TCRP Publications by Category

TCRP Publications by Category2019-10-11T22:15:20-04:00

The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality

Report Number: R-198

Publication Date: 4/4/2018

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This report documents the development of a quantitative method for characterizing service quality and demonstrates how this quantitative measure varies with changes in asset condition. It provides guidance on how asset condition and transit service quality relate in terms of investment prioritization.Three Excel spreadsheets–a simplified Effective Journey Time (EJT) Calculator, a comprehensive EJT Calculator, and a worked example demonstrating the use of the comprehensive EJT Calculator—provide quantitative methods. Transit agencies may use this report and tools to better manage existing transit capital assets and make more efficient and effective investment decisions.Disclaimer – This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively “”TRB””) be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.


Tools for a Sustainable Transit Agency

Report Number: R-197

Publication Date: 2/27/2018

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This report explores the development of two practical tools for improving sustainability at transit agencies:The Sustainability Routemap: An interactive PDF, similar to a website, that guides the user to improve a transit agency’s sustainability program through application of change management principles, best practice examples, and references to online tools.The S+ROI Calculator: An Excel workbook that quantitatively evaluates potential sustainability projects in terms of financial, social, and environmental returns.

The tools are available throughdownloading a .zip file. This project aims to build on existing knowledge and tools addressing transit sustainability through simplifying, translating, and implementing existing knowledge in new ways.

Disclaimer – This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine or the Transportation Research Board (collectively “TRB”) be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.


Use of Automotive Service Excellence Tests Within Transit

Report Number: S-120

Publication Date: 4/14/2016

This report documents how the Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program is accepted and used within the transit bus maintenance community. The ASE program is nationally recognized as the standard industry credential provider for automotive professionals. The report explores how a cross section of transit bus maintenance personnel view the ASE certification program and summarizes their perspectives to improve ASE certification acceptance and participation.


Maintenance Technician Staffing Levels for Modern Public Transit Fleets

Report Number: R-184

Publication Date: 2/7/2016

This report identifies existing tools and practices used to determine optimum maintenance technician staffing levels. It also provides an analysis of variables that influence maintenance technician staffing needs. In addition, the report documents an MS Excel-based Maintenance Staffing Calculator with the report. For more information on the tools and resources available with this report, click the link http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/173927.aspx.


Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas

Report Number: S-113

Publication Date: 7/15/2014

This report documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.


Optimizing Bus Warranty

Report Number: S-111

Publication Date: 4/10/2014

This synthesis explores how some transit agencies address key aspects of their warranty programs. The report examines the steps taken to more accurately monitor warranty coverage periods, optimize the warranty process, and maximize warranty reimbursement to fulfill U.S. Federal Transit Administration requirements and taxpayer expectations. Click on the link to order a hard copy https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7145


Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies

Report Number: S-106

Publication Date: 7/31/2013

This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.


Transforming Public Transportation Institutional and Business Models

Report Number: R-159

Publication Date: 12/14/2012

This report offers strategy for defining and implementing transformative change in institutional and business models, thus facilitating the operation and maintenance of public transportation systems. The report identifies the components of transformative change and examines potential consequences of change.


Funding for Infrastructure Maintenance: Achieving and Sustaining a State of Good Repair

Report Number: RRD-101

Publication Date: 6/27/2011

This digest examines how bus and rail agencies and operators in several European cities develop community support for public transportation and how those communities implement sustainable funding strategies for transit assets, operations, and maintenance. The digest is based on the results of a scanning mission performed from June 11 through 25, /2010

, under TCRP’s International Transit Studies Program.


Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses

Report Number: S-81

Publication Date: 4/1/2010

This report explores preventive maintenance measures taken by a sampling of transit agencies to ensure buses are on time, protect taxpayer investments, and promote passenger satisfaction and public safety.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


A Guidebook for the Evaluation of Project Delivery Methods

Report Number: R-131

Publication Date: 5/12/2009

This report examines various project delivery methods for major transit capital projects. The report also explores the impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of including operations and maintenance as a component of a contract for a project delivery method.


Public Transportation’s Role in Addressing Global Climate Change

Report Number: RRD-89

Publication Date: 3/25/2009

This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation’s role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.


Resources for Legal Issues Associated with Bus Maintenance

Report Number: LRD-26

Publication Date: 7/28/2008

There is no readily accessible single source that identifies statutory provisions, regulatory provisions, and licensing/certification requirements applicable or relevant to a range of bus maintenance personnel and activities. The purpose of this report is to provide such a reference document, including information about guidance for compliance, to facilitate bus maintenance managers’ ability to determine the requirements to follow in their specific jurisdictions. Identifying the types of agencies in other jurisdictions that have requirements for varying issues should make it easier for managers to determine which agencies they should consult in their own jurisdictions. The goal of this digest is to serve as a resource that informs interested persons of all current federal and state statutes, regulations, and guidance related to bus maintenance. It should be useful to attorneys, administrators, managers, mechanics, operators, and supervisors.


Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service

Report Number: S-75

Publication Date: 7/10/2008

This publication explores the use of higher capacity (HC) public transit buses in trunk, express, long-distance commuter, Bus Rapid Transit, and special (e.g., sports and special events) services in North America. For purposes of this study, HC buses included articulated, double-deck, 45-ft, and other buses that have a significant increase in passenger capacity compared with conventional 40-ft buses.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


A Guidebook for Developing and Sharing Transit Bus Maintenance Practices

Report Number: R-109

Publication Date: 1/10/2006

This report provides guidance on how to develop effective transit bus maintenance practices tailored to one’s local operating environment. In addition, it provides seven sample practices developed using the guidance. This report should be of interest to transit bus maintenance managers and others interested in the development of written transit bus maintenance procedures and the sharing of these practices with others in the transit industry.


Maintenance Productivity Practices

Report Number: S-54

Publication Date: 10/4/2004

This synthesis reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. This report documments and summarize transit agency experiences, using various maintenance productivity improvement and programming. It summarizes the experienes of agencies that vary in size, union affiliation, and operating condition, as well as provides decriptions of successful programs and creative modifications to existing programs.


Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide

Report Number: R-96

Publication Date: 11/6/2003

The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.


Training for On-Board Bus Electronics

Report Number: S-44

Publication Date: 9/5/2002

This synthesis of current practice documents the procedures and resources used by transit agencies to provide employee training on advanced on-board electrical and electronic equipment and systems. The study is intended for senior managers charged with procuring, implementing, operating, and maintaining on-board E/E equipment, with the primary focus given to maintenance training.


Evaluation of Bus Bulbs

Report Number: R-65

Publication Date: 3/23/2001

This report produces guidelines to assist transit agencies, local government, and other public bodies in locating and designing bus stops that consider bus patrons’ convenience, safety and access to sites as well as safe transit operations and traffic flow. The second phase of this report evaluates bus bulbs, an innovation in the design of bus stops found in several major North American cites. This research project was a continuation of TCRP Project A-10, “Location and Design of Bus Stops on Major Streets and Highways,” which culminated with TCRP Report 19, “Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops.”


Analyzing the Costs of Operating Small Transit Vehicles

Report Number: R-61

Publication Date: 8/28/2000

This User’s Guide explains the accompanying Small Transit Vehicle economics (STVe) model — a tool designed for transit planners and others making decisions about the purchase of small transit vehicles for different services and operating environments. The User’s Guide describes how to run the model and interpret its results.


A Desk Guide for Inventory Managers in the Transit Industry

Report Number: RRD-28

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This digest was developed to provide a readily usable reference guide to assist transit managers and staff to better understand, evaluate, and manage inventory. It summaries inventory control techniques appropriate to the transit industry, decision-making techniques, and benchmark references. The final report, which describes the analyses and case studies performed during the course of the project, is available as TCRP Web Document 4 on the Internet at www2.nas.edu/trbcrp.


Closing the Knowledge Gap for Transit Maintenance Employees: A Systems Approach

Report Number: R-29

Publication Date: 2/15/1998

This report presents guidelines on evaluating and implementing strategies to improve the skills of the transit industry’s maintenance workforce in order to keep pace with evolving technology. This report will be of interest to transit decision-makers, maintenance managers, organized labor, vendors, human resources departments, and training personnel. The report is intended to help maintenance departments develop highly skilled, high-performance work organizations. Research was undertaken by Rand Corporation to assess technological demands, document current practices, and examine and propose new approaches to link maintenance-staffing practices with evolving technology to improve effectiveness. The areas addressed in the research included the range of programs currently in place, differences and similarities in current practice, analysis of major pitfalls and keys to success, an examination of vendor roles and responsibilities in training, and the effect of labor relations and work rules.


Monitoring Bus Maintenance Performance

Report Number: S-22

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, as well as to bus operations and maintenance personnel. It will also be of interest to equipment suppliers, consultants, and others concerned with bus maintenance operations. This synthesis describes current practices related to maintenance performance. The objective is to identify how maintenance performance measures drive day-to-day and strategic decisions. This report addresses traditional maintenance performance measures such as Section 15 indicators, as well as others used for decision making and those that affect customer service.


Transit Bus Service Line and Cleaning Functions

Report Number: S-12

Publication Date: 12/1/1995

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency maintenance managers and other maintenance and operations personnel, including general managers, who are concerned with the need to maintain clean, efficient bus operating equipment. It will also be of interest to equipment suppliers, consultants, and others concerned with bus maintenance operations. This synthesis provides a variety of approaches to transit bus service line and cleaning functions so transit agencies can evaluate the effectiveness of their own operations. This report of the Transportation Research Board updates material contained in the previous TRB synthesis series, National Cooperative Transit Research and Development Program (NCTRP) Synthesis 1: Cleaning Transit Buses: Equipment and Procedures


Waste Control Practices at Bus Maintenance Facilities

Report Number: S-9

Publication Date: 12/1/1995

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, as well as to personnel in operations, maintenance, and environmental departments. It will also be of interest to environmental agency officials, equipment suppliers, consultants, and others concerned with bus maintenance and fueling operations, planning, and design. This synthesis explores waste management practices employed in bus maintenance and fueling operations and it identifies some successful practices that are being employed to reduce or eliminate waste. This report of the Transportation Research Board strives to familiarize transit agency staff with federal and state environmental regulations involving wastes generated by bus maintenance activities. Complying with these regulations and local guidelines that may also apply can be confusing and costly, but failing to comply may lead to administrative, civil, or criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment. An equally powerful force pushing agency managers to move in the direction of waste minimization is the opportunity to generate significant cost savings.


Low-Floor Transit Buses

Report Number: S-2

Publication Date: 12/1/1994

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers; operations, maintenance, and planning managers; and other personnel concerned with operational experiences of low-floor transit buses in fixed route service and with the viability of this technology in meeting the transit industry’s accessibility goals for the future. Information on low-floor transit buses operating in the United States and Canada, including technical specifications as well as status reports on buses manufactured in North America; buses under development; and buses under development; and buses in Europe, obtained from the contacts with international organizations is included. It contains of standard low-floor buses, as well as another smaller bus used primarily in paratransit service.


Regulatory Impacts of Design and Retrofit of Bus Maintenance Facilities

Report Number: S-7

Publication Date: 12/1/1994

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers; planning, operations, and other maintenance personnel; design, engineering, architectural, and consultant staffs; as well as environmental agency officials and others concerned with bus facility planning and design. As built or design drawings from recently completed facilities were used to compare overall sizes of functional areas with earlier guidelines. The legal and technological environments have changed since the last systematic examination of bus maintenance facilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations may require existing facilities to make extensive modifications.


Retrofit of Buses to Meet Clean Air Regulations

Report Number: S-8

Publication Date: 12/1/1994

This report of the Transportation Research Board addresses risk management practices, their systematic application, and the measurement of program results. It emphasizes liability and worker’s compensation risks and insurance, but the discussion applies to property risks and insurance, as well. It contains information on differing transit agencies’ risk management experiences. To develop this synthesis in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of public transportation agencies.


Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Bus

Report Number: S-1

Publication Date: 12/1/1993

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, maintenance managers, and other personnel concerned with the operation of bus fleets using alternative fuels to meet national and local requirements related to air quality and energy diversification. Information on the use of methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquified petroleum gas (LPG), liquified natural gas (LNG), and other alternatives is included. Many aspects of handling and use of alternative fuels differ from conventional diesel and gasoline fuel used by transit agencies and are not yet covered by regulations, standards, or generally accepted practice. While many agencies have only limited experience with prototype alternative fuel buses, others have demonstrated effective techniques and practices for safe operation of both the buses and the refueling and maintenance facilities. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes the characteristics of various alternative fuels in use by transit agencies and discusses several aspects of these fuels and handling practices. These include training -procedures, fuel storage and handling, maintenance operations considerations, facility requirements, issues related to the buses, facility and operating costs, and environmental considerations.

Public Transit Rider Origin–Destination Survey Methods and Technologies

Report Number: S-138

Publication Date: 4/24/2019

This report captures the state of the practice among agencies of different sizes, geographic locations, and modes and evaluates the opportunities for and challenges of conducting surveys in an era of emerging technologies.

The report presents the reality and complexity of conducting origin–destination surveys and will allow agencies to compare what they are currently doing with what others are doing, get ideas about what other strategies are possible, and make better decisions about surveying in the future.

The report also includes case examples of five transit systems that present an in-depth analysis of various survey strategies and include two agencies that have leveraged passive data to complement or eliminate origin–destination surveys.


Tools and Strategies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators, Volume 2: User Guide

Report Number: R-193 Volume 2

Publication Date: 5/4/2018

This report provides potential countermeasures and strategies to prevent or mitigate assaults against transit operators. The User Guide includes an operator assault risk management toolbox developed to support transit agencies in their efforts to prevent, mitigate, and respond to assaults against operators. The User Guide also provides transit agencies with guidance in the use and deployment of the vulnerability self-assessment tool and the route-based risk calculator and includes supportive checklists, guidelines, and methodologies.


Tools and Strategies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators, Volume 1: Research Overview

Report Number: R-193: Volume 1

Publication Date: 5/4/2018

This report provides the materials and methodology used to produce potential countermeasures and strategies to prevent or mitigate assaults against transit operators. it also documents the materials used to develop Volume 2: User Guide The User Guide includes an operator assault risk management toolbox developed to support transit agencies in their efforts to prevent, mitigate, and respond to assaults against operators. The User Guide also provides transit agencies with guidance in the use and deployment of the vulnerability self-assessment tool and the route-based risk calculator and includes supportive checklists, guidelines, and methodologies.


Contracting Fixed-Route Bus Transit Service

Report Number: S-136

Publication Date: 4/25/2018

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This report documents the state of the practice in contracting bus services. Today many transit agencies contract out their fixed-route bus transit services; however, there is not enough research that focuses on the procurement and oversight process of these contracts. This synthesis will assist transit agencies in their decision-making process as they consider contracting fixed-route transit services instead of directly operating the service. The report is accompanied byAppendix G, which is available online only.


Public Transit and Bike Sharing

Report Number: S-132

Publication Date: 4/9/2018

This report explores cooperative transit and bikesharing relationships and documents the experiences of transit systems with bikesharing as a mode. An increasing number of transit agencies have developed cooperative arrangements with bikesharing programs to strengthen the relationship between the modes. The implementation and integration of bikesharing programs can sometimes present challenges to transit agencies. The synthesis identifies the current state of the practice, including challenges, lessons learned, and gaps in information.


Customer-Focused Service Guarantees and Transparency Practices

Report Number: S-134

Publication Date: 3/29/2018

This report documents the nature and prevalence of customer-focused practices among transit providers in North America and supplements the discussion by including information from European transit providers.A growing number of North American public transit agencies have adopted service guarantees or transparency practices as part of a customer-focused service strategy. Service guarantees describe the level of service customers can expect and the procedures they may follow if standards are not met. Transparency practices might include reporting performance metrics as online dashboards or report cards on the agency’s website. Currently, there is little existing research on these practices and experiences among U.S. transit providers.


Battery Electric Buses – State of the Practice

Report Number: S-130

Publication Date: 3/22/2018

This report documents current practices of transit systems in the planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, operation, and maintenance of battery electric buses (BEBs). The synthesis is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. The synthesis will also be valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.


Legal Implications of Video Surveillance on Transit Systems

Report Number: LRD-52

Publication Date: 3/15/2018

This report explores the use of video surveillance systems on buses, trains, and stations. The widespread use of such video surveillance systems has generated numerous legal issues, such as a system’s ability to utilize video to discipline union and non-union employees, safety issues associated with such use, public access to such video, and retention policies regarding video, among others. This digest explores federal and state laws to address these issues, along with the current practices employed by transit agencies to comply with those laws.


Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions

Report Number: R-196

Publication Date: 2/5/2018

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This report provides information about private transit services and ways they are addressing transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. The document provides an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, a review of their present scope and operating characteristics, and a discussion of ways they may affect the communities in which they operate along with several case studies and other supporting information. Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans and jitneys—have operated for decades in many American cities. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transit options. These include new types of public-private partnership that are helping to bridge first/last mile gaps in suburban areas. The report also examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits.


Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Between Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles

Report Number: R-195

Publication Date: 1/25/2018

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This report is a pre-publication, non-edited draft version. The study broadens the understanding of the interplay among emerging and established modes of transportation. Built upon the findings ofTCRP Research Report 188, this report explores how shared modes—and ridesourcing companies in particular—interact with the use of public transit and personal automobiles.


TCRP Annual Report of Progress 2017

Report Number:

Publication Date: 1/2/2018

The Annual Report provides background and an overview of the program, status of each of TCRP’s projects, and a summary of some of the program’s accomplishments for the year.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices

Report Number: RRD-114

Publication Date: 12/17/2017

This report is adigest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

Report Number: R-191 (Final Report)

Publication Date: 6/29/2017

This report serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives.A P3 Project Screening Checklist, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, accompanies the guidebook and may assist transit agencies with screening and evaluating a P3 initiative.


Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation: Guidebook on Planning and Managing Park-and-Ride

Report Number: R-192 (Final Report)

Publication Date: 6/15/2017

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This report provides approaches to managing park-and-ride facilities, from developing the park-and-ride concept for a community to day-to-day management. Key themes include design, implementation, operations, and maintenance of these facilities. Supplementing the report isTCRP Web-Only Document 69: Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation: Research Report and Transit Agency Case Studies.


Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops

Report Number: S-129

Publication Date: 5/29/2017

This report documents current practices of transit systems to determine methods and procedures used for maintaining transit stops and associated infrastructure during and following such weather events. This synthesis also provides a state-of-the-practice report on transit systems’ management of extreme weather events; associated planning; management responsibilities; efforts to respond; standards and specifications; associated legal claims; and communication with customers.


Public Transit Emergency Preparedness Against Ebola and Other Infectious Diseases: Legal Issues

Report Number: LRD-50

Publication Date: 5/17/2017

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This report examines responses to infectious disease epidemics and identifies legal issues that may be confronted by transit agencies. It considers federal and state laws and available court decisions affecting transit agencies’ responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including potential cohesiveness among transit agencies’ procedures and federal and state guidance. The digest also examines the legal basis for the protocols that public transit agencies and other transportation providers such as airlines have planned or implemented to respond to epidemics and pandemics. It further builds upon the /2014

NCHRP Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response.


Practices For Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit

Report Number: S-128

Publication Date: 4/17/2017

This report provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.


Multiagency Electronic Payment Fare Systems

Report Number: S-125

Publication Date: 3/27/2017

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This report describes the current practice, challenges, and benefits of utilizing electronic fare payment systems (EFPS), such as smart cards. The synthesis reviews current systems and identifies their major challenges and benefits; describes the use of electronic fare systems in multimodal, multiagency environments; and reviews next-generation approaches through existing implementation case examples.


Legal Issues Concerning Transit Agency Use of Electronic Customer Data

Report Number: LRD-48

Publication Date: 3/22/2017

This report explores the advantages, disadvantages, risks, and benefits for transit agencies moving to electronic, cloudbased, and other computerized systems for fare purchases and for communicating with customers. “Smart” fare cards are now commonplace, and private businesses and transit agencies are using or planning to use smartphones, smart cards and credit cards, and other systems to obtain payment, location, and other personal data from customers.The digest updates TCRP LRD 14: Privacy Issues in Public Transportation (2000) and TCRP LRD 25: Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards (/2008

) and covers additional dimensions of collection and use of personal information using new technologies developed since those studies. Appendix A-D are available online only at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/175848.aspx


Addressing Difficult Customer Situations

Report Number: S-127

Publication Date: 3/1/2017

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This report explores issues surrounding difficult customers or passengers and the variety of circumstances that can arise when they utilize transit system facilities or vehicles. The report identifies current practices used by transit agencies to prevent, prepare for, and deal with these incidents.


Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems

Report Number: S-124

Publication Date: 2/10/2017

This report documents the state-of-the-practice to address fire and smoke incidents. Fires in underground passenger rail tunnels require implementation of different measures in order to provide safety for the passengers and ensure structural and system integrity of the facilities and operating infrastructure. The publication addresses planning, design, and operations to address fire and smoke incidents, and identifies current practices including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information.


Successful Practices and Training Initiatives to Reduce Bus Accidents and Incidents at Transit Agencies

Report Number: S-126

Publication Date: 2/6/2017

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This report documents current practices and training initiatives, including bus operator training and retraining programs that have been effective in reducing accidents and incidents at transit agencies. The study also focuses on other system approaches that have been implemented to address safety hazards. These approaches include various technology applications, infrastructure modifications, and programs and initiatives such as driver incentive programs and close call/near miss reporting.


TCRP Annual Report of Progress/2016

Report Number:

Publication Date: 1/24/2017

This Annual Report provides background and an overview of the program, status of each of TCRP’s projects, and a summary of some of the program’s accomplishments for the year.


Guide to Value Capture Financing for Public Transportation Projects

Report Number: R-190

Publication Date: 1/6/2017

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This report identifies the requirements necessary for successful value creation through transportation infrastructure investment and capturing a portion of that value through specific value capture mechanisms. It includes six case studies that provide practical examples of successful value capture from public transportation investments.


Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies

Report Number: R-187

Publication Date: 9/19/2016

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This report presents practical planning and implementation strategies to enhance livability in transit corridors. It provides a resource for planning practitioners, policy makers, and other stakeholders to measure, understand, and improve transit corridor livability.The handbook provides a definition of transit corridor livability and a set of methods, metrics, and strategies—framed within a five-step visioning and improvement process—that communities can use to improve livability in their transit corridors. It includes a set of tools and techniques that can help in planning and building support for corridor improvements, screening alternatives in preparation for environmental review, identifying a corridor’s livability needs, and developing an action-oriented set of strategies for improving transit corridor livability and quality of life.A spreadsheet-based Transit Corridor Livability Calculator tool and a separate spreadsheet used for tool testing are also available for download by clicking this link.http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/174953.aspx An instructional file accompanies the spreadsheet.


Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit

Report Number: R-188

Publication Date: 9/15/2016

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This report examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand-responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. Additionally, it examines issues and explores opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes.


Onboard Camera Applications for Buses

Report Number: S-123

Publication Date: 6/22/2016

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This report explores the current technologies, research, and opportunities for use. It also provides examples of how surveillance systems are used to improve operations, safety, security, training, and customer satisfaction.


Bus Operator Workstation Design for Improving Occupational Health and Safety

Report Number: R-185

Publication Date: 5/26/2016

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This report is a pre-publication, non-edited draft. It provides guidance to transit agencies and bus manufacturers as they integrate emerging technologies into current procurement practices and improve bus operator workstation design across the transit industry.The research produced practical guidance documents and tools applicable to the procurement process and bus design, including a suggested procurement process and strategies for transit agencies to develop, train, and support a bus procurement team; training for the procurement team, including an ergonomics training module for bus operators; guidelines to update TCRP Report 25: Bus Operator Workstation Evaluation and Design Guidelines; and a digital model of a bus operator workstation that may be used by designers and transit agencies to develop specifications.


A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies

Report Number: R-183

Publication Date: 4/11/2016

This report is a resource for transit and roadway agency staff seeking to improve bus speed and reliability on surface streets while addressing the needs of other roadway users, including motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians.The guidebook identifies consistent and uniform strategies to help improve transportation network efficiency to reduce delay and improve reliability for transit operations on roadways; and includes decision-making guidance for operational planning and functional design of transit/traffic operations on roads that provides information on warrants, costs, and impacts of strategies. It also identifies the components of model institutional structures and intergovernmental agreements for successful implementation; and highlights potential changes to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and related documents to facilitate implementation of selected strategies.


Linking Transit Agencies and Land Use Decision-Making: Guidebook for Transit Agencies

Report Number: R-182

Publication Date: 2/10/2016

This report explores methods that transit agencies could use to become more involved in the land use decision-making process.


Maintenance Technician Staffing Levels for Modern Public Transit Fleets

Report Number: R-184

Publication Date: 2/7/2016

This report identifies existing tools and practices used to determine optimum maintenance technician staffing levels. It also provides an analysis of variables that influence maintenance technician staffing needs. In addition, the report documents an MS Excel-based Maintenance Staffing Calculator with the report. For more information on the tools and resources available with this report, click the link http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/173927.aspx.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices

Report Number: RRD-111

Publication Date: 1/6/2016

This digest is the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 2: Final Report

Report Number: Report 181: Volume 2

Publication Date: 12/6/2015

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This Final Report documents the materials used to develop Volume 1: Toolkit. Volume 1 provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships.


Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 1: Toolkit

Report Number: R-181: Volume 1

Publication Date: 11/16/2015

This report provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships. The first volume describes:•The development of a labor–management partnership charter to start or improve a partnership
•Labor–management partnership guidance that provides specific recommended actions for both management and labor union leaders
•A labor–management partnership workshop framework that can be used to develop a cooperative workshop that prepares management and union representatives with essential skills for establishing and managing labor–management partnershipsVolume 2, Final Report, provides background material that was used to develop Volume 1.


Policing and Security Practices for Small-and-Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems

Report Number: R-180

Publication Date: 7/10/2015

This report explores the current state of practice and identifies and responds to the specific challenges and issues associated with the security of small-and medium-sized transit agencies. It follows the five stages of protection activity (prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) by providing baseline options and identifying potential security countermeasures that could be deployed by both of these sizes of transit agencies.


Use of Web-Based Rider Feedback to Improve Public Transit Services

Report Number: R-179

Publication Date: 6/3/2015

This report provides toolkit of practices, emerging platforms, and promising approaches for customer web-based and electronic feedback to help improve public transit services. Part I of the report identifies promising practices among transit agencies and other industries using in-house or third-party web-based and mobile platforms. The mobile platforms are meant to engage customers and provide guidance on managing web-based feedback. Part II includes a Tool Selection Guide to assist transit agencies with selecting a web-based feedback tool based on their needs.


Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-177

Publication Date: 4/27/2015

This report explores attributes, implementation strategies, and applications of next generation transit fare payment (NGFP) systems. It also documents the state of the practice of emerging fare payments options for public transportation; develops a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States; and evaluates the pros and cons of the options presented in the typology.


Practices for Utility Coordination in Transit Projects

Report Number: S-118

Publication Date: 4/10/2015

This synthesis summarizes utility coordination practices at transit agencies around the country. Specifically, the report focuses on utility coordination issues that transit agencies undertake during typical phases of project development and delivery, including planning, designing, and constructing civil infrastructure facilities.Most utility relocation appears to be associated with rail and streetcar projects, and very rarely, bus projects. The topic panel and consultant chose to work closely with the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) to extract information about general trends around the country as reported here and to identify the potential agencies with whom to conduct more detailed interviews.


Better On-Street Bus Stops

Report Number: S-117

Publication Date: 4/4/2015

This synthesis explores major issues and successful approaches to address on-street bus stops from both the transit agency’s perspective and customer’s perspective. It documents the current state of the practice with regard to actions taken to address constraints and improvements to on-street bus stops.


Quantifying Transit’s Impact on GHG Emissions and Energy Use – The Land Use Component

Report Number: R-176

Publication Date: 4/2/2015

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Veiw the webinar of this reportThis report examines interrelationships between transit and land use patterns to understand their contribution to compact development and the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction benefits.The report is accompanied by an Excel-based tool that applies the research findings. The calculator tool estimates the land use benefits of existing or planned transit projects. The report and tool will enable users to determine quantifiable impacts of transit service on compact development, energy use, and air quality in urbanized areas. To obtain a hard copy of this report, and the Excel-based tool, click on the link. Please note the software disclaimer.http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172110.aspx


Open Data: Challenges and Opportunities for Transit Agencies

Report Number: S-115

Publication Date: 3/2/2015

This synthesis documents the current state of the practice in the use, policies, and impact of open data for improving transit planning, service quality, and treatment of customer information.


Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume 1: Transit Integrtion Manual

Report Number: R-173

Publication Date: 1/8/2015

This Manual provides guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple transit providers. The report accompanies TCRP Report 173, Volume II: Research Report. Together, these documents demonstrate benefits of transit integration; illustrate the range of potential types of integration activities; and describe procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-110

Publication Date: 1/6/2015

This digest is the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation: Assessment for Transit Agencies

Report Number: RRD-109

Publication Date: 10/22/2014

This digest assesses the potential impact of implementing the NEMT provision of the Affordable Care Act on a state-by-state basis. The report also collates information to inform the transit community on how public transit and NEMT providers may integrate or use their respective resources and services.


Developing Best-Practice Guidelines for Improving Bus Operator Health and Retention

Report Number: R-169

Publication Date: 8/14/2014

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This report addresses some of the health and safety issues common throughout the transit industry, and describes approaches that transit organizations in the United States and Canada have taken to address health problems faced by transit employees.The report is supplemented by a presentation, Making the Case for Transit Workplace Health Protection and Promotion, and an Excel worksheet, Transit Operator Workplace Health Protection and Promotion Planning, Evaluation, and ROI Template, that may assist transit agencies with implementing and carrying out transit-specific programs to protect the health of bus operators and other employees. click the link to view.http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/171189.aspx


Use of Mobility Devices on Paratransit Vehicles and Buses

Report Number: R-171

Publication Date: 8/11/2014

This report describes the current and emerging issues which limit the use of mobility devices in paratransit vehicles and buses, and includes a guidance document to assist transit systems, manufacturers, and transit users in the implementation of potential accessible design and accommodation solutions for the short and long term.


Maintaining Transit Effectiveness Under Major Financial Constraints

Report Number: S-112

Publication Date: 7/27/2014

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View the webinar for this reportThis Synthesis discusses transit agencies that implemented plans to increase their cost effectiveness and how the agencies communicated with their communities during challenging fiscal circumstances.


Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas

Report Number: S-113

Publication Date: 7/15/2014

This report documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.


Transit Public-Private Partnerships: Legal Issues

Report Number: LRD-45

Publication Date: 6/25/2014

This digest identifies the legal issues associated with negotiating public-private partnership (PPP) agreements for transit projects. It explores the rationale for using PPP, innovative contracting and financing approaches offered by PPPs, and transfer of risks from the public to the private sector through PPPs. In addition, the digest provides an overview of the legal barriers that PPPs confront in some states, and how PPPs comply with federal law. Funding of PPPs for transit projects and long-term leasing of transit facilities are also covered in the digest.


Strategy Guide to Enable and Promote the Use of Fixed-Route Transit by People with Disabilities

Report Number: R-163

Publication Date: 4/30/2014

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This report is designed to help transit agencies fulfill the primary goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) by making mainstream fixed-route bus and rail systems accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The focus of the Strategy Guide is to offer guidance on providing public services in the most integrated setting possible. The project that developed the Strategy Guide, also produced the following, which are available only in PDF format athttp://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170626.aspx

• a final research report that includes a summary of the literature, description of the research methodology, copies of the survey instruments used, and detailed tabulations of the survey responses; and
• information briefs that summarize key findings and findings of the research in the following five areas: – the overall strategy that is suggested, – current use of fixed-route transit by persons with disabilities, – bus stop and pedestrian infrastructure improvement efforts, – fare incentive programs, and – ADA paratransit eligibility determination programs.


Characteristics of Premium Transit Services that Affect Choice of Mode

Report Number: R-166

Publication Date: 4/23/2014

This report explores the full range of determinants for transit travel behavior and offers solutions to those seeking to represent and distinguish transit characteristics in travel forecasting models. The report includes appendices that present detailed research results including a state-of-the-practice literature review, survey instruments, models estimated by the research team, model testing, and model implementation and calibration results. The models demonstrate a potential approach for including non-traditional transit service attributes in the representation of both transit supply (networks) and demand (mode choice models), reducing the magnitude of the modal specific constant term while maintaining the ability of the model to forecast ridership on specific transit services.


System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios Update

Report Number: S-109

Publication Date: 4/15/2014

This synthesis documents successful practices in the United States and Canada, and presents information on efforts employed to achieve optimal bus fleet size and effective spare bus ratios. The report is designed to provide guidance to transit agencies on how various factors may affect optimal fleet size. Appendix D: Compilation of Agency Survey Responses was not printed, and not included in the print or PDF version of TCRP Synthesis 109. It is, however, available for download at www.trb.org. TCRP Synthesis 109 updates the findings of TCRP Synthesis 11: System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios, as significant changes have occurred in the transit industry since 1995.


Optimizing Bus Warranty

Report Number: S-111

Publication Date: 4/10/2014

This synthesis explores how some transit agencies address key aspects of their warranty programs. The report examines the steps taken to more accurately monitor warranty coverage periods, optimize the warranty process, and maximize warranty reimbursement to fulfill U.S. Federal Transit Administration requirements and taxpayer expectations. Click on the link to order a hard copy.https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7145


Community Tools to Improve Transportation Options for Veterans, Military Service Members, and Their Families

Report Number: R-164

Publication Date: 3/27/2014

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This report explores ways to enhance transportation options for veterans, military service members, and their families by building on the concepts of transportation coordination and mobility management. It provides guidance and tools to assess transportation needs of veterans, service members and their families, and ways to potentially improve public transit, specialized transportation, volunteer services, and other local transportation options needed to meet those needs.


Common Sense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds

Report Number: S-110

Publication Date: 3/19/2014

This report explores approaches transit agencies have taken to realize gains in average bus speeds. It also identifies metrics pertaining to measures such as changes in travel speed and its components, operating cost, and ridership. It shows the results of each or a combination of approaches implemented.


Research Results Digest 108

Report Number: RRD-108

Publication Date: 1/1/2014

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Transit Bus Operator Distraction Policies

Report Number: S-108

Publication Date: 10/11/2013

TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 108: Transit Bus Operator Distraction Policies is designed to help transit agencies develop policies and programs to address and prevent distracted driving incidents.


Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry – A Systems Approach

Report Number: R-162

Publication Date: 10/3/2013

This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.


Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition

Report Number: R-165

Publication Date: 8/26/2013

This report provides guidance on transit capacity and quality of service issues and the factors influencing both. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability, comfort, and convenience from the passenger and transit provider points of view.


Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies

Report Number: S-106

Publication Date: 7/31/2013

This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.


Transit Station and Stop Adoption Programs

Report Number: S-103

Publication Date: 5/1/2013

This synthesis explores transit agency programs in which local organizations, individuals, or other partners “adopt” a transit station or stop and receive recognition or incentives in exchange for, periodically, performing duties such as removing litter, maintaining vegetation, or reporting suspicious activity.


Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Introduction

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 1

Publication Date: 2/13/2013

This report contains a four-level Table of Contents for the 16 published TCRP Report 95 chapter/volumes. It describes the Traveler Response Handbook and its development. It also offers guidance to the prospective Handbook users, and includes two Handbook appendices plus known errata. The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.


Transforming Public Transportation Institutional and Business Models

Report Number: R-159

Publication Date: 12/14/2012

This report offers strategy for defining and implementing transformative change in institutional and business models, thus facilitating the operation and maintenance of public transportation systems. The report identifies the components of transformative change and examines potential consequences of change.


Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems

Report Number: S-101

Publication Date: 7/13/2012

This synthesis highlights the experiences of public transit agencies that have planned, implemented, and operated fare-free transit systems. The report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or subrecipients of federal transit grants and that furnish fare-free services to everyone in a service area on every mode provided.


Ridersharing as a Complement to Transit

Report Number: S-98

Publication Date: 4/2/2012

This synthesis explores current practices in using ridesharing to complement public transit and highlights ways to potentially enhance ridesharing and public transit.


Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations

Report Number: R-153

Publication Date: 3/29/2012

This report is intended to aid in the planning, developing, and improving of access to high capacity commuter rail, heavy rail, light rail, bus rapid transit, and ferry stations. The report includes guidelines for arranging and integrating various station design elements. The print version of TCRP Report 153 is accompanied by a CD-ROM that includes a station access planning spreadsheet tool that allows trade-off analyses among the various access modes–automobile, transit, bicycle, pedestrian, and transit-oriented development–for different station types. The appendices to TCRP Report 153 are also available on the CD-ROM at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166516.aspx


Improving Bus Transit Safety Through Rewards and Discipline

Report Number: S-97

Publication Date: 3/23/2012

This synthesis addresses the practices and experiences of public transit agencies in applying both corrective actions and rewards to recognize, motivate, and reinforce a safety culture within their organizations.


Sustainable Public Transportation: Environmentally Friendly Mobility

Report Number: RRD-103

Publication Date: 12/12/2011

This digest is an overview of an international study mission that explored how public transportation systems in several cities in India and China have implemented plans, policies, technologies, and strategies for creating more livable communities through bus, metro, bus rapid transit, rail, and light rail systems. The Indian and Chinese systems visited were designed to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, lower operating costs, and provide safe and accessible transportation services.


Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies

Report Number: R-148

Publication Date: 11/19/2011

This report provides strategies to recruit minorities for chief executive officer (CEO) positions and offers resources to assist governing boards of public transportation agencies in the recruitment of minority CEOs. It also assesses the transit industry’s recruitment processes for CEOs and provides a case for diversity that documents the benefits of minorities in public transportation leadership positions. Additionally, the report describes strategies for retaining CEOs at public transportation agencies.


Improving Safety-Related Rules Compliance in the Public Transportation Industry

Report Number: R-149

Publication Date: 10/19/2011

This report identifies potential best practices for all of the elements of a comprehensive approach to safety-related rules compliance. The categories of best practices, which correspond to the elements of a safety-related rules compliance program, include screening and selecting employees, training and testing, communication, monitoring rules compliance, responding to noncompliance, and safety management. This report also outlines the features of a prototype safety reporting system for public transportation.


Reinventing the Urban Interstate: A New Paradigm for Multimodal Corridors

Report Number: R-145

Publication Date: 9/30/2011

This report presents strategies for planning, designing, building, and operating multimodal corridors, freeways and high-capacity transit lines running parallel in the same travel corridors.


Toolkit for Estimating Demand for Rural Intercity Bus Services

Report Number: R-147

Publication Date: 8/29/2011

This report provides a sketch-planning guide and supporting CD-ROM-based tools that can be used to forecast demand for rural intercity bus services. The tools use several methods to estimate demand, and the report describes key considerations when estimating such demand. The CD-ROM is included with the print version of the report and is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. A Microsoft PowerPoint presentation that provides some background on the model and a worked example showing how to estimate ridership on a proposed rural intercity bus route is available for download on TRB’s website.


Guidebook for Evaluating Fuel for Post-/2010

Transit Bus Procurements

Report Number: R-146

Publication Date: 7/21/2011

This report is designed to help those considering the deployment of, or conversion to, alternative fuel buses. The guidebook and life-cycle emissions model spreadsheet (FuelCost2) are intended to aide individuals who, while being quite knowledgeable about the transit industry, may not be familiar with alternative fuels and implementation issues. The guidebook and FuelCost2 provide tools to simplify the process of developing an alternative fuel strategy by clearly identifying the issues, and the costs and benefits associated with the conversion to various available alternative fuel technologies. FuelCost2 life-cycle costs and life-cycle emissions spreadsheet is available for download in a Microsoft Excel format. Appendix C of TCRP Report 146 is the user’s guide for the tool. The spreadsheet includes additional instruction for using FuelCost2. This report updates, expands on, and replaces TCRP Report 38: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Fuel Choices for Transit Bus Operations.


Public Participation Strategies for Transit

Report Number: S-89

Publication Date: 7/19/2011

This synthesis documents the state-of-the-practice in terms of public participation strategies to inform and engage the public for transit-related activities. It also provides ideas and insights into practices and techniques that agencies have found to be most successful, and discusses challenges relating to engaging the public.


Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains

Report Number: S-88

Publication Date: 6/30/2011

This report documents the state of the practice of transit agencies managing capacity on vehicles carrying customers with large items. The synthesis also includes a discussion of vehicle designs to accommodate these various large items.


Funding for Infrastructure Maintenance: Achieving and Sustaining a State of Good Repair

Report Number: RRD-101

Publication Date: 6/27/2011

This digest examines how bus and rail agencies and operators in several European cities develop community support for public transportation and how those communities implement sustainable funding strategies for transit assets, operations, and maintenance. The digest is based on the results of a scanning mission performed from June 11 through 25, /2010

, under TCRP’s International Transit Studies Program.


Transit Agency Compliance with Title VI: Limited English Proficiency Requirements

Report Number: RRD-97

Publication Date: 2/2/2011

This digest explores the legal issues associated with transit operators’ limited English proficiency (LEP) compliance efforts. It s designed to serve as a single source of information concerning the development and current status of transit LEP implementation efforts by state and local legislative and operational bodies.


Resource Guide for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders

Report Number: R-143

Publication Date: 1/26/2011

The core features of this Resource Guide are two decision-making processes: (1) planning and (2) operations. The Resource Guide presents important lessons learned from transit agencies that have made decisions both to commingle and not to commingle their ADA paratransit and non-ADA paratransit riders. Non-ADA paratransit riders include non-sponsored older adults, non-sponsored persons with disabilities, other agency funded persons, the general public, persons receiving Medicaid, Title III persons, non-sponsored low income persons, and persons in the Head Start program.


Managing Increasing Ridership Demand

Report Number: RRD-96

Publication Date: 9/14/2010

This digest documents a /2009

study mission to Guayaquil, Ecuador; Santiago, Chile; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Porto Alegre, Brazil, that investigated how transit operators and agencies in these cities accommodated sudden and significant growth in the number of riders and increasing demand for service.


Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations

Report Number: R-142

Publication Date: 9/9/2010

This report provides guidance for understanding the relationships that influence and enhance operator recruitment, retention, and performance in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit services. Appendixes to TCRP Report 142 were published electronically as TCRP Web-Only Document 50: Survey Instrument, Productivity Charts, and Interview Protocol for Case Studies for TCRP Report 142.


Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic

Report Number: S-83

Publication Date: 8/11/2010

This synthesis explores the application of different transit preferential treatments in mixed traffic. It also examines the decision-making process that may be applied in deciding which preferential treatment might be the most applicable in a particular location.


A Guide for Planning and Operating Flexible Public Transportation Services

Report Number: R-140

Publication Date: 7/26/2010

This report explores the types of flexible transportation service strategies that are potentially appropriate for small, medium, and large urban and rural transit agencies. It also examines financial and political realities, operational issues, and institutional mechanisms related to implementing and sustaining flexible transportation services.


Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies — Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 19

Publication Date: 7/19/2010

This report pair-uses wise comparisons to explore the relative importance of particular categories of TDM strategies, such as support versus incentives, as well as the particular strategies themselves, such as transit subsidy versus a high-occupancy vehicle parking discount. TDM (transportation demand management or travel demand management) is a process that can encompass a variety of measures intended to influence travel choices. TDM is used to manage heavy traffic demand and parking requirements, and to enhance the effectiveness of transit services.


Effective Use of Citizen Advisory Committees for Transit Planning Operations

Report Number: S-85

Publication Date: 6/29/2010

This synthesis examines the involvement of advisory committees in transit planning and operations by exploring the experiences from a few agencies in detail.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Guidebook for Rural Demand-Response Transportation: Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance

Report Number: R-136

Publication Date: 12/17/2009

This report explores the diversity of demand-response transportation (DRT) services and examines definitions of performance data and performance measures. This report also highlights the typology of rural DRT systems and includes examples of performance data from more than 20 representative rural systems.


Transit, Call Centers, and 511: A Guide for Decision Makers

Report Number: R-134

Publication Date: 8/20/2009

This report explores the operational characteristics of 511 telephone traveler information systems and examines how 511 systems interact with transit system call centers. This report inventories existing 511 systems throughout the country, documents the extent of transit participation and transit agency experiences with 511, and presents guidance to assist transit agencies and 511 system administrators in determining a transit-511 telephone strategy.


Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling

Report Number: R-135

Publication Date: 7/16/2009

This report explores information on available scheduling tools and techniques and their capabilities. Also, the report provides guidance to transit agencies on a variety of scheduling issues typically faced in a transit operating environment.


A Guidebook for the Evaluation of Project Delivery Methods

Report Number: R-131

Publication Date: 5/12/2009

This report examines various project delivery methods for major transit capital projects. The report also explores the impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of including operations and maintenance as a component of a contract for a project delivery method.


Passenger Counting Systems

Report Number: S-77

Publication Date: 1/28/2009

This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.


Transit Systems in College and University Communities

Report Number: S-78

Publication Date: 12/24/2008

This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations


Uses of Higher Capacity Buses in Transit Service

Report Number: S-75

Publication Date: 7/10/2008

This publication explores the use of higher capacity (HC) public transit buses in trunk, express, long-distance commuter, Bus Rapid Transit, and special (e.g., sports and special events) services in North America. For purposes of this study, HC buses included articulated, double-deck, 45-ft, and other buses that have a significant increase in passenger capacity compared with conventional 40-ft buses.


Policies and Practices for Effectively and Efficiently Meeting ADA Paratransit Demand

Report Number: S-74

Publication Date: 7/7/2008

This synthesis covers a wide range of policies and practices that transit agencies use to provide services to persons with disabilities more effectively and efficiently.


AVL Systems for Bus Transit: Update

Report Number: S-73

Publication Date: 5/20/2008

This publication explores the uses of computer-aided dispatch/automatic vehicle location (CAD/AVL) systems in fixed-route and demand-responsive services (bus AVL), as well as changes in agency practices related to the use of AVL systems.


Transit Bus Stops: Ownership, Liability, and Access

Report Number: LRD-24

Publication Date: 4/10/2008

This digest will inform transit providers and government officials of the different levels of ownership, liability, and maintenance associated with bus stops and bus shelters; identify the categories of legal issues that are associated with ownership and liability; and provide information on the problems and practices of others who have dealt with such problems including protective provisions in franchise agreements and service provider contracts.


Guidebook for Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance of Demand-Response Transportation

Report Number: R-124

Publication Date: 4/4/2008

This guidebook is a resource to assist Demand-Response Transportation (DRT) systems to measure, assess, and improve performance, focusing on DRT in urban areas. It addresses the diversity of DRT systems, service areas, and passengers; identifies the important controllable factors affecting DRT performance; and includes performance assessment methods based on the reliable data and meaningful measures. Such methods will allow relevant assessments of DRT performance over time and across DRT systems.


Guidebook for Mitigating Fixed-Route Bus-and-Pedestrian Collisions

Report Number: R-125

Publication Date: 3/24/2008

This guidebook will assist transit agencies in understanding bus-and-pedestrian collisions, and in determining preventative or remedial strategies for reducing the frequency and severity of these types of collisions. It provides transit agencies and stakeholders with an array of strategies from which to choose for mitigating the frequency and severity of bus-and-predestrian collisions as well as approaches for doing so.


Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet

Report Number: S-72

Publication Date: 2/23/2008

Synthesis 72 – “ Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet“ – This synthesis will be of interest to transit professionals involved in developing a program to actively manage the implementation of biodiesel fuel and its use in a bus transit fleet. It documents a full range of benefit offered by biodiesel with the thought that once the subject is understood, transit agencies can make informed decisions regarding its use.


Improving Public Transportation Technology Implementations and Anticipating Emerging Technologies

Report Number: R-84 Volume 8

Publication Date: 2/1/2008

This report summaries the value of current technologies used in public transportation, and identifies five promising emerging technologies with application for transit agencies.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Paratransit Manager’s Skills, Qualifications, and Needs

Report Number: S-71

Publication Date: 11/21/2007

This synthesis documents current requirements for being a paratransit manager and actual experiences of current paratransit managers in their positions. Transit mangers, policy makers, educators, trainers, human resource directors, and stakeholders, as well as current and future paratransit professionals, will find the results valuable in determining action steps needed to enhance the profession and paratransit service delivery. In addition, it offers information from general managers, chief operating officers, and paratransit advisory committees about college degrees desired and guidance offered aspiring paratransit managers. Technology proficiency and knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act were identified as the most needed skills. College educations were recommended by a majority of the professionals, with business management identified as the most desirable area of study; however, aside from this, successes in the field were attributed to specifics such as ethics, customer relations, communications, management and supervision, and sensitivity.


Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers

Report Number: R-86 Volume 13

Publication Date: 10/15/2007

This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.


Design, Operation, and Safety of At-Grade Crossing of Exclusive Busways

Report Number: R-117

Publication Date: 7/6/2007

This report provides guidelines for the safe design and operation of at-grade crossing of exclusive busways. The guidelines are based on a detailed literature review, interviews with selected transit agencies, and site visits to Cleveland, Los Angeles, Miami, Orlando, and Richmond (British Columbia). The guidelines are intended to assist transit, traffic engineering, and highway design agencies in planning, designing, and operating various kinds of busways through roadway intersections.


Bus Rapid Transit Practitioner’s Guide

Report Number: R-118

Publication Date: 7/3/2007

This report provides information on the costs, impacts, and effectiveness of implementing selected bus rapid transit (BRT) components. It includes practical information that can be readily used by transit professionals and policy makers in planning and decision making related to implementing different components of BRT systems.


Elements Needed to Create High Ridership Transit Systems

Report Number: R-111

Publication Date: 6/21/2007

This report describes the strategies used by transit agencies to create high ridership and includes case studies of successful examples of increased or high ridership. The case studies focuses on the internal and external elements that contributed to successful ridership increases and describes how the transit agencies influenced or overcame internal and external challenges to increase ridership.


Coordinated Approaches to Expanding Access to Public Transportation

Report Number: RRD-81

Publication Date: 2/26/2007

This digest summarizes the mission performed May 4, May 19, 2006 International Transit Studies Program. Study mission participants are transit management personnel with substantial knowledge and experience in transit activities. The mission experience helps transit managers to better evaluate current and proposed transit improvements and serve to generate potential public transportation research topics. Team members are encouraged to share their international experience and findings with peers in the public transportation community throughout the United States.


Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure

Report Number: R-86 Volume 12

Publication Date: 2/1/2007

This report is designed to provide transportation tunnel owners and operators with guidelines for protecting their tunnels by minimizing the damage potential from extreme events such that, if damaged, they may be returned to full functionality in relatively short periods. This report will be of interest to tunnel authorities, state and local transportation departments, other agencies responsible for tunnel operation and maintenance, enforcement personnel and first responders responsible for tunnel safety and security, and tunnel designers. The objective of this report is to provide safety and security guidelines for owners and operators of transportation tunnels to use in identifying (1) principal vulnerabilities of tunnels to various hazards and threats; (2) potential physical countermeasures; (3) potential operational countermeasures; and (4) deployable, integrated systems for emergency-related command, control, communications, and information.


Bus Transit Service in Land Development Planning

Report Number: S-67

Publication Date: 12/26/2006

This synthesis documents the relationships between bus transit service and planning for new developments. It identifies successful strategies that assist in the incorporation of bus transit service into land developments, as well as the challenges that transit agencies face when attempting to do so. It also provices the state of the practice regarding the use and components of transit agency development guidelines.


Fixed-Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods

Report Number: S-66

Publication Date: 12/18/2006

This synthesis documents the state of the practice in fixed-routed transit ridership forecasting and service planning. It identifies forecasting methodologies, resource, requirements, data inputs, and organizational issues. It also analyzes the impacts of service changes and reviews transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methods and of desired improvements.


HOV Facilities: Travelers Response to Transportation Systems Changes

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 2

Publication Date: 11/17/2006

The “HOV Facilities” chapter covers the traveler response to High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) applications, except for busways primarily on their own alignment, which are addressedn in Chapter 4, “Busways, BRT and Express Buys.” This chapter covers the bredth of HOV facilities, inclusive of supportive features, but without examining supportive features in detail. Express bus operations and park-and-ride and park-and-pool facilities are supportive features that ehnance the operations of many HOV facilites.


Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services

Report Number: R-116

Publication Date: 11/13/2006TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.


Using Archived AVL – APC Data to Improve Transit Performance and Management

Report Number: R-113

Publication Date: 9/12/2006

This report developed guidance on the effective collection and use of archieved AVL-APC data to improve the performance and management of transit systems. It offers guidance on five subjects: Analyses that use AVL-APC data to improve management and performance; AVL-APC system design to facilitate the capture of data with the accuracy and detail needed for off-line data analysis; ata structure and analysis software for facilitating analysis of AVL-APC data; Screening, parsing, and balancing automatic passenger counts; Use of APC systems for estimating passenger-miles for National Tansit Database reporting.


Transit Agency Participation in Medicaid Transportation Programs

Report Number: S-65

Publication Date: 8/24/2006

This synthesis documents and summaries the tasks necessary for a public transit Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) partnership to be successful. The purpose is to report on the real and perceived barriers to NEMT and public transit coordination and to discribe case studies of Medicaid transportation program participation by transit agencies.


Bus Use of Shoulders

Report Number: S-64

Publication Date: 7/5/2006

This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies’ experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.


Hazard and Security Plan Workshop: Instructor Guide

Report Number: R-86 Volume 10

Publication Date: 2/6/2006

This report will assist rural, small urban, and community-based passenger transportation agencies in creating hazards and security plans or evaluating and modifying existing plans, policies, and procedures consistent with the National Incident. Management System (NIMS) “NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal State, territorial, tribal, and local government to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.” To excess the accompany appendices to this report and additional resources, click the link.http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/152464.aspx


Executive Summary: Cost Benefit Analysis of Providing Non-Emergency Medical Transportation

Report Number: RRD-75

Publication Date: 1/26/2006

This digest contains information on the relative costs and benefits of providing transportation to non-emergency medical care for individuals who miss or delay healthcare appointments because of transportation issues.


Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Department in Europe

Report Number: RRD-71

Publication Date: 12/9/2005

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated the application of new technologies in bus and rail transit operations in Germany, Austria, and France. The theme of the study mission was Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Departments in Europe. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members. This digest includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited.


On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques

Report Number: S-63

Publication Date: 12/3/2005

This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies’ experiences with planning and implementing on-board and intercept surveys. On-board/intercept surveys used throughout the report refer to sel-administered surveys distributed on board buses and railcars, and in stations, as well as interviews conducted in these environments. This report provides an overview of industry prictices and covers a broad range of issues addressed in planning a given survey.


Integration of Bicycles and Transit

Report Number: S-62

Publication Date: 11/22/2005

This synthesis reflects the additional knowledge gained by transit agencies in the past 10 years about integrating bicycles and transit. It documents many different types of transit agencies in the United States and Canada. The experiences that are documented can help transit agencies improve existing services and assist other communities in developing new bicycle and transit services.


The Case for Searches on Public Transportation

Report Number: LRD-22

Publication Date: 11/2/2005

This report provides information concerning the ability of public transportation systems or their agents, within the context of federal or state law, to conduct either random searches or targeted searches of passengers on public transportation vehicles or on public transportation property.


E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-84 Volume 7

Publication Date: 8/19/2005

This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. It describes how web-based tools have been used to assist with controlling and managing active and planned construction projects, including schedules and cost of the projects, through three organizations that have successfully used web-based collaborative software: The Chicago Transit Authority, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and Raytheon.


Innovations in Bus, Rail and Specialized Transit Operations in Latin America

Report Number: RRD-70

Publication Date: 6/3/2005

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovations in bus, rail and specialized transit operations in Latin America. It is based on individual reports provided by team members, and it reflects the views of the members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data.


Evaluation of Recent Ridership Increases

Report Number: RRD-69

Publication Date: 4/21/2005

This digest assess key factors and initiatives that led to ridership increases at 28 transit agencies, nationwide, for the period 2000 to 2002. The assessment is based on review of transit ridership statistics published by APTA, on operating statistics reported to and published in the FTA’s National Transit Database, and on interviews and discussions with more than 35 senior transit managers.


Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture

Report Number: R-84 Volume 5

Publication Date: 10/25/2004

TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.


Transit Pricing and Fares

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 12

Publication Date: 9/13/2004

This report addresses transit ridership response to fare changes as applied to conventional urban area bus and rail transit services. Topics covered are: changes in general fare level, changes in fare structure including relationships among fare categories, and free transit. It does not cover the combined outcome of implementing fare and service in the same time frame. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.


Transit Design, Construction, and Operations in the Mediterranean Region

Report Number: RRD-66

Publication Date: 9/1/2004

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated transit design, construction, and operation in the Mediterranean region. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.


Operational Experiences with Flexible Transit Services

Report Number: S-53

Publication Date: 8/20/2004

This synthesis documents and summarizes tansit agency experiences with “flexible transit services,” including all types of hybrid services that are not pure demand-responsive (including dial-a-ride and ADA paratransit) or fixed-route services, but that fall somewhere in between those traditional serivce models. In addition, it doucments six types of flexible transit service: request stops,flexible route segments, route deviation, point deviation, zone routes, and demand-responsive connector service. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agnecy staff responsible for vehicle operations and planning, and to those who work with them in this regard.


Bus Routing and Coverage

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 10

Publication Date: 8/17/2004

This report addresses traveler response to, and related impacts of, conventional bus transit alterations. Included are routing changes at both the individual route and system levels, new bus systems and system clousures, bus system expansion and retrenchment, increases and decreases in geographic coverage, and routing and coverage changes made together with fare changes. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers, professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MOPs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.


Park-and-Ride/Pool

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 3

Publication Date: 8/16/2004

This chapter covers travel demand and related aspects of providing and supporting park-and-ride and park-and-pool facilities. It addresses the facilities working together with supportive features and in coordination with high occupancy vehicle lanes; busways; bus rapid transit and other express bus services; light rail transit, commuter rail, and heavy rail transit facilities and services.


Transit Scheduling and Frequency

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 9

Publication Date: 5/25/2004

This report’s objective is to equip members of the transportation profession with a comprehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from, different types of transportation system changes and policy actions and alternative land use and site development design approaches.


Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs

Report Number: S-52

Publication Date: 5/10/2004

This synthesis documents current information on prevention and intervention strategies and resources that can be used by transit agencies. It offers survey information obtained from individuals with the responsibility for managing health and wellness programs. It also covers the state of the practice at 14 U.S. transit agencies of various sizes, operating different modes, in diverse locales around the nations. This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff concerned with proactively addressing operator health and wellness issues at their agencies.


Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual

Report Number: R-100

Publication Date: 1/27/2004

This manual is intended to be a fundamental reference document for public transit practitioners and policy makers. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability and quality of service from the passenger point of view. The manual contains quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity of bus, rail, and ferry transit services, and transit stops, stations, and terminals. Examples problems are included.


Bus Rapid Transit – Implementation Guidelines

Report Number: R-90 Volume 2

Publication Date: 1/7/2004

This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT – running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.


Travel Matters: Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Surface Transportation

Report Number: R-93

Publication Date: 11/7/2003

This report and the TravelMatters website www.TravelMatters.org provides key strategies for reducing transportation emissions increasing the use of transit, changing land-use patters, and adopting energy-efficient technologis and fuels in transit fleets. It is designed to present information on climate change and to examine how greenhouse gas emissions from transportation may be reduced. Both the print and web-based research products review the capacity of public transportation to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and present this information in a format accessible to transportation professionals and the general public.


Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide

Report Number: R-96

Publication Date: 11/6/2003

The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.


Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook

Report Number: R-86 Volume 4

Publication Date: 10/15/2003

This report is designed to address transit agencies’ needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.


Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update

Report Number: R-94

Publication Date: 10/13/2003

This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.


Yield to Bus – State of the Practice

Report Number: S-49

Publication Date: 10/13/2003

This report offers information on existing Yield to Bus programs and documents transit agency experiences for the benefit of others considering implementation of similar programs. It reports on curent knowledge and practice, in a compact format. The report documents information gathered about the legislative process and history; program implementtion, including public awareness and education campaigns, employee awareness and training, and the design and location of the yield display on the bus; as well as transit agency experiences covering transit operational issues, taffic operational issues, and public aceptance. It focuses on YTB programs in California, Florida, Oregon, Washington State, and British Columbia.


Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems

Report Number: S-48

Publication Date: 8/4/2003

This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. The report describes the state of the practice, including both U.S. and international experience. It documents survey information, a review of the relevant literature, as well as interviews with key personnel at agencies that have, or are in the process of, implementing these systems. This report will be of interest to transit staff concerned with implementing real-time bus arrival information systems at their agencies.


Bus Rapid Transit: Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit

Report Number: R-90 Volume 1

Publication Date: 8/1/2003

Transit agencies need guidance on how to successfully implement BRT in the political, institutional, and operational context of the United States. The transit profession lacks a consilidated set of principles for planning, designing, and operating BRT vehicles and facilities. This report provides information on the potential range of BRT applications, planning and implementation background, and system description, including the operations and performance elements.


Safety and Security Issues at All-Bus Systems in Small-to Medium-Sized Cities in Western Europe

Report Number: RRD-58

Publication Date: 5/28/2003

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated safety and security issues at all-bus systems. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the date presented. The report includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited, lessons learned, and discussions of policies and practices that could be applied in the United States.


A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System

Report Number: R-88

Publication Date: 1/29/2003

This guidebook will assist transit system managers in developing a performance-measurement system or program that uses traditional and non-traditional performance measures to address customer and community issues. The measures presented in the book will also be of interest to metorpolitan planning organizations interested in assessing the community benefits provided by transit service.


Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports

Report Number: R-83

Publication Date: 1/8/2003

This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.


Support for Fundamental Change in Public Transportation

Report Number: RRD-55

Publication Date: 1/8/2003

The aim of this digest is to inform and assist public transportation systems in the United States that are considering fundamental change to their organization. This digest was prepared as part of the third and final phase of “New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations; ” it addresses major dimensions of fundamental change; illustrates a few extraordinary, fundamental changes that are being pursued by transit organizations; and calls attention to immediate opportunities to support and sustain fundamental change in the U.S. transit industry.


A Summary of TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System

Report Number: RRD-56

Publication Date: 1/8/2003

This digest provides senior transit mangers with an easy-to-read summary of the contents of and tools in TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System. The guidebook provides a step-by-step process for developing a performance-measurement program that includes both traditional and non-traditional performance indicators that addresses customer-oriented and community issues. It is intended to introduce agency staff and decision-makers to the key performance-measurement concepts described in the guidebook. Information on obtaining the guidebook is on page 25.


Customer-Focused Transit

Report Number: S-45

Publication Date: 12/19/2002

In a number of transit agencies across the country there is an increasing focus on customer service and satisfaction. However, there is a perception among some stakeholders that customers service transit agencies lags behind that of other public and private service providers. There are some service providers and retailers (e.g., Federal Express, Southwest Airlines, Nordstrom’s) that enjoy a strong reputation for providing responsive customers service in their overall operation. Often, their reputation places them at a competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the public arena, several state departments of motor vehicles are beginning to enjoy a similar, strong customer service reputation. This is a comprehensive survey of what selected transit agencies are doing to implement agency wide, results oriented customer service programs.


A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection

Report Number: R-80

Publication Date: 10/18/2002

A significant number of rail transit operators are not or will be looking to adopt lower-cost, less-infrastructure-intensive ways to carry out certain system functions such as fare collection. This report addresses the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection (SSFC) systems, including those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues. The Toolkit is designed for use by agencies at various points in the fare collection decision process.


Communication of Threats: A Guide

Report Number: R-86 Volume 01

Publication Date: 9/5/2002

This is the first volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume offers information on a variety of approaches to improving the sharing of the threat information. Current practices, operational needs, technologies for threat information dissemination, and system functional requirements are discussed. Effective strategies for sharing analyzed and unanalyzed reports of suspicious activities and a path to an interoperable set of national, regional, and local threat-information forums are proposed.


Training for On-Board Bus Electronics

Report Number: S-44

Publication Date: 9/5/2002

This synthesis of current practice documents the procedures and resources used by transit agencies to provide employee training on advanced on-board electrical and electronic equipment and systems. The study is intended for senior managers charged with procuring, implementing, operating, and maintaining on-board E/E equipment, with the primary focus given to maintenance training.


Guidebook for Selecting Appropriate Technology Systems for Small Urban and Rural Public Transportation Operators

Report Number: R-76

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This report provides guidance to public transportation managers and other professionals in the selection of technology that is appropriate for the needs, size, and type of their operations. Study findings also have some applications to larger urban transit operations though the focus is on rural and small urban operations.


Identification of the Critical Workforce Development Issues in the Transit Industry

Report Number: RRD-45

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This digest identifies the key workforce challenges facing the public transportation industry, identifies current approaches to addressing those challenges, and suggests an agenda that the public transportation industry can use to move forward in the important area of work-force development.


Supplemental Analysis of National Survey on Contracting Transit Services

Report Number: RRD-46

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This digest describes findings from a follow-on study designed to analyze in greater detail the data obtained from the agency and general manager surveys on contracting conducted as part of the study, “Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience,” The original study was published as TRB Special Report 258.


Transportation on College and University Campuses

Report Number: S-39

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This report offers survey information from 30 campus transit agencies including insights into the lessons learned and issues related to planning, implementing, and operating campus transit service. The focus is on the recent trend toward unlimited access funding systems for campus transit service, whereby students, faculty, staff, and in some cases, nonuniversity-affiliated residents of a campus community are afforded unlimited use of transit service without paying a fare.


The Use of Small Buses in Transit Services

Report Number: S-41

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This synthesis focuses on the use of small buses 30 ft. or less in length, as replacements for large buses in fixed-route deviation or demand-response service. It reports on various practices making specific recommendations where appropriate but without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Offered in this report are responses from 94 public transit agencies in North America – how they were using small buses and their experiences with them.


Effective Practices to Reduce Bus Accidents

Report Number: R-66

Publication Date: 6/26/2001

This report provides effective accident prevention practices used by small, medium, and large transit systems, as well as by fleet operators outside the transit industry that have reduced bus accidents. Particular emphasis is placed on practices that could be directly linked to reduce accident rates. Most information is obtained from 182 transit systems in the United States and in Canada and from statewide transit insurance pools in six states. The safety practice profile for each transit agency describes the management’s approach to system safety, recruiting and hiring practices, training programs, programs for providing incentives for safe driving, procedures for monitoring driver performance, and other specialized practices.


Part-time Transit Operations: The Trends and Impacts

Report Number: R-68

Publication Date: 4/9/2001

This report examine how part-time labor has affected the cost and performance of transit systems over the past 25 years and consider how part-time labor can be meaningfully incorporated into the workforce while avoiding potential negative impacts. This research reflects concern for transit system operating costs, safety, service, reliability, customer satisfaction, labor-management relations, and employee satisfaction.


Evaluation of Bus Bulbs

Report Number: R-65

Publication Date: 3/23/2001

This report produces guidelines to assist transit agencies, local government, and other public bodies in locating and designing bus stops that consider bus patrons’ convenience, safety and access to sites as well as safe transit operations and traffic flow. The second phase of this report evaluates bus bulbs, an innovation in the design of bus stops found in several major North American cites. This research project was a continuation of TCRP Project A-10, “Location and Design of Bus Stops on Major Streets and Highways,” which culminated with TCRP Report 19, “Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops.”


New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations

Report Number: R-58

Publication Date: 12/29/2000

This report presents key ideas and principles that point the way to fundamental change. It addresses why fundamental change is now needed in public transportation and how other businesses and industries have responded to similar factors and forces in the recent past. Six broad challenges that currently drive the need for fundamental change in public transportation are presented. The report progress logically from an assessment of the current organization of the transit industry to a summary of the fundamental elements of a public transportation paradigm shift based on lessons learned from other industries.


Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports

Report Number: R-62

Publication Date: 12/29/2000

This report provides a wealth of information about the current status of public transportation services and their use at large airports in the United States and around the world. It identifies strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through increased awareness of issues and best industry practices. Key factors affecting passenger and employee use of public transportation for airport access is presented. Market trends and factors affecting ridership at nine U.S. airports with direct rail service are presented as well as trends and factors at U.S. airports with rubber-tired access systems such as prearranged limousines, shared-ride vans, express buses, and multistop buses. The report will be of interest to individuals involved in planning and implementing improved public transportation access to large airports.


Guidebook for Developing Welfare-to-Work Transportation Services

Report Number: R-64

Publication Date: 12/8/2000

This guidebook provides information about the role of transportation in supporting welfare-to-work initiatives and identifies practical strategies to improve access to job opportunities for former welfare recipients making the transition to work. It also describes service approaches that include modifications to existing mass transit services, coordination between transportation services, ride-sharing programs, automobile ownership programs, and collaborations between faith-based and community-based groups.


Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials: Application and Refinement

Report Number: RRD-38

Publication Date: 12/1/2000

This digest analyzes the performance of buses along bus lanes on downtown streets. Additional field observations and measurements were used to test and refine the bus capacity and speed estimating procedures set forth in TCRP Report 26 “Operational Analyses of Bus Lanes on Arterials.”


Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring Systems

Report Number: S-34

Publication Date: 12/1/2000

Data Analysis for Bus Planning and Monitoring Systems Abstract: This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, their schedule and operations planning staff, and others who are responsible for information about systems operations and ridership. It will also be of interest to others who interact with transit agencies in the reporting of operations data to support regular scheduling and operations planning activities for monitoring trends and reporting to oversight agencies. This synthesis reviews the state of the practice in how data are analyzed. It addresses methods used to analyze data and what computer systems are used to process and store data. It also covers accuracy issues, including measurement errors, and other problems, including errors in estimates. This TRB report addresses agency experience with different data collection systems, giving attention to management error, the need for sampling, and methods for screening, editing, and compensating for data imperfection. Sample reports from selected U.S. and Canadian transit agencies are reproduced in this synthesis.


Analyzing the Costs of Operating Small Transit Vehicles

Report Number: R-61

Publication Date: 8/28/2000

This User’s Guide explains the accompanying Small Transit Vehicle economics (STVe) model — a tool designed for transit planners and others making decisions about the purchase of small transit vehicles for different services and operating environments. The User’s Guide describes how to run the model and interpret its results.


Simulators and Bus Safety: Guidelines for Acquiring and Using Transit Bus Operator Driving Simulators

Report Number: R-72

Publication Date: 2/2/2000

This report provides guidance to transit agecny managers on whether to purchase a driving simulator and, if so, what kind. Also, this document provides guidance on how to use simulation effectively to improve bus operator training and safety. The guideline are designed to be used by transit-operations management, human resource management, training instructors, operations and safety personnel.


Toolbox for Transit Operator Fatigue

Report Number: R-81

Publication Date: 2/2/2000

The role that operator fatigue plays in mass transit safety has become one of the central issues that U.S. bus and rail transit agencies must address. Fatigue is increasing cited as a contributing factor in bus and rail transit accidents. The National Transportation Safety Board lists human fatigue as an area where significant improvement is needed in order to increase transportation safety. In addition to reducing accidents, mitigating fatigue can also reduce the cost of transit operations. Costs due to lost productivity, employee absenteeism, employee turnover rate, reduced morale, and increased wear and tear on equipment are affected by employee fatigue.


Hazard Assessment of Alternative-Fuel-Related Systems in Transit Bus Operaitons

Report Number: RRD-39

Publication Date: 2/1/2000

A new tool is available for assessing fuel-related hazards on transit buses. It is built on quantitative analysis (summarized in this digest) that shows where the key risks for fuel-related hazards in compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefield natural gas (LNG) are expected. The Alternative-Fuel Transit Bus Hazard Assessment Model (the model) is designed as an Excel spreedsheet tool that can be tailored to the characteristics of a particular fleet and facility after reading the “One-Page User’s Guide.” Download the model and its accompanying final report/user’s guide from the TCRP web site at http://www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+C-11. The model and the final report are also available on CD-ROM as CRP-CD-4 through the American Public Transportation Association’s TCRP Dissemination web site at http://www.apta.com/tcrp.


Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems

Report Number: R-54

Publication Date: 10/14/1999

This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and “how to” instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the “cross-cutting” topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.


Joint Operation of Light Rail Transit or Diesel Multiple Unit Vehicles with Railroads

Report Number: R-52

Publication Date: 6/30/1999

The report identifies and discusses issues associated with joint operation focusing on the current regulatory and institutional environment, railroad and rail transit operations, infrastructure, and rolling stock. It also examines issues relevant to the safe operation of rail transit services with railroads; prioritizes the most critical issues affecting such joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles that do not meet current U.S. railroad regulations, standards, or practices; and offers potential guidance on the most critical issues pertaining to implementing joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles. This report will be of interest to transit managers, planning and operations professionals, policy makers, and others interested in the potential for joint operations of light rail transit (LRT) or lightweight diesel multiple unit (DMU) vehicles with freight and/or passenger railroads.


Passenger Information Services: A Guidebook for Transit Systems

Report Number: R-45

Publication Date: 4/7/1999

This guidebook will be of interest to marketing and graphics professionals, customer service personnel, schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the design, distribution, and placement of passenger information materials for public transit systems. This guidebook provides instructions for designing passenger information aids. The research focused on traditional media (e.g., schedules, maps, and signage) for presentation of information. The guidebook consists of three sections. The first section addresses the basic information needs of transit passengers, including wayfinding behavior and decision making during a trip. The second section describes route guidance information and, where appropriates, provides examples to illustrate this information. The third section discusses the design and format details for information aids (e.g., print sizes, visual contrast, use of color and symbols, and map legends).


New Designs and Operating Experiences with Low-Flow Buses

Report Number: R-41

Publication Date: 12/31/1998

This report will be of interest to transit managers, policymakers, operations and maintenance professionals, bus procurement specialists, bus manufacturers and suppliers, and others interested in operating experience to date with low-floor transit buses. The report provides information on the current market for low-floor buses and provides a summary of operating experiences on the basis of discussions with transit agencies and low-floor bus manufacturers. The report includes information on customer satisfaction and acceptance, bus capacity and ridership impacts, bus operating experiences, impacts on maintenance and facilities, safety experiences, and operator and mechanic acceptance and satisfaction. Also included is a discussion of the current market and market trends for low-floor buses, an update of the status of low-floor bus technology and technological developments, and a summary of key specifications for low-floor buses available to the North American transit market. This report will be particularly useful for transit agencies considering the deployment of low-floor transit buses.


Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals

Report Number: R-30

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This manual will be of great interest to new transit schedulers, experienced schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the scheduling process. The manual is divided up into two sections: a basic treatment and an advanced section. The foremost is in an instructional format, designed primarily for novice schedulers and other transit staff. The advanced section covers more complex scheduling requirements.


Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials

Report Number: R-26

Publication Date: 11/19/1997

This report contains guidelines for estimating bus lane capacities and speeds along arterial streets. It recommends level-of-service thresholds for buses based on speed, and it presents procedures for estimating the speed of buses using dedicated bus lanes on arterial streets.


AVL Systems for Bus Transit

Report Number: S-24

Publication Date: 6/1/1997

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, planning, scheduling, safety, and procurement staff, as well as agency communications and engineering staff. It addresses various aspects of developing and deploying automated vehicle location ( AVL) systems over the last 20 years. Current practice, AVL architecture and technologies, and the institutional context of AVL defined in terms of funding, justification, staffing and procurement are discussed. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes the different approaches to AVL deployment used at selected transit agencies. It attempts to define the role of AVL for bus transit by examining objectives of implementation and both technological and operational frameworks.


Customer Information at Bus Stops

Report Number: S-17

Publication Date: 12/1/1996

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, facilities and maintenance, and marketing and customer service staffs, as well as to other municipal transportation and marketing professionals. It addresses user information systems and describes current transit agency practices regarding customer information at bus stops within the text and through tables and multiple graphic illustrations. Types of signs and supplemental information displays, program implementation considerations, program effectiveness and advanced technology applications are also covered. Transit agency case studies detail five different perspectives on the development and deployment of on-street programs.


Bus Occupant Safety

Report Number: S-18

Publication Date: 12/1/1996

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, safety, and risk management staffs, as well as agency human resources, personnel, and training staffs. It offers information on the current practices of transit agencies to reduce injuries to bus occupants during collisions and injuries to passengers while boarding, riding, and leaving the bus. This synthesis covers characteristics of bus occupant safety and transit agency programs for reductions of accidents/incidents such as those addressing driver and customer safety, vehicle improvement needs and safety inspections, bus stops and stations, safety management, and state transit agencies and transit operating companies


Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops

Report Number: R-19

Publication Date: 11/22/1996

This report will be of interest to individuals and groups with a stake in the location and design of bus stops. This includes those associated with public transportation organizations, public works departments, local departments of transportation, developers, and public and private organizations along or near bus routes. The primary objective of this research was to develop guidelines for locating and designing bus stops in various operating environments. These guidelines will assist transit agencies, local governments, and other public bodies in locating and designing bus stops that consider bus patrons’ convenience, safety, and access to sites as well as safe transit operations and traffic flow.


Guidelines for Transit Facility Signing and Graphics

Report Number: R-12

Publication Date: 5/15/1996

This report documents and presents the results of a research project to develop a graphics design manual describing the use of signs and symbols which provide for the safe, secure, and efficient movement of passengers to and through transit facilities. During the course of this 18-month project, existing signs and symbols were reviewed worldwide; compliance with ADAAG (Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines) was determined for existing signs; new signs and symbols were developed in five functional categories, namely, Identification, Directional, Processing, Regulatory, and Warning; the key signs were tested by focus groups representing major types of disability, as well as transit users and non-users; a standard design manual of signs and symbols was developed that could be used by transit agencies nationwide; and a plan was developed to achieve maximum dissemination of the guidelines nationwide to transit entities.


Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors

Report Number: S-16

Publication Date: 1/1/1996

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, personnel, human resources and training staffs, bus operations staffs, as well as to other transportation, human resources, and training professionals. The roles and responsibilities of bus field supervisors are addressed, including emerging concerns about how to improve the relationship between supervisors and bus operators, while placing supervisors in a more positive role; how to obtain a greater return from employee productivity with tightening budgets and declining ridership; and how to improve customer service. This report of the Transportation Research Board provides information about current and innovative supervisory practices at selected transit agencies. It covers information about the expectations that organizations have for their supervisors; recruitment and selection; training; new or revised regulations; and the perceived impacts of new technologies at some transit agencies


Transit Operations for Individuals with Disabilities

Report Number: R-9

Publication Date: 12/15/1995The goal of TCRP Research Project B-1 is to develop information to assist local transit providers in the implementation of appropriate service options and enhancements to serve individuals with disabilities. The specific research objective, consistent with this goal, is the development of a methodology for transit managers and planners to design and evaluate integrated transit systems that (1) provide accessible integrated service complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (2) facilitate the appropriate use of paratransit service; and (3) support service or system enhancements to encourage travel on accessible fixed routes by individuals with disabilities. This Research Results Digest presents the Phase I findings. Phase I, which was completed in Fall 1993, identified service options and described enhancements.


Bus Route Evaluation Standards

Report Number: S-10

Publication Date: 12/1/1995This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, as well as operations, scheduling, maintenance, and planning personnel. Information on bus route evaluation standards and criteria used by transit agencies in the United States and Canada is summarized. The synthesis provides updated information to the 1984 United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) report entitled Bus Service Evaluation Methods: A Review, however, the results are not directly comparable as the respondents, questions asked, and analytical procedures differ in the 1994 synthesis. It does report what agencies do in the area of bus route, not system, evaluation standards, and how they undertake these efforts.


System-Specific Spare Bus Ratios

Report Number: S-11

Publication Date: 12/1/1995

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers; operations, planning, maintenance, and finance personnel; as well as to regional, state, and federal funding agencies, and others concerned with the provision of safe and efficient public transit service. This synthesis documents critical site-specific variables that influence transit agencies’ spare bus ratio policies. It profiles a select group of transit agencies of varying sizes and geographic locations and describes their operating environments in order to relate how these affect the number of spare buses each agency needs to meet its service requirements. This report of the Transportation Research Board provides information to familiarize transit agency staff with the unique and different operational, environmental, and political factors that affect optimal fleet size at various transit agencies. It describes the efforts of agencies striving to achieve and maintain lower spare ratios while continuously challenged with ridership fluctuations, aging fleets, as well as operating environments, maintenance programs, fleet mixes, roadcalls, training programs, and management and finance considerations.


Low-Floor Transit Buses

Report Number: S-2

Publication Date: 12/1/1994

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers; operations, maintenance, and planning managers; and other personnel concerned with operational experiences of low-floor transit buses in fixed route service and with the viability of this technology in meeting the transit industry’s accessibility goals for the future. Information on low-floor transit buses operating in the United States and Canada, including technical specifications as well as status reports on buses manufactured in North America; buses under development; and buses under development; and buses in Europe, obtained from the contacts with international organizations is included. It contains descriptions of standard low-floor buses, as well as another smaller bus used primarily in paratransit service.


Integration of Bicycles and Transit

Report Number: S-4

Publication Date: 12/1/1994

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, bicyclists and other personnel interested in the subject of integrating bicycles and transit operations, including the issues of safety, equipment procurement, scheduling, and interjurisdictional cooperation. Information on bicycle-on-ferry programs is included. This report of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) describes the characteristics of various bicycle-transit programs, including operation, equipment, and other issues for bus, rail, and ferry applications. It includes experiences from various transit agencies in the United States that are successfully integrating bicycles into their operations, as well as information derived from the literature on the subject.

Battery Electric Buses – State of the Practice

Report Number: S-130

Publication Date: 3/22/2018

This report documents current practices of transit systems in the planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, operation, and maintenance of battery electric buses (BEBs). The synthesis is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. The synthesis will also be valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.


Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Between Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles

Report Number: R-195

Publication Date: 1/25/2018

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This report is a pre-publication, non-edited draft version. The study broadens the understanding of the interplay among emerging and established modes of transportation. Built upon the findings ofTCRP Research Report 188, this report explores how shared modes—and ridesourcing companies in particular—interact with the use of public transit and personal automobiles.


Technology Contracting for Transit Projects

Report Number: LRD-51

Publication Date: 9/3/2017

This report examines issues that transit attorneys should be aware of when drafting technology contracts. It addresses how provisions differ depending on the nature of the contract, the type of technology being procured, and whether the system is controlled internally or externally by the agency. Specific focus is given to cloud computing as an alternative delivery mode, and indemnification. This digest also discusses federal, state, and local industry standards regarding liability and warranties, and the contract language that should be used to protect against data breaches, including inadvertent release of personal information.


Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit

Report Number: R-188

Publication Date: 9/15/2016

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This report examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand-responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. Additionally, it examines issues and explores opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes.


Optimizing Bus Warranty

Report Number: S-111

Publication Date: 4/10/2014

This synthesis explores how some transit agencies address key aspects of their warranty programs. The report examines the steps taken to more accurately monitor warranty coverage periods, optimize the warranty process, and maximize warranty reimbursement to fulfill U.S. Federal Transit Administration requirements and taxpayer expectations. Click on the link to order a hard copy.https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7145


Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies

Report Number: S-106

Publication Date: 7/31/2013

This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.


Use of Electronic Passenger Information Signage in Transit

Report Number: S-104

Publication Date: 6/4/2013

This synthesis documents U.S. and international use of electronic passenger information signage in terms of the underlying technology, sign technology, characteristics of the information, resources required, and decision processes used to determine its use.


Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation

Report Number: S-99

Publication Date: 5/3/2012

This report explores the use of social media among transit agencies and documents successful practices in the United States and Canada. For the purposes of the report, social media are defined as a group of web-based applications that encourage users to interact with one another, such as blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr, Foursquare, and MySpace.


Sustainable Public Transportation: Environmentally Friendly Mobility

Report Number: RRD-103

Publication Date: 12/12/2011

This digest is an overview of an international study mission that explored how public transportation systems in several cities in India and China have implemented plans, policies, technologies, and strategies for creating more livable communities through bus, metro, bus rapid transit, rail, and light rail systems. The Indian and Chinese systems visited were designed to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, lower operating costs, and provide safe and accessible transportation services.


Use and Deployment of Mobile Device Technology for Real-Time Transit Information

Report Number: S-91

Publication Date: 11/11/2011

This synthesis examines the use and deployment of real-time transit information on mobile devices. It explores the underlying technology required to generate the information to be disseminated, the mobile technology used for dissemination, the characteristics of the information, the resources required to successfully deploy information on mobile devices, and the contribution of mobile messaging to an overall agency communications strategy, including “information equity.”


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Technology

Report Number: R-132

Publication Date: 12/19/2009

This report explores decision-making guidelines coupled with a comprehensive life cycle cost (LCC) model designed to assist transit managers in evaluating, selecting, and implementing hybrid-electric technology options for transit buses. The LCC model allows the user to compare the total life cycle costs across several cost categories for up to 6 different purchase scenarios. The LCC model is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-71), with the printed version of the report and available for download as an ISO image online.


Transit, Call Centers, and 511: A Guide for Decision Makers

Report Number: R-134

Publication Date: 8/20/2009

This report explores the operational characteristics of 511 telephone traveler information systems and examines how 511 systems interact with transit system call centers. This report inventories existing 511 systems throughout the country, documents the extent of transit participation and transit agency experiences with 511, and presents guidance to assist transit agencies and 511 system administrators in determining a transit-511 telephone strategy.


Public Transportation’s Role in Addressing Global Climate Change

Report Number: RRD-89

Publication Date: 3/25/2009

This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation’s role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.


Passenger Counting Systems

Report Number: S-77

Publication Date: 1/28/2009

This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.


Transit Systems in College and University Communities

Report Number: S-78

Publication Date: 12/24/2008

This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations


Leveraging ITS Data for Transit Market Research: A Practitioner’s Guidebook

Report Number: R-126

Publication Date: 7/8/2008

This publication describes currently used intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and Transit ITS technologies that have the greatest promise for transit market research. This guidebook documents ITS and Transit ITS technologies currently in use, assesses their potential to provide market research data, and presents methods for collecting and analyzing these data. Also, the guidebook provides three in-depth case studies that illustrate how ITS data have been successfully used to improve market research practices.


Policies and Practices for Effectively and Efficiently Meeting ADA Paratransit Demand

Report Number: S-74

Publication Date: 7/7/2008

This synthesis covers a wide range of policies and practices that transit agencies use to provide services to persons with disabilities more effectively and efficiently.


AVL Systems for Bus Transit: Update

Report Number: S-73

Publication Date: 5/20/2008

This publication explores the uses of computer-aided dispatch/automatic vehicle location (CAD/AVL) systems in fixed-route and demand-responsive services (bus AVL), as well as changes in agency practices related to the use of AVL systems.


Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards

Report Number: LRD-25

Publication Date: 5/12/2008

This publication examines basic privacy issues associated with the acquisition and storage of financial and trip data associated with the use of a transit smart card. The report explores who can access the data collected, what data may be accessed and under what conditions, and how the information can be used.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers

Report Number: R-86 Volume 13

Publication Date: 10/15/2007

This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.


Rail Passenger Safety: Equipment and Technologies

Report Number: RRD-85

Publication Date: 8/30/2007

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated European rail safety programs. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the observations of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.


Mobile Data Terminals

Report Number: S-70

Publication Date: 6/4/2007

This report contains information about the rapidly changing wireless communications infrastructure that supports mobile date terminal deployment in transit. It reflects state-of-the-practice information from selected transit agencies surveyed across the United States, as well as very specific information on the capability of mobile data computers offered by technology vendors to the industry.


Smartcard Interoperability Issues for the Transit Industry

Report Number: R-115

Publication Date: 1/30/2007

This report defines interoperability; identifies key information needed by public agencies to implement smartcard payment systems interoperability; describes the necessary information flows; and outlines a set of functions needed for a standard public domain application programming interface that may be used in the development of a uniform application protocol data unit (APDU).


Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture

Report Number: R-84 Volume 5

Publication Date: 10/25/2004

TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.


Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Status, Issues, and Benefits

Report Number: R-59

Publication Date: 6/12/2004

This report presents an up-to-date description of emerging hybrid-electric drive technology for transit buses in the United States. The technology and its status, benefits, life-cycle costs, and deployment issues are discussed. This report is intended to provide transit agencies with information to compare the emissions and fuel economy expected from hybrid-electric transit buses with those expected from clean diesel or alternatively fueled buses.


Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide

Report Number: R-96

Publication Date: 11/6/2003

The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.


Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook

Report Number: R-86 Volume 4

Publication Date: 10/15/2003

This report is designed to address transit agencies’ needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.


Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update

Report Number: R-94

Publication Date: 10/13/2003

This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.


E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation – Advanced Features of Transit Websites

Report Number: R-84 Volume 4

Publication Date: 5/28/2003

This report explores the potential of the following advanced website features for the transit industry: automated intinerary planning systems, real-time transit information, e-mail notification, and the application of custoemr relationship management concepts to these services. It provides an overview of the implementation, technology, value creation, lessons learned, and best practices associated with web-based advanced features.


Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification

Report Number: R-84 Volume 3

Publication Date: 3/5/2003

This report is the third volume in the TCRP Report 84 series, it is the result of an investigation into the potential of web-based training (WBT) as a means of providing effective, high-quality training to the transit industry. A key source of information in the study was a panel of subject matter experts (SMEs), each of whom has expertise and experience in some combination of transportation training, WBT, and intelligent transportation systems. The study findings are included.


E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation Volume 2 — Application Service Provider Implementation

Report Number: R-84 Volume 2

Publication Date: 12/19/2002

This report will be published as multiple volumes; Volume 2: Application Service Provide Implementation Guidelines presents the results of an investigation into the use of application service providers (ASPs) and thin client computing technologies by transit agencies. The characteristics and market position of ASPs were investigated, and the strengths and market position of ASPs were investigated, and the strengths and weaknesses of this computing serivce model were identified. The ASPs business model provides a viable alternative for transit agencies seeking to add new or replace existing computing services.


Communication of Threats: A Guide

Report Number: R-86 Volume 01

Publication Date: 9/5/2002

This is the first volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume offers information on a variety of approaches to improving the sharing of the threat information. Current practices, operational needs, technologies for threat information dissemination, and system functional requirements are discussed. Effective strategies for sharing analyzed and unanalyzed reports of suspicious activities and a path to an interoperable set of national, regional, and local threat-information forums are proposed.


Training for On-Board Bus Electronics

Report Number: S-44

Publication Date: 9/5/2002

This synthesis of current practice documents the procedures and resources used by transit agencies to provide employee training on advanced on-board electrical and electronic equipment and systems. The study is intended for senior managers charged with procuring, implementing, operating, and maintaining on-board E/E equipment, with the primary focus given to maintenance training.


Guidebook for Selecting Appropriate Technology Systems for Small Urban and Rural Public Transportation Operators

Report Number: R-76

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This report provides guidance to public transportation managers and other professionals in the selection of technology that is appropriate for the needs, size, and type of their operations. Study findings also have some applications to larger urban transit operations though the focus is on rural and small urban operations.


Technology and Joint Development of Cost Effective Transit Systems in the Asian Pacific Region

Report Number: RRD-42

Publication Date: 12/1/2001

This digest summaries the Asian Pacific region mission performed under TCRP Project J-3, “International Transit Studies Program. The report includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited, lessons learned, and discussions of policies and practices that could be applied in the United States.


Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Transit Environment

Report Number: S-37

Publication Date: 12/1/2000

This synthesis focuses on the communication techniques for persons with sensory and cognitive disabilities, and describes current North American transit practices in information and communication technologies, as well as operations, implementation, and human factor issues. Attention is given to information and communication technologies related to planning, customer service, marketing, and training that can improve the travel experience for all persons traveling in a transit environment.


Electronic Surveillance Technology on Transit Vehicles

Report Number: S-38

Publication Date: 12/1/2000

This report describes the state of the practice concerning the use of on-board vehicle surveillance technologies designed to address both safety and security issues at public transportation agencies. Issues and shortcomings with surveillance are addresed, including financial, legal, maintenance, and procedural concerns.


Analyzing the Costs of Operating Small Transit Vehicles

Report Number: R-61

Publication Date: 8/28/2000

This User’s Guide explains the accompanying Small Transit Vehicle economics (STVe) model — a tool designed for transit planners and others making decisions about the purchase of small transit vehicles for different services and operating environments. The User’s Guide describes how to run the model and interpret its results.


The Role of Transit Amenities and Vehicle Characteristics in Building Transit Ridership

Report Number: R-046

Publication Date: 12/28/1999

This report consists of a Handbook and a Workbook. The Handbook identifies and describes passenger amenities and transit vehicle characteristics that attract ridership and explores how amenities may affect ridership. The Workbook includes information gathered from passenger surveys, focus groups, discussion sessions, and transit agency staff on the effect of recently implemented transit amenities on passengers. As a companion to the Workbook, a disk, The Transit Design Game, enables transit agencies to survey their customers about their priorities for enhancements and estimate the potential effect of enhancements on ridership.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-37

Publication Date: 12/1/1999

This digest is a staff digest of the progress and status of the Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems for which the Transportation Research Board conducts its research.


Understanding and Applying Advanced on-Board Bus Electronics

Report Number: R-43

Publication Date: 1/7/1999

This report will be of interest to transit managers, operations and maintenance professionals, bus procurement specialists, bus manufacturers and suppliers, and others interested in the application of advanced electronics to transit buses. The report provides an overview of electronics and its application to buses and other transportation sectors. The report then addresses electronic integration, potential benefits offered by integration, and transit agency experiences with the technology. The report concludes with guidelines for implementing transit bus electronics. It is intended to be a primer on the subject, providing essential background information to serve as a starting point for acquiring additional knowledge.


New Designs and Operating Experiences with Low-Flow Buses

Report Number: R-41

Publication Date: 12/31/1998

This report will be of interest to transit managers, policymakers, operations and maintenance professionals, bus procurement specialists, bus manufacturers and suppliers, and others interested in operating experience to date with low-floor transit buses. The report provides information on the current market for low-floor buses and provides a summary of operating experiences on the basis of discussions with transit agencies and low-floor bus manufacturers. The report includes information on customer satisfaction and acceptance, bus capacity and ridership impacts, bus operating experiences, impacts on maintenance and facilities, safety experiences, and operator and mechanic acceptance and satisfaction. Also included is a discussion of the current market and market trends for low-floor buses, an update of the status of low-floor bus technology and technological developments, and a summary of key specifications for low-floor buses available to the North American transit market. This report will be particularly useful for transit agencies considering the deployment of low-floor transit buses.


Technology Assessment of Refueling.Connection Devices for CNG,LNG,and Propane

Report Number: RRD-25

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This digest provides an assessment of current and emerging refueling- connection-device (nozzle) technologies (both domestic and international) for fueling alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The nozzle technologies discussed in this digest are those used for refueling with compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, commonly referred to as propane). The discussion covers all types of nozzles for the listed fuels. However, the analytical work focuses on nozzles used in heavy-duty applications, specifically, transit buses. This project, TCRP Project C-7, was conducted by Science Applications International Corporation.


Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Fuel Choices for Transit Bus Operations

Report Number: R-38

Publication Date: 10/15/1998

This guidebook and its accompanying cost-model spreadsheet (Fuel Cost 1. 0) will be of interest to transit managers, policymakers, operations and maintenance professionals, and others considering the deployment of, or conversion to, alternative fuel buses. They are intended for individuals who, while being quite knowledgeable about the transit industry, may not be familiar with alternative fuels and implementation issues.


Bus Operator Workstation Evaluation and Design Guidelines

Report Number: R-25

Publication Date: 8/30/1997

This report will be of interest to transit managers, bus specification engineers, bus manufacturers, and bus operator workstation component manufacturers concerned with improving the ergonomic design of the bus operator workstation to improve bus operator comfort, and reduce bus operator injuries and related absenteeism and workers’ compensation claims. The report provides scientifically validated design guidelines that ergonomically accommodate operators from the 5th percentile female to the 95th percentile male population. The design guidelines address all aspects of the bus operator workstation including the seat, steering assembly, pedals, instrument panels, farebox, and other equipment. While attempting to minimize the amount of required component adjustability to contain cost, adjustment is included in several key components including instrument panels, seat, and steering assembly. It is estimated that the workstation improvements identified in the design guidelines would increase the price of a standard transit bus by approximately $6,000, with a payback period of between 3.5 and 8 years based on direct cost savings associated with estimated reductions in bus operator injuries. Indirect cost savings such as the need for fewer replacement operators would further reduce this payback period.


AVL Systems for Bus Transit

Report Number: S-24

Publication Date: 6/1/1997

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, planning, scheduling, safety, and procurement staff, as well as agency communications and engineering staff. It addresses various aspects of developing and deploying automated vehicle location ( AVL) systems over the last 20 years. Current practice, AVL architecture and technologies, and the institutional context of AVL defined in terms of funding, justification, staffing and procurement are discussed. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes the different approaches to AVL deployment used at selected transit agencies. It attempts to define the role of AVL for bus transit by examining objectives of implementation and both technological and operational frameworks.


Procurement Specification Guidelines for Mass Transit Vehicle Window Glazing

Report Number: R-15

Publication Date: 9/15/1996

This final report documents findings of a study concerning the enhancement of durability and vandal resistance of transit vehicle passenger-side windows. This report includes background information on the durability of transparent window materials. Also included are results and analyses of surveys of selected domestic and foreign transit authorities, surveys of window manufacturers serving the transit industry, surveys of window manufacturers serving other industries, surveys of research organizations serving the transit industry, and surveys of transit vehicle manufacturers. The focus of these surveys was to define window issues for the transit industry, with special focus on current practices, durability and vandalism issues, and existent or emerging technologies including material solutions or preventative measures, which result in longer lasting more durable transit glazing systems.


Impact of Radio Frequency Refarming on Transit Communications

Report Number: R-11

Publication Date: 3/15/1996

This report will be of interest to general managers, operations managers, and communications specialists responsible for communications systems within transit and paratransit organizations. The report provides information concerning the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rules governing the refarming of the land mobile radio spectrum and their impacts on current and future transit communication system requirements. The report contains a non-technical executive summary that describes the rules issued in June 1995 by the FCC regarding the refarming of radio frequencies, provides an overview of the impacts of radio frequency refarming, and offers potential courses of action for transit and paratransit systems. In addition, the report provides more detailed technical information for communications specialists, and includes several examples of potential cost impacts to transit and paratransit systems.


Electronic On-Vehicle Passenger Information Displays (Visual and Audible)

Report Number: RRD-5

Publication Date: 12/1/1995This TCRP Digest provides the interim results of TCRP Project A-4, Electronic On-Vehicle Passenger Information Displays (Visual and Audible). The project explores ways in which transit agencies and transit users can benefit from on-board audio and visual display technologies. The major focus of this project is on the information needs of passengers while on board transit vehicles. This Digest summarizes passenger information needs, agency concerns, and the current and emerging display technologies. It is organized as follows: Introduction; Needs Assessment; Synthesis of Technologies; Conclusions; and Future Research.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-8

Publication Date: 12/1/1995This staff digest summarizes the progress and status of TCRP Project J- 7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Included in this digest are tables listing (1) Synthesis Studies in progress as of December 1995, (2) Members of TCRP Project Committee J-7, (3) Published TCRP Syntheses, and (4) Index to Syntheses and Studies.


Low-Floor Transit Buses

Report Number: S-2

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers; operations, maintenance, and planning managers; and other personnel concerned with operational experiences of low-floor transit buses in fixed route service and with the viability of this technology in meeting the transit industry’s accessibility goals for the future. Information on low-floor transit buses operating in the United States and Canada, including technical specifications as well as status reports on buses manufactured in North America; buses under development; and buses under development; and buses in Europe, obtained from the contacts with international organizations is included. It contains descriptions of standard low-floor buses, as well as another smaller bus used primarily in paratransit service.


Retrofit of Buses to Meet Clean Air Regulations

Report Number: S-8

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This report of the Transportation Research Board addresses risk management practices, their systematic application, and the measurement of program results. It emphasizes liability and worker’s compensation risks and insurance, but the discussion applies to property risks and insurance, as well. It contains information on differing transit agencies’ risk management experiences. To develop this synthesis in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of public transportation agencies.


Safe Operating Procedures for Alternative Fuel Bus

Report Number: S-1

Publication Date: 12/1/1993This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, maintenance managers, and other personnel concerned with the operation of bus fleets using alternative fuels to meet national and local requirements related to air quality and energy diversification. Information on the use of methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquified petroleum gas (LPG), liquified natural gas (LNG), and other alternatives is included. Many aspects of handling and use of alternative fuels differ from conventional diesel and gasoline fuel used by transit agencies and are not yet covered by regulations, standards, or generally accepted practice. While many agencies have only limited experience with prototype alternative fuel buses, others have demonstrated effective techniques and practices for safe operation of both the buses and the refueling and maintenance facilities. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes the characteristics of various alternative fuels in use by transit agencies and discusses several aspects of these fuels and handling practices. These include training -procedures, fuel storage and handling, maintenance operations considerations, facility requirements, issues related to the buses, facility and operating costs, and environmental considerations.


Evaluation of Economic Feasibility and Innovative Payment Plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN)

Report Number: IDEA-18

Publication Date: NODATE

This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.


Optimizing Travel Path for People with Disabilities

Report Number: IDEA-23

Publication Date: NODATE

This project developed a method for people with various types of disabilities to review barriers to travel before embarking on a transit trip so they can plan their routes to more easily reach destinations surrounding transit stations. The research analyzed typical travel barriers for the disabled around transit access points. A database of physical landscapes and barriers was developed and a prototype transit accessibility mapping system was implemented. An interactive 3D model in a CD format for presenting the accessibility information was demonstrated. The model is based on Metrolink light rail transit stops in the St. Louis, Missouri, region.


Designing Transit Services for the Mode-Choice Market Stage III Planning

Report Number: IDEA-26

Publication Date: NODATE

This project developed a “mobility index” that is a function of trip time by which to measure and map mobility in a metropolitan region for both auto and transit modes, as well as to identify opportunities and evaluate transit improvements for their impact on regional mobility. This includes a complementary market positioning exercise for mode-choice-focused transit services, employing focus groups and an ethnographic analytical methodology for identifying the explicit “bellwether” segment of the mode-choice market. The research uses the San Diego metropolitan area for a test bed, in collaboration with the major transit agency, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board(MTDB), and local and regional agencies, including the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Please note: This project is still in progress.


CD-ROM ParaSPEC Software

Report Number: ParSPC-1

Publication Date: NODATE

CD-ROM ParaSPEC Software

Microgrids and Their Application for Airports and Public Transit

Report Number:S-137

Publication Date: 8/17/2018

This report describes microgrids that airports and public transit agencies can implement to increase resilience of their critical infrastructure. A microgrid is described as a collection of loads, on-site energy sources, local energy storage systems, and an overarching control system. Developments in control technologies have seen advanced microgrid controllers expand microgrid functionality to create new value streams and revenue opportunities, increasing microgrid viability to many more sectors. This synthesis describes the benefits, challenges, costs, revenue streams, and ownership structures relevant to airports and public transit entities.


Battery Electric Buses – State of the Practice

Report Number:S-130

Publication Date: 3/22/2018

This report documents current practices of transit systems in the planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, operation, and maintenance of battery electric buses (BEBs). The synthesis is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. The synthesis will also be valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.


College Student Transit Pass Program

Report Number:S-131

Publication Date: 3/9/2018

This report focuses on the relationship established between transit agencies and universities and colleges, and documents current state of the practice to better develop and evaluate college student transit pass programs. Many transit agencies currently have student pass programs with colleges and universities. These programs have very different funding, fare and operating structures, and student demographics.


Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions

Report Number:R-196

Publication Date: 2/5/2018

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This report provides information about private transit services and ways they are addressing transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. The document provides an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, a review of their present scope and operating characteristics, and a discussion of ways they may affect the communities in which they operate along with several case studies and other supporting information. Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans and jitneys—have operated for decades in many American cities. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transit options. These include new types of public-private partnership that are helping to bridge first/last mile gaps in suburban areas. The report also examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits.


Updated Guide to Buy America Requirements—2015 Supplement

Report Number:LRD-49

Publication Date: 4/28/2017

This report examines various statutory and regulatory Buy America requirements that a state or local governmental entity must examine when receiving funds for a public transportation project from one or more USDOT agencies. The purpose of this Legal Research Digest is to update the earlier TRB legal research to provide a comprehensive and current summary of the FTA Buy America provision.


Practices For Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit

Report Number:S-128

Publication Date: 4/17/2017

This report provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.


Guide to Value Capture Financing for Public Transportation Projects

Report Number:R-190

Publication Date: 1/6/2017

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This report identifies the requirements necessary for successful value creation through transportation infrastructure investment and capturing a portion of that value through specific value capture mechanisms. It includes six case studies that provide practical examples of successful value capture from public transportation investments.


Economic Impact Case Study Tool for Transit

Report Number:R-186

Publication Date: 7/14/2016

This report presents the results of a project aimed at creating the prototype for a searchable, web-based database of public transit investment projects and their associated, transit-driven economic and land development outcomes. This information is intended to inform future planning efforts for transit-related projects, and to support better multi-modal planning.

This TCRP project builds upon a database established for highway projects under TRB’s second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP2) called Transportation Project Impact Case Studies (TPICS). The purpose of TPICS is to provide transportation planners with a consistent base of data on actual, documented economic and land development impacts of completed transit-related investments, along with descriptions of the nature and associated factors of the impact.

The report covers the design and development of the case study database and web tool, and includes a set of seven prototype case studies. The web tool and prototype cases can be found at http://transit.tpics.us.


Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who Are Homeless

Report Number:S-121

Publication Date: 3/14/2016

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This report reports on effective practices, approaches, and outcomes regarding interactions within the transit industry with people who are homeless. A literature review summarizes policies and practices used in both the transit and library communities. Because public libraries are similar to public transportation in offering services to all members of the general public and in being viewed as a safe haven for people who are homeless, the literature review includes an examination of library policies and procedures related to people who are homeless.


Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation

Report Number:R-177

Publication Date: 4/27/2015

This report explores attributes, implementation strategies, and applications of next generation transit fare payment (NGFP) systems. It also documents the state of the practice of emerging fare payments options for public transportation; develops a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States; and evaluates the pros and cons of the options presented in the typology.


Guidance for Developing a Transit Asset Management Plan

Report Number:R-172

Publication Date: 12/23/2014

This report provides tools and guidance to improve asset management. The Transit Asset Prioritization Tool, a spreadsheet that accompanies the report, may assist transit agencies in predicting the future conditions of their assets and prioritizing asset rehabilitation and replacement. The contractor’s final report summarizing the research and methodology of this project is also available online. To access the tools to this report, click the link. http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/171285.aspx.


Maintaining Transit Effectiveness Under Major Financial Constraints

Report Number:S-112

Publication Date: 7/27/2014

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This Synthesis discusses transit agencies that implemented plans to increase their cost effectiveness and how the agencies communicated with their communities during challenging fiscal circumstances.


Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas

Report Number:S-113

Publication Date: 7/15/2014

This report documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.

Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.


Transit Public-Private Partnerships: Legal Issues

Report Number:LRD-45

Publication Date: 6/25/2014

This digest identifies the legal issues associated with negotiating public-private partnership (PPP) agreements for transit projects. It explores the rationale for using PPP, innovative contracting and financing approaches offered by PPPs, and transfer of risks from the public to the private sector through PPPs. In addition, the digest provides an overview of the legal barriers that PPPs confront in some states, and how PPPs comply with federal law. Funding of PPPs for transit projects and long-term leasing of transit facilities are also covered in the digest.


Common Sense Approaches for Improving Transit Bus Speeds

Report Number:S-110

Publication Date: 3/19/2014

This report explores approaches transit agencies have taken to realize gains in average bus speeds. It also identifies metrics pertaining to measures such as changes in travel speed and its components, operating cost, and ridership. It shows the results of each or a combination of approaches implemented.


Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry – A Systems Approach

Report Number:R-162

Publication Date: 10/3/2013

This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.


Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies

Report Number:S-106

Publication Date: 7/31/2013

This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.


Use of Market Research Panels in Transit

Report Number:S-105

Publication Date: 6/11/2013

This synthesis describes the various types of market research panels, identifies issues that researchers should be aware of when engaging in market research and panel surveys, and provides examples of successful market research panel programs. It also provides information about common pitfalls to be avoided and successful techniques that may help maximize research dollars without jeopardizing the quality of the data or validity of the results.


State of Good Repair: Prioritizing the Rehabilitation and Replacement of existing Capital Assets and Evaluating the Implications for Transit

Report Number:R-157

Publication Date: 8/24/2012

This report presents a framework that builds upon a set of fundamental concepts and provides a basic set of steps for transit agencies to follow when evaluating and prioritizing capital asset rehabilitation and replacement investments. In addition to the printed report, an analytical approach and set of spreadsheet tools were developed to support the framework. These tools address how to evaluate rehabilitation and replacement actions for specific types of transit assets, and how to prioritize candidate rehabilitation and replacement actions. These tools can be located on the TRB website at www.trb.org.


Guidebook for Evaluating Fuel Purchasing Strategies for Public Transit Agencies

Report Number:R-156

Publication Date: 8/13/2012

This report is designed to help identify and evaluate risks and uncertainties with respect to fuel prices. The report also describes tools and techniques for minimizing the impact of fuel price uncertainties over time. As a guidebook this report introduces the concept of fuel price risk management, identifies alternative purchasing strategies, and outlines steps necessary to implement a risk management program. It also defines and evaluates alternative cost-effective fuel purchasing strategies designed to benefit public transportation agencies of varying sizes, and provides a management framework to assist transit agencies through the fuel purchasing process.


Transit Asset Condition Reporting

Report Number:S-92

Publication Date: 10/24/2011

This synthesis examines and documents the current state of the practice in transit asset condition management. It defines transit asset management as a strategic planning process that supports informed capital investment planning and programming. This report objective is to provide transit agencies and their federal, state, and local funding partners with a review of current practices in order to help encourage an industry-wide discussion on standards and the data needed to measure conditions and use the information in making effective investment decisions.


Transit Oriented Joint Development: Case Studies and Legal Issues

Report Number:LRD-36

Publication Date: 10/12/2011

This digest examines a combination of large, medium, and small Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and joint development projects since 1999 and provides comprehensive case studies, with an emphasis on what made the project succeed and how legal issues relate to TODs in general. Sample documents are included with the print version of the publication in CD-ROM format. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided as well.


Public Transportation Systems as the Foundation for Economic Growth

Report Number:RRD-102

Publication Date: 6/27/2011

This digest examines how transit investments are linked to economic growth and recovery in several cities in Turkey, Egypt, and South Africa.


Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit

Report Number:R-144 Volume 1

Publication Date: 3/17/2011

The report explores issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit leads the user through the process of setting up the necessary cost accounting system, identifying the data requirements and the measurement parameters, and describing procedures for applying the model. This volume includes instructions for using the actual Cost Sharing Model for setup and application on a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. An executive summary of the report is included.


Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 2: Research Report

Report Number:R-144 Volume 2

Publication Date: 3/16/2011

The report explore issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 2: The Research Report summarizes all of the study components that contributed to formation of the Toolkit. It includes an extended evaluation of current experiences, and describes the regulatory environment that frames transportation service delivery requirements. An executive summary of the report is included.


Reconciling Security, Disclosure, and Record-Retention Requirements in Transit Procurements

Report Number:LRD-32

Publication Date: 8/16/2010

This digest highlights the legal requirements that are relevant to the transit procurement process of balancing the competing needs of open government and public security. The report explores federal and state requirements concerning record retention and disclosure, as well as practices transit agencies have adopted to meet their responsibilities in balancing these competing public policy interests.


Current Practices in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Savings from Transit

Report Number:S-84

Publication Date: 6/21/2010

This report explores the role of transit agencies in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and examines the current practice of a sample of transit agencies.


Estimating Soft Costs for Major Public Transportation Fixed Guideway Projects

Report Number:R-138

Publication Date: 4/29/2010

This report defines and describes soft costs and provides a new suggested methodology to estimate soft costs based on historical projects. The report also examines detailed technical information about the data collection, methodology, and statistical analysis that was used to develop the suggested methodology.


Performance Measurement and Outcomes

Report Number:RRD-95

Publication Date: 4/23/2010

This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan


Legal Handbook for the New Starts Process

Report Number:LRD-30

Publication Date: 3/10/2010

This report explores legal issues associated with the U.S. Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts process.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number:RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Technology

Report Number:R-132

Publication Date: 12/19/2009

This report explores decision-making guidelines coupled with a comprehensive life cycle cost (LCC) model designed to assist transit managers in evaluating, selecting, and implementing hybrid-electric technology options for transit buses. The LCC model allows the user to compare the total life cycle costs across several cost categories for up to 6 different purchase scenarios. The LCC model is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-71), with the printed version of the report and available for download as an ISO image online.


Guidebook for Rural Demand-Response Transportation: Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance

Report Number:R-136

Publication Date: 12/17/2009

This report explores the diversity of demand-response transportation (DRT) services and examines definitions of performance data and performance measures. This report also highlights the typology of rural DRT systems and includes examples of performance data from more than 20 representative rural systems.


Balancing Infrastructure Reinvestment with System Expansion

Report Number:RRD-92

Publication Date: 11/6/2009

This report explores how public transport agencies in Australia are balancing the need to increase capacity and expand service while maintaining and upgrading their existing bus, tram, rail, and ferry infrastructure.


Public Transportation’s Role in Addressing Global Climate Change

Report Number:RRD-89

Publication Date: 3/25/2009

This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation’s role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.


Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner’s Guide

Report Number:R-130

Publication Date: 3/2/2009

This report examines a business case for the shared use of non-Federal Railroad Administration-compliant public transit rail vehicles (e.g., light rail vehicles) with freight operations and highlights a business model for such shared-use operations. This report also explores potential advantages and disadvantages of shared-use operations and the issues and barriers that can arise in the course of implementation.


Passenger Counting Systems

Report Number:S-77

Publication Date: 1/28/2009

This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.


Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services

Report Number:S-76

Publication Date: 12/4/2008

This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.


Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel

Report Number:R-128

Publication Date: 10/2/2008

This report explores the demographics of transit-oriented development (TOD) residents and employers, and their motives for locating in TODs. The report also examines the travel characteristics of residents before and after moving to a TOD and ways to increase transit ridership among these residents. In addition, the report reviews the potential effect of land-use and design features on travel patterns, transit ridership, and the decision to locate in a TOD. This report will be helpful to project, land-use, and transportation planners; transit agencies; the development community; and federal, state, and local decision makers considering transit oriented development.


Leveraging ITS Data for Transit Market Research: A Practitioner’s Guidebook

Report Number:R-126

Publication Date: 7/8/2008

This publication describes currently used intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and Transit ITS technologies that have the greatest promise for transit market research. This guidebook documents ITS and Transit ITS technologies currently in use, assesses their potential to provide market research data, and presents methods for collecting and analyzing these data. Also, the guidebook provides three in-depth case studies that illustrate how ITS data have been successfully used to improve market research practices.


Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet

Report Number:S-72

Publication Date: 2/23/2008

Synthesis 72 – “ Use of Biodiesel in a Transit Fleet“ – This synthesis will be of interest to transit professionals involved in developing a program to actively manage the implementation of biodiesel fuel and its use in a bus transit fleet. It documents a full range of benefit offered by biodiesel with the thought that once the subject is understood, transit agencies can make informed decisions regarding its use.


Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation

Report Number:R-119

Publication Date: 12/11/2007

This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.


Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers

Report Number:R-86 Volume 13

Publication Date: 10/15/2007

This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.


Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services

Report Number:R-116

Publication Date: 11/13/2006

TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.


Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Funded Public Transportation Projects

Report Number:RRD-78

Publication Date: 10/25/2006

This digest contains recommendations for strategies, tools, and techniques to better manage major transit capital projects over $100 million. Information is presented on various stimation, project-management, and cost-containment approaches that were applied successfully to 14 case studies. The results, which indicate which tools and techniques contributed to more effective project management, will be useful to transit systems and communities endeavoring to plan or implement major transit investments.


Bus Use of Shoulders

Report Number:S-64

Publication Date: 7/5/2006

This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies’ experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.


Car-Sharing: Where and How it Succeeds

Report Number:R-108

Publication Date: 12/1/2005

Car-sharing is an innovative mobility option that allows individuals to pay for and use automobiles on an as-need basis through membership programs. This report is a substantive resource with considerable information and useful tools for the development and implementation of car-sharing serivces. It would be of interest to individuals, organizaitons, and communities who are interested in knowing more about car-sharing and to those who may want to introduce car-sharing as a new mobility alternative.


Analyzing the Effectiveness of Commuter Benefits Programs

Report Number:R-107

Publication Date: 11/9/2005

This report is designed to help employers, transit agencies, and other organizations that promote transit benefits, and policy makers better understand the impacts of a transit benefits program and how to qualify these impacts for their own programs. The report has three chapters: Chapter 1 provides an overview of commuter benefits and a discussion of the study objective and the organization of the report. Chapter 2 provides guidance on how to evaluate the effectiveness of a transit benefits program. Chapter 3 based on research from metropolitan areas across the United States, examines the effects of transit benefits programs on employee travel behavior and on transit agency ridership, revenues, and costs.


Vanpools and Buspools

Report Number:R-95 Chapter 5

Publication Date: 8/12/2005

This report highlights the travel demand findings for vanpooling and buspooling. It examines the effects of travel times, pricing, