|Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies
Report Number: R-204
Publication Date: 4/16/2019
This report is designed to help transit agencies that have decided to pursue partnerships with one or more TNCs. The report provides information on where, when, and how partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs should be considered and pursued.
As new mobility service providers emerge, many public transit agencies have partnered, or are in the process of partnering, with such providers. Among these providers are TNCs. While partnerships between transit agencies and private mobility providers are not new, partnerships with TNCs create unique opportunities and challenges as both parties work toward mutually beneficial program models.
This report provides 20 in-depth case studies of partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs. Its Partnership Playbook synthesizes lessons learned from these case studies and provides step-by-step practical guidance for transit practitioners on how they should be considered and pursued.
The report also provides an up-to-date guide on partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs in all stages of development and realization. It covers partnerships developed with several target markets in mind, including:
- First/last-mile connections to transit;
- Customers of ADA Paratransit and Demand-Response Services;
- People traveling in lower density environments;
- People with late night travel needs; and
- People with occasional trip needs (e.g. guaranteed ride home).
Microtransit or General Public Demand–Response Transit Services: State of the Practice
Report Number: S-141
Publication Date: 4/4/2019
This report provides an overview of the current state of the practice of transit systems that are directly providing general public demand–response or microtransit with their own vehicles and personnel or using a traditional contractor.
The report presents a literature review and results from a survey of 22 transit agencies that have had current experiences with microtransit. Case examples of five transit systems are provided. These case examples present in-depth analyses of the processes and considerations, challenges, lessons learned, and keys to success.
Contracting Fixed-Route Bus Transit Service
Report Number: S-136
Publication Date: 4/25/2018
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This report documents the state of the practice in contracting bus services. Today many transit agencies contract out their fixed-route bus transit services; however, there is not enough research that focuses on the procurement and oversight process of these contracts. This synthesis will assist transit agencies in their decision-making process as they consider contracting fixed-route transit services instead of directly operating the service. The report is accompanied by Appendix G, which is available online only.
ADA Paratransit Service Models
Report Number: S-135
Publication Date: 4/17/2018
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This report provides information about current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant paratransit service models and the underlying reasons why specific transit agencies have opted to keep or change their service model. ADA paratransit demand continues to grow while resources are dwindling. For that reason, transit agencies nationwide are exploring service models to more effectively meet present and future demand. This synthesis study explains available service delivery models to date, and documents the way various elements of the service and contracts are structured to enhance the likelihood of achieving certain results related to cost efficiency, service quality, or the balance of the two.
Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)
Report Number: R-191 (Final Report)
Publication Date: 6/29/2017
This report serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives.
A P3 Project Screening Checklist
, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, accompanies the guidebook and may assist transit agencies with screening and evaluating a P3 initiative.
Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit
Report Number: R-188
Publication Date: 9/15/2016
This report examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand-responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. Additionally, it examines issues and explores opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes.
Practices for Establishing ADA Paratransit Eligibility Assessment Facilities
Report Number: S-116
Publication Date: 3/24/2015
This synthesis examines practices that transit agencies use to determine if a user is eligible for paratransit under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Specifically, it reviews the processes, facilities, equipment, and tools used by transit agencies, through data collection that included in-person interviews and functional assessments.
Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume 1: Transit Integrtion Manual
Report Number: R-173
Publication Date: 1/8/2015
This Manual provides guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple transit providers. The report accompanies TCRP Report 173, Volume II: Research Report. Together, these documents demonstrate benefits of transit integration; illustrate the range of potential types of integration activities; and describe procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success.
Travel Training for Older Adults Part II: Research Report and Case Studies
Report Number: R-168 Volume II
Publication Date: 9/13/2014
This report, Part II presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. This supplemental research report reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.
The Handbook, Part I, addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.
Travel Training for Older Adults Part 1: A Handbook and Part II: Research and Case Studies
Report Number: R-168
Publication Date: 9/3/2014
This report, Part I: A Handbook presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It also addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program and provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.
The supplemental research report, Part II, reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.
Use of Mobility Devices on Paratransit Vehicles and Buses
Report Number: R-171
Publication Date: 8/11/2014
This report describes the current and emerging issues which limit the use of mobility devices in paratransit vehicles and buses, and includes a guidance document to assist transit systems, manufacturers, and transit users in the implementation of potential accessible design and accommodation solutions for the short and long term.
Paratransit Emergency Preparedness and Operations Handbook
Report Number: R-160
Publication Date: 2/8/2013
This report includes guidance, strategies, tools, and resources to help paratransit service providers plan, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a range of emergencies. The guidance has applicability to urban, suburban, rural, and tribal paratransit operating environments. A power point presentation describing the entire project for this report is on the TRB website at www.trb.org.
