrid AI approach with both model-based reasoning and expert system rules. The AI tool was tested at the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) on direct current chopper propulsion systems of the 3000 series railcars. The system was determined to be easy to use and effective in diagnosing propulsion system faults.
A Desk Guide for Inventory Managers in the Transit Industry
Report Number: RRD-28
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This digest was developed to provide a readily usable reference guide to assist transit managers and staff to better understand, evaluate, and manage inventory. It summaries inventory control techniques appropriate to the transit industry, decision-making techniques, and benchmark references. The final report, which describes the analyses and case studies performed during the course of the project, is available as TCRP Web Document 4 on the Internet at www2.nas.edu/trbcrp.
Rail Corrugation Mitigation in Transit
Report Number: RRD-26
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This digest summarizes the findings from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project D-1, Rail Corrugation Mitigation in Transit. The digest identifies and classifies various types of transit rail corrugation and offers possible mitigation measures for each. The work performed and the resultant findings are summarized. More detailed information is provided in the appendixes. This information will be of particular use to track engineers and others involved in mitigating rail corrugation.
Derailment of Transit Vehicles in Special Trackwork
Report Number: RRD-15
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest provides a summary of the findings from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project D-2, Derailment of Transit Vehicles in Special Trackwork, which was conducted by Zeta-Tech Associates, Inc. This research, completed in 1996, recommended procedures to reduce derailment occurrences. The following methods were found to provide a highly effective and economic means for reducing derailment potentials: use of pre-point guards; use of point protectors; adoption of comprehensive maintenance and inspection standards; use of lubrication; use of spring frogs; use of fully gauge plated switch- point areas; use of spiral switch points; and use of house-top point guards.
Improved Methods for Increasing Wheel/Rail Adhesion in the Presence of Natural Contaminants
Report Number: RRD-17
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest summarizes the findings from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project C-6, Improved Methods for Increasing Wheel/Rail Adhesion in the Presence of Natural Contaminants, which was conducted by Tranergy Corporation. This research, completed in 1996, evaluated current practices for the control of railhead contamination by moisture, ice, and leaves and other vegetation and identified new or modified alternatives to sanding that show promise for improving wheel/ rail adhesion under these conditions. Among these alternatives are debris removal, wheel cleaning, hot air jets, and creep control. The research focused on light rail and commuter rail operations.
Inspection Policy and Procedures for Rail Transit Tunnels and Underground Structures
Report Number: S-23
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers; design, maintenance, and standards engineers; and inspection and maintenance staff. This synthesis describes the current state of the practice for specific management policies and procedures and engineering/physical techniques used to inspect rail transit tunnels and underground structures. It discusses the available data on, different approaches of, and potential data inadequacies for agency rail transit tunnel inspection policies and procedures and inspection techniques.
Wheel/Rail Noise Mitigation
Report Number: RRD-19
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest provides a brief description of the products developed from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project C-3, Wheel/Rail Noise Mitigation, which was conducted by Wilson, Ihrig & Associates, Inc. The research included a comprehensive literature review of wheel/ rail noise control practices; a survey of all North American and selected foreign heavy and light rail transit agencies to ascertain their current wheel/rail noise-mitigation techniques and their related experiences (both good and bad); a compilation of wheel/rail noise- mitigation field test reports from transit agencies and product manufacturers and suppliers; and field tests of several noise- mitigation measures at several transit agencies. From these activities, a Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual and an accompanying software tool were developed.
Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual
Report Number: R-23
Publication Date: 4/30/1997
This manual will be of interest to engineers responsible for wheel/rail noise control in the design, construction, and operation of rail transit systems. It provides practical step-by-step procedures for identifying wheel/rail noise control technologies with demonstrated effectiveness. Procedures are included for identifying wheel/rail noise sources, developing mitigation designs, and estimating probable costs and effectiveness. The manual covers noise generated on tangent track, curved track, and special trackwork. Mitigation measures include onboard, track, and wayside treatments. Accompanying the manual is a user-friendly software package that assists in identifying appropriate noise mitigation techniques for various types of wheel/rail noise. The user is presented with several screens to navigate a decision tree until a set of possible mitigation options is reached. Several sound clips are included to assist the user in determining the type of noise that most closely resembles that which is to be controlled. The software package also provides several calculation worksheets to estimate life-cycle costs and expected noise attenuation for various mitigation measures. The manual is presented in the following ten chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Fundamentals of Acoustics; (3) Design Guidelines; (4) Wheel/Rail Noise Generation; (5) Selection of Noise Control Treatment; (6) Cost Analysis; (7) Onboard Treatments; (8) Trackwork Treatments; (9) Wayside Treatments; and (10) Rail Corrugation Control.
Artificial Intelligence Technology for Transit Railcar Diagnostics
Report Number: R-1
Publication Date: 12/15/1994
This report documents and presents the results of a study to determine the feasibility of applying Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to the diagnosis of transit railcars. The AI techniques investigated were expert systems, case-based reasoning, model-based reasoning, artificial neural networks, computer vision, fuzzy logic, and a procedural knowledge-based system. Site surveys were conducted at transit railcar maintenance facilities and at railcar subsystem suppliers. The site surveys gathered information about current and future diagnostic and maintenance practices, possible barriers to implementing advanced AI technology, and maintenance cost data.
Automatic Wheel Inspection Station
Report Number: IDEA-03
An automated railroad wheel profile inspection system designed to measure wheel profiles at operating speeds using a laser scanning technology was developed and trial tested in a bench-scale demonstration. A Transit IDEA product report was published in October 1995. In Stage 1, preliminary specifications and hardware design for the system, including layout and component specifications, were completed. Several laser sensors have been tested on actual railroad wheel segments to determine the overall feasibility of the proposed approach. A bench-scale inspection station system was designed, fabricated, and tested in the laboratory. In Stage 2, in-house trial tests of the system in simulated railroad conditions were performed and operational durability and reliability of the system examined. The cost-effectiveness was assessed and an operating design of the system for routine application by transit operators was developed.