|Technology Contracting for Transit Projects
Report Number: LRD-51
Publication Date: 9/3/2017
This report examines issues that transit attorneys should be aware of when drafting technology contracts. It addresses how provisions differ depending on the nature of the contract, the type of technology being procured, and whether the system is controlled internally or externally by the agency. Specific focus is given to cloud computing as an alternative delivery mode, and indemnification. This digest also discusses federal, state, and local industry standards regarding liability and warranties, and the contract language that should be used to protect against data breaches, including inadvertent release of personal information.
Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-106
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.
Use of Electronic Passenger Information Signage in Transit
Report Number: S-104
Publication Date: 6/4/2013
This synthesis documents U.S. and international use of electronic passenger information signage in terms of the underlying technology, sign technology, characteristics of the information, resources required, and decision processes used to determine its use.
Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation
Report Number: S-99
Publication Date: 5/3/2012
This report explores the use of social media among transit agencies and documents successful practices in the United States and Canada. For the purposes of the report, social media are defined as a group of web-based applications that encourage users to interact with one another, such as blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Foursquare, and MySpace.
Sustainable Public Transportation: Environmentally Friendly Mobility
Report Number: RRD-103
Publication Date: 12/12/2011
This digest is an overview of an international study mission that explored how public transportation systems in several cities in India and China have implemented plans, policies, technologies, and strategies for creating more livable communities through bus, metro, bus rapid transit, rail, and light rail systems. The Indian and Chinese systems visited were designed to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, lower operating costs, and provide safe and accessible transportation services.
Use and Deployment of Mobile Device Technology for Real-Time Transit Information
Report Number: S-91
Publication Date: 11/11/2011
This synthesis examines the use and deployment of real-time transit information on mobile devices. It explores the underlying technology required to generate the information to be disseminated, the mobile technology used for dissemination, the characteristics of the information, the resources required to successfully deploy information on mobile devices, and the contribution of mobile messaging to an overall agency communications strategy, including â€œinformation equity.â€
Guidelines for Guard/Restraining Rail Installation
Report Number: R-71 Volume 7
Publication Date: 2/5/2010
This report explores two guard rail installation philosophies and the effects of vehicle types, wheel flange angle, wheel/rail friction coefficient, curve radius, cant deficiency, and track perturbation on flange climb derailments.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Transit, Call Centers, and 511: A Guide for Decision Makers
Report Number: R-134
Publication Date: 8/20/2009
This report explores the operational characteristics of 511 telephone traveler information systems and examines how 511 systems interact with transit system call centers. This report inventories existing 511 systems throughout the country, documents the extent of transit participation and transit agency experiences with 511, and presents guidance to assist transit agencies and 511 system administrators in determining a transit-511 telephone strategy.
Public Transportation's Role in Addressing Global Climate Change
Report Number: RRD-89
Publication Date: 3/25/2009
This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation's role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.
Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner's Guide
Report Number: R-130
Publication Date: 3/2/2009
This report examines a business case for the shared use of non-Federal Railroad Administration-compliant public transit rail vehicles (e.g., light rail vehicles) with freight operations and highlights a business model for such shared-use operations. This report also explores potential advantages and disadvantages of shared-use operations and the issues and barriers that can arise in the course of implementation.
Light Rail Vehicle Collisions with Vehicles at Signalized Intersections
Report Number: S-79
Publication Date: 2/24/2009
This report presents the mitigation methods tested and used by transit agencies to reduce collisions between light rail vehicles (LRVs) and motor vehicles where light rail transit (LRT) runs through or adjacent to highway intersections controlled by conventional traffic signals. A particular focus is placed on collisions occurring between LRVs and vehicles making left-hand turns at these intersections. This report offers success stories and specific actions to achieve positive results, as well as examples of unsuccessful actions. The issues addressed include a range of LRT operations and environments such as median-running, side-running, contra-flow, and mixed-use LRT alignments; urban and suburban setting; and a variety of U.S. geographic regions.
Passenger Counting Systems
Report Number: S-77
Publication Date: 1/28/2009
This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Leveraging ITS Data for Transit Market Research: A Practitioner's Guidebook
Report Number: R-126
Publication Date: 7/8/2008
This publication describes currently used intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and Transit ITS technologies that have the greatest promise for transit market research. This guidebook documents ITS and Transit ITS technologies currently in use, assesses their potential to provide market research data, and presents methods for collecting and analyzing these data. Also, the guidebook provides three in-depth case studies that illustrate how ITS data have been successfully used to improve market research practices.
Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards
Report Number: LRD-25
Publication Date: 5/12/2008
This publication examines basic privacy issues associated with the acquisition and storage of financial and trip data associated with the use of a transit smart card. The report explores who can access the data collected, what data may be accessed and under what conditions, and how the information can be used.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 13
Publication Date: 10/15/2007
This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.
Rail Passenger Safety: Equipment and Technologies
Report Number: RRD-85
Publication Date: 8/30/2007
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated European rail safety programs. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the observations of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.
Mobile Data Terminals
Report Number: S-70
Publication Date: 6/4/2007
This report contains information about the rapidly changing wireless communications infrastructure that supports mobile date terminal deployment in transit. It reflects state-of-the-practice information from selected transit agencies surveyed across the United States, as well as very specific information on the capability of mobile data computers offered by technology vendors to the industry.
Smartcard Interoperability Issues for the Transit Industry
Report Number: R-115
Publication Date: 1/30/2007
This report defines interoperability; identifies key information needed by public agencies to implement smartcard payment systems interoperability; describes the necessary information flows; and outlines a set of functions needed for a standard public domain application programming interface that may be used in the development of a uniform application protocol data unit (APDU).
Design of Track Transitions
Report Number: RRD-79
Publication Date: 10/26/2006
This digest reviews and analyzes various track transition designs among ballasted and nonballasted track forms and structures and offers guidance to improve track and operating performance. The research is based on similar work conducted for freight railroads, modified, as necessary, for the transit operating environment. The results should be of interest to engineers involved in the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of rail transit systems.
Track-Related Research - Direct-Fixation Track Design Specifications, Research, and Related Material
Report Number: R-71 Volume 6
Publication Date: 10/6/2005
This report provides guidance on the design and construction of direct-fixation track systems. Part A includes sections describing track-design principles and material-evaluation methods for direct-fixation fasteners and tracks, as well as example specifications and commentary for direct-fixation fasteners, direct-fixation fastener qualificationa and production tests, direct-fixation tact construction, and materials used in direct-fixation applications. Part B of the report provides data, evaluations, field reviews, and analyses of direct-fixation fasteners from a variety of sources to understand their characteristics and proper applications more fully.
Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture
Report Number: R-84 Volume 5
Publication Date: 10/25/2004
TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.
Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide
Report Number: R-96
Publication Date: 11/6/2003
The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.
Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook
Report Number: R-86 Volume 4
Publication Date: 10/15/2003
This report is designed to address transit agencies' needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.
Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update
Report Number: R-94
Publication Date: 10/13/2003
This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.
E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation - Advanced Features of Transit Websites
Report Number: R-84 Volume 4
Publication Date: 5/28/2003
This report explores the potential of the following advanced website features for the transit industry: automated intinerary planning systems, real-time transit information, e-mail notification, and the application of custoemr relationship management concepts to these services. It provides an overview of the implementation, technology, value creation, lessons learned, and best practices associated with web-based advanced features.
Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification
Report Number: R-84 Volume 3
Publication Date: 3/5/2003
This report is the third volume in the TCRP Report 84 series, it is the result of an investigation into the potential of web-based training (WBT) as a means of providing effective, high-quality training to the transit industry. A key source of information in the study was a panel of subject matter experts (SMEs), each of whom has expertise and experience in some combination of transportation training, WBT, and intelligent transportation systems. The study findings are included.
E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation Volume 2 -- Application Service Provider Implementation
Report Number: R-84 Volume 2
Publication Date: 12/19/2002
This report will be published as multiple volumes; Volume 2: Application Service Provide Implementation Guidelines presents the results of an investigation into the use of application service providers (ASPs) and thin client computing technologies by transit agencies. The characteristics and market position of ASPs were investigated, and the strengths and market position of ASPs were investigated, and the strengths and weaknesses of this computing serivce model were identified. The ASPs business model provides a viable alternative for transit agencies seeking to add new or replace existing computing services.
Second Train Coming Warning Sign Demonstration Projects
Report Number: RRD-51
Publication Date: 10/12/2002
A challenging problem that many light rail systems face is the "second train coming" phenomenon on double track crossings. A second train frequently activates the grade crossing equipment within seconds after the first train has activated the grade crossing circuits, thus creating a situation in which two trains pass through the grade crossing within seconds of each other which could be very confusing and potentially dangerous to motorists and pedestrains. This digest provides the results of two demonstrations of active sign warning systems that could increase awareness of and compliance with the conditions of the second train coming phenomenon.
Communication of Threats: A Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 01
Publication Date: 9/5/2002
This is the first volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume offers information on a variety of approaches to improving the sharing of the threat information. Current practices, operational needs, technologies for threat information dissemination, and system functional requirements are discussed. Effective strategies for sharing analyzed and unanalyzed reports of suspicious activities and a path to an interoperable set of national, regional, and local threat-information forums are proposed.
Consensus Standards for the Rail Transit Industry
Report Number: RRD-44
Publication Date: 12/1/2001
This digest provides information on the successful implementation of a comprehensive standards process for the rail transit industry using American National Standards Institute (ANSI) consensus procedures under the aegis of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
Wheel and Rail Vibration Absorber Testing and Demonstration
Report Number: R-67
Publication Date: 6/7/2001
This report provides practical step-by-step procedures for identifying wheel/rail noise control technologies with demonstrated effectiveness. Procedures are included for identifying wheel/rail noise sources, developing mitigation designs, and estimating probable costs and effectiveness of control provisions.
Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit
Report Number: R-57
Publication Date: 3/9/2000
This report identifies and discusses issues associated with joint operation focusing on the current regulatory and institutional environment, railroad and rail transit operations, infrastructure, and rolling stock. It also examines issues relevant to the safe operation of rail transit services with railroads; prioritizes the most critical issues affecting joint operations using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles, that do not meet current U.S. railroad regulation standards, or practices. It offers potential guidance on the most critical issues pertaining to implementing joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles. This report will be of interest to transit managers, planning and operations professionals, policy makers, and others interested in the potential for joint operations of light rail transit (LRT) or lightweight diesel multiple unit (DMU) vehicles with freight and/or passenger railroads.
The Role of Transit Amenities and Vehicle Characteristics in Building Transit Ridership
Report Number: R-046
Publication Date: 12/28/1999
This report consists of a Handbook and a Workbook. The Handbook identifies and describes passenger amenities and transit vehicle characteristics that attract ridership and explores how amenities may affect ridership. The Workbook includes information gathered from passenger surveys, focus groups, discussion sessions, and transit agency staff on the effect of recently implemented transit amenities on passengers. As a companion to the Workbook, a disk, The Transit Design Game, enables transit agencies to survey their customers about their priorities for enhancements and estimate the potential effect of enhancements on ridership.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-37
Publication Date: 12/1/1999
This digest is a staff digest of the progress and status of the Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems for which the Transportation Research Board conducts its research.
Improved Methods for Increasing Wheel/Rail Adhesion in the Presence of Natural Contaminants
Report Number: RRD-17
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest summarizes the findings from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project C-6, Improved Methods for Increasing Wheel/Rail Adhesion in the Presence of Natural Contaminants, which was conducted by Tranergy Corporation. This research, completed in 1996, evaluated current practices for the control of railhead contamination by moisture, ice, and leaves and other vegetation and identified new or modified alternatives to sanding that show promise for improving wheel/ rail adhesion under these conditions. Among these alternatives are debris removal, wheel cleaning, hot air jets, and creep control. The research focused on light rail and commuter rail operations.
Wheel/Rail Noise Mitigation
Report Number: RRD-19
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest provides a brief description of the products developed from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project C-3, Wheel/Rail Noise Mitigation, which was conducted by Wilson, Ihrig & Associates, Inc. The research included a comprehensive literature review of wheel/ rail noise control practices; a survey of all North American and selected foreign heavy and light rail transit agencies to ascertain their current wheel/rail noise-mitigation techniques and their related experiences (both good and bad); a compilation of wheel/rail noise- mitigation field test reports from transit agencies and product manufacturers and suppliers; and field tests of several noise- mitigation measures at several transit agencies. From these activities, a Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual and an accompanying software tool were developed.
Procurement Specification Guidelines for Mass Transit Vehicle Window Glazing
Report Number: R-15
Publication Date: 9/15/1996
This final report documents findings of a study concerning the enhancement of durability and vandal resistance of transit vehicle passenger-side windows. This report includes background information on the durability of transparent window materials. Also included are results and analyses of surveys of selected domestic and foreign transit authorities, surveys of window manufacturers serving the transit industry, surveys of window manufacturers serving other industries, surveys of research organizations serving the transit industry, and surveys of transit vehicle manufacturers. The focus of these surveys was to define window issues for the transit industry, with special focus on current practices, durability and vandalism issues, and existent or emerging technologies including material solutions or preventative measures, which result in longer lasting more durable transit glazing systems.
Impact of Radio Frequency Refarming on Transit Communications
Report Number: R-11
Publication Date: 3/15/1996
This report will be of interest to general managers, operations managers, and communications specialists responsible for communications systems within transit and paratransit organizations. The report provides information concerning the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules governing the refarming of the land mobile radio spectrum and their impacts on current and future transit communication system requirements. The report contains a non-technical executive summary that describes the rules issued in June 1995 by the FCC regarding the refarming of radio frequencies, provides an overview of the impacts of radio frequency refarming, and offers potential courses of action for transit and paratransit systems. In addition, the report provides more detailed technical information for communications specialists, and includes several examples of potential cost impacts to transit and paratransit systems.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-8
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This staff digest summarizes the progress and status of TCRP Project J- 7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Included in this digest are tables listing (1) Synthesis Studies in progress as of December 1995, (2) Members of TCRP Project Committee J-7, (3) Published TCRP Syntheses, and (4) Index to Syntheses and Studies.
Reducing the Visual Impact of Overhead Contact Systems
Report Number: R-7
Publication Date: 9/15/1995
This report defines Overhead Contact Systems (OCSs) and describes the function of OCSs for trolleybus and light rail systems. The report describes non-intrusive and intrusive designs, considering the overall visual impact of those designs on intersections or street segments and the complete effect that hardware has in any given location. It discusses the influence system design has on visual impact including the need for emergency wire and the use of one-way operation to minimize visual impact in trolleybus systems. Further, it investigates how the turning capability in trolleybus and light rail OCS design may have an effect on visual impact. The report considers the effect of curve design and the design of the electrical distribution systems on the appearance of light rail. An approach to evaluating the visual impact of trolleybus intersections is presented. This report concludes that the visual impact of OCSs can only be reduced if such reduction is made a specific goal throughout the design process.
Aids for Rail Car Side-Door Observation
Report Number: R-4
Publication Date: 6/15/1995
Ensuring that rail car doors are clear before closing and train station departure has always been a significant safety issue in daily mass transit operations. Various approaches exist for performing side-door observation. These approaches range from the use of strictly manual procedures implemented by one or more persons to the use of automated observation aid devices specifically designed for the purpose. This report presents the findings of a research program designed to: a) evaluate current door observation practices and procedures and assess how they relate to transit property characteristics, such as facilities, vehicle configurations, and operating procedures; b) identify the range and scope of existing observation aids and assess their merits relative to their specific applications; c) identify promising observation technologies and define conceptual observation aids based on them; and d) develop guidelines for transit system use in the selection and implementation of observation aids for their specific application
Automatic Wheel Inspection Station
Report Number: IDEA-03
An automated railroad wheel profile inspection system designed to measure wheel profiles at operating speeds using a laser scanning technology was developed and trial tested in a bench-scale demonstration. A Transit IDEA product report was published in October 1995. In Stage 1, preliminary specifications and hardware design for the system, including layout and component specifications, were completed. Several laser sensors have been tested on actual railroad wheel segments to determine the overall feasibility of the proposed approach. A bench-scale inspection station system was designed, fabricated, and tested in the laboratory. In Stage 2, in-house trial tests of the system in simulated railroad conditions were performed and operational durability and reliability of the system examined. The cost-effectiveness was assessed and an operating design of the system for routine application by transit operators was developed.
Designing Transit Services for the Mode-Choice Market Stage III Planning
Report Number: IDEA-26
This project developed a "mobility index" that is a function of trip time by which to measure and map mobility in a metropolitan region for both auto and transit modes, as well as to identify opportunities and evaluate transit improvements for their impact on regional mobility. This includes a complementary market positioning exercise for mode-choice-focused transit services, employing focus groups and an ethnographic analytical methodology for identifying the explicit "bellwether" segment of the mode-choice market. The research uses the San Diego metropolitan area for a test bed, in collaboration with the major transit agency, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board(MTDB), and local and regional agencies, including the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Please note: This project is still in progress.
Optimizing Travel Path for People with Disabilities
Report Number: IDEA-23
This project developed a method for people with various types of disabilities to review barriers to travel before embarking on a transit trip so they can plan their routes to more easily reach destinations surrounding transit stations. The research analyzed typical travel barriers for the disabled around transit access points. A database of physical landscapes and barriers was developed and a prototype transit accessibility mapping system was implemented. An interactive 3D model in a CD format for presenting the accessibility information was demonstrated. The model is based on Metrolink light rail transit stops in the St. Louis, Missouri, region.