Innovative Rural Transit Services
Report Number: S-94
Publication Date: 12/2/2011
This synthesis highlights transit and rural intercity bus service responses to changing rural community transportation needs. The report includes an emphasis on the innovative and/or entrepreneurial spirit, the innovator, and the conditions required for innovation.
Guidebook for Recruiting, Developing, and Retaining Transit Managers for Fixed-Route Bus and Paratransit Systems
Report Number: R-139
Publication Date: 9/13/2010
This report explores resources for fixed-route bus, general public demand response, and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) paratransit systems resources to assist in the recruitment, development, and retention of managers. The Guidebook is accompanied by CRP-CD-77, which provides Model Job Descriptions for 32 broad job titles that indicate the structure and content for job descriptions for manager jobs. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB's website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided.
Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations
Report Number: R-142
Publication Date: 9/9/2010
This report provides guidance for understanding the relationships that influence and enhance operator recruitment, retention, and performance in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit services. Appendixes to TCRP Report 142 were published electronically as TCRP Web-Only Document 50: Survey Instrument, Productivity Charts, and Interview Protocol for Case Studies for TCRP Report 142.
A Guide for Planning and Operating Flexible Public Transportation Services
Report Number: R-140
Publication Date: 7/26/2010
This report explores the types of flexible transportation service strategies that are potentially appropriate for small, medium, and large urban and rural transit agencies. It also examines financial and political realities, operational issues, and institutional mechanisms related to implementing and sustaining flexible transportation services.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Transit, Call Centers, and 511: A Guide for Decision Makers
Report Number: R-134
Publication Date: 8/20/2009
This report explores the operational characteristics of 511 telephone traveler information systems and examines how 511 systems interact with transit system call centers. This report inventories existing 511 systems throughout the country, documents the extent of transit participation and transit agency experiences with 511, and presents guidance to assist transit agencies and 511 system administrators in determining a transit-511 telephone strategy.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services
Report Number: S-76
Publication Date: 12/4/2008
This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.
Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas
Report Number: R-127
Publication Date: 8/21/2008
This report explores salary and benefit characteristics of transit systems in rural and small urban areas. An interactive computer tool, produced as part of this project, is available online and is designed to allow transit managers to quickly and easily obtain compensation and benefit data from comparable transit systems.
AVL Systems for Bus Transit: Update
Report Number: S-73
Publication Date: 5/20/2008
This publication explores the uses of computer-aided dispatch/automatic vehicle location (CAD/AVL) systems in fixed-route and demand-responsive services (bus AVL), as well as changes in agency practices related to the use of AVL systems.
Toolkit for Integrating Non-Dedicated Vehicles in Paratransit Service
Report Number: R-121
Publication Date: 3/4/2008
This report can be used to determine the appropriate split between dedicated and non-dedicated paratransit services to increase cost-effectiveness and meet peak demand needs. This report includes a Non-Dedicated Vehicle Optimization Model and User Manual. The NDV model can be used to assist with making decisions regarding appropriate serivce ratios for specific conditions and environments.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation
Report Number: R-119
Publication Date: 12/11/2007
This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.
Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifications, and Needs
Report Number: S-71
Publication Date: 11/21/2007
This synthesis documents current requirements for being a paratransit manager and actual experiences of current paratransit managers in their positions. Transit mangers, policy makers, educators, trainers, human resource directors, and stakeholders, as well as current and future paratransit professionals, will find the results valuable in determining action steps needed to enhance the profession and paratransit service delivery. In addition, it offers information from general managers, chief operating officers, and paratransit advisory committees about college degrees desired and guidance offered aspiring paratransit managers. Technology proficiency and knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act were identified as the most needed skills. College educations were recommended by a majority of the professionals, with business management identified as the most desirable area of study; however, aside from this, successes in the field were attributed to specifics such as ethics, customer relations, communications, management and supervision, and sensitivity.
The Americans with Disabilities Act: The Federal Transit Administration's Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments
Report Number: LRD-23
Publication Date: 9/17/2007
This document consists of findings, decisions, and five compliance assessments interpreting or pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments includes FTA interpretations of Part III of the ADA, which pertains to public accommodations and transportation. FTA interpretations can be in letter findings, decisions on complaints, and compliance assessments. FTA's interpretations are available for download as an ISO image.
Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services
Report Number: R-116
Publication Date: 11/13/2006
TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.
Toolkit for Rural Community Coordinated Transportation Services
Report Number: R-101
Publication Date: 8/19/2004
This report examines strategies and practices used to coordinate rural transportation services and identifies model processes used for local coordination efforts in rural communities. It also identifies ways to improve ongoing coordination efforts and documents the critical factors that help determine success or failure in establishing sustainable rural public transportation services. This report includes a stand-alone executive sumary that provides information, instructions,and lessons learned from rural communities that have implemented coordinated transportation services.
Effective Approaches to Meeting Rural Intercity Bus Transportation Needs
Report Number: R-79
Publication Date: 10/23/2002
This report will be of interest to individuals who plan, fund, market, or operate rural intercity bus transportation services. The research report is a valuable resource that addresses funding for intercity bus projects; discusses barriers to implementation; and identifies strategies for initiating, preserving, and enhancing effective intercity bus transportation. The report consists of three parts. Part 1 addresses Rural Intercity Bus Transportation Needs, Funding, and Program Issues. Part II addresses Strategies to Improve and Support Intercity Bus Services. Part III addresses Detailed Project Descriptions.
Transportation on College and University Campuses
Report Number: S-39
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This report offers survey information from 30 campus transit agencies including insights into the lessons learned and issues related to planning, implementing, and operating campus transit service. The focus is on the recent trend toward unlimited access funding systems for campus transit service, whereby students, faculty, staff, and in some cases, nonuniversity-affiliated residents of a campus community are afforded unlimited use of transit service without paying a fare.
Analyzing the Costs of Operating Small Transit Vehicles
Report Number: R-61
Publication Date: 8/28/2000
This User's Guide explains the accompanying Small Transit Vehicle economics (STVe) model -- a tool designed for transit planners and others making decisions about the purchase of small transit vehicles for different services and operating environments. The User's Guide describes how to run the model and interpret its results.
Characteristics of Urban Travel Demand
Report Number: R-73
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report presents a comprehensive set of data on urban travel demand and constitutes an update of previous editions of the Characteristics of Urban Travel Demand (CUTD), published in 1978 and then in 1988. This is a companion report to two other volumes: Characteristics of Urban Transportation Systems (CUTD) last updated in 1992, and Traveler Response to Transportation Systems Changes, updated in 2000. These three references taken together are intended to provide a ready resource for information about urban transportation system characteristics.
Guidebook for Change and Innovation at Rural and Small Urban Transit Systems
Report Number: R-70
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report presented in the form of a guidebook, provides a valuable resource to many people who may implement or adapt new concepts to improve public transportation in their community. This guidebook identified and compiled initiatives and innovations that improved transit service in rural and small urban communities, focusing on productivity, efficienty and quality. In addition, the guidebook presents more than 40 successful, creative strategies that have been implemented.
Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation
Report Number: R-55
Publication Date: 9/14/1999
These guidelines identify, assess, and document the current practices that transit operators use to enhance their bus networks to better serve suburban travel needs. Taking into consideration the range of environments implied by the term "suburb", the guidelines identify six types of suburban environments and the applicability of individual types of transit service to each.
ADA Paratransit Eligibility Certification Practices
Report Number: S-30
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This report describes the complexities involved in creating an accurate eligibility determination process that complies with ADA requirements and is regionally and politically feasible to implement. This study documents the range of out-comes produced by the different eligibility certification models and offers information about their overall effectiveness. This report also focuses on the range of eligibility certification models that have been adopted nationwide. It presents information in order to generate new approaches for transit agencies attempting to enhance existing procedures. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, the appropriate special services staffs, and any others dealings with ADA paratransit eligibility certification on behalf of transit agencies.
Coordinating Public Transportation with Other Federal Programs
Report Number: RRD-23
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This digest identifies and briefly describes federal programs that can fund passenger transportation for various purposes. Opportunities for coordination of services provided under these programs are discussed and highlighted by case studies of successful coordination. The disadvantages to coordination are discussed, and topics for further research are proposed. This digest was written as part of TCRP Project J-6, Quick Response for Special Needs.
Paratransit Contracting and Service Delivery Methods
Report Number: S-31
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, their special services planning staffs, as well as to any others dealing with transit agencies' provision of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) paratransit services. It offers information from selected transit agencies about the operational practices used to provide ADA paratransit services and identifies factors perceived by transit personnel to have influenced the selection of service delivery methodology. It focuses on the state of the practice in paratransit contracting and service delivery methods to comply with ADA paratransit provisions. This report of the Transportation Research Board was designed to provide insight on the range of contracting experiences to date, as well as on the range of agency assessments of efficiency and effectiveness of contract arrangements and of the factors influencing methodology selection.
Assessment of the Economic Impacts of Rural Public Transportation
Report Number: R-34
Publication Date: 7/15/1998
Almost 1,200 public transportation systems now exist in rural communities across the United States and receive Federal funding. Many of these systems have been in operation since the 1970s and 1980s, but their economic impacts have seldom been quantified. This report examines the economic impacts of selected rural public transportation services at the local level through case studies, and it estimates the national economic impact of rural public transportation on an average annual per county basis. This report will be of interest to state and local transportation planners, analysts, and decision-makers to assist them in matters pertaining to the introduction and expansion of public transportation services in rural areas.
Integrating Americans with Disabilities Act Paratransit Service and Health and Human Service Transportation
Report Number: RRD-10
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
Public transit operators have to be in full compliance with all service criteria for the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) paratransit services by January 1997. This digest will help public transit operators coordinate ADA paratransit and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) transportation programs in an ongoing effort to reduce the cost of providing ADA services. It explains the impact of the implementation of ADA paratransit requirements on public and human services transportation, presents an overview of federal and state coordination activities, and summarizes selected ADA/HHS coordination models.
Guidebook to Attracting Paratransit Patrons to Fixed-Route Services
Report Number: R-24
Publication Date: 6/15/1997
This Guidebook will be of interest to transit managers and planners in transit systems that provide complementary paratransit services under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Paratransit services are more expensive to provide on a per-trip basis than fixed-route transit, so operating efficiencies could be achieved by attracting some paratransit riders to fixed route.
A Handbook for Acquiring Demand-Responsive Transit Software
Report Number: R-18
Publication Date: 11/16/1996
This report is one of three written products developed under the project. It is intended to advise providers of demand-responsive transit (DRT) services, computer software and other technology appropriate for DRT applications and assist software vendors in understanding the market for DRT software and technologies. Specifically, this Handbook is intended to assist providers in the selection, acquisition, and implementation of software for DRT operations and administration. It contains a good deal of introductory material on DRT service intended to provide a background for describing the acquisition process.
Users' Manual for Assessing Service-Delivery Systems for Rural Passenger Transportation
Report Number: R-6
Publication Date: 8/15/1995
Which rural transportation services are appropriate for particular types of rural communities? After many years of rural transit operations, this question remains unanswered. The need to make publicly sponsored rural passenger transportation services efficient and effective is even greater than before. Designing services that are closely tailored to the needs and resources of their specific communities can significantly increase efficiency and effectiveness. Service models and planning methods developed for urban transportation systems do not apply to rural areas. Differences between successful rural and small urban transportation systems and their counterparts in large urban areas are enormous, due in part to rural populations which still contain proportionally more persons who are aged, disabled, and low income than do urban populations. From the first days of publicly- funded rural transportation, successful rural transportation operations have applied hard work and common sense to four key areas: realistic financing, reasonable objectives, appropriate service, and broad-based service delivery and community support. Still, no detailed methodology has yet been produced to specify what services are appropriate for particular rural communities. This project rectifies that deficiency with a manual of recommended methods and a computer-based software package, incorporating demographic and transportation data, which allows local planners and operators to identify and analyze transportation operations in similar rural communities.
Successful Risk Management for Ridesharing and Carpool-Matching Programs
Report Number: LRD-2
Publication Date: 10/12/1994
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Russell Leibson and William Penner, is organized as follows: (A) Introduction; (B) Public and Private Rideshare Programs; ( C) Legal Liability; (D) Statutory Limitations on Liability; (E) Insurance; (F) Strategies to Minimize Potential Tort Liability; and (G) Conclusions. A bibliography is included and Appendix A presents a chart which summarizes state laws affecting rideshare arrangements.
Designing Transit Services for the Mode-Choice Market Stage III Planning
Report Number: IDEA-26
This project developed a "mobility index" that is a function of trip time by which to measure and map mobility in a metropolitan region for both auto and transit modes, as well as to identify opportunities and evaluate transit improvements for their impact on regional mobility. This includes a complementary market positioning exercise for mode-choice-focused transit services, employing focus groups and an ethnographic analytical methodology for identifying the explicit "bellwether" segment of the mode-choice market. The research uses the San Diego metropolitan area for a test bed, in collaboration with the major transit agency, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board(MTDB), and local and regional agencies, including the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Please note: This project is still in progress.
Evaluation of Economic Feasibility and Innovative Payment Plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN)
Report Number: IDEA-18
This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.
Optimizing Travel Path for People with Disabilities
Report Number: IDEA-23
This project developed a method for people with various types of disabilities to review barriers to travel before embarking on a transit trip so they can plan their routes to more easily reach destinations surrounding transit stations. The research analyzed typical travel barriers for the disabled around transit access points. A database of physical landscapes and barriers was developed and a prototype transit accessibility mapping system was implemented. An interactive 3D model in a CD format for presenting the accessibility information was demonstrated. The model is based on Metrolink light rail transit stops in the St. Louis, Missouri, region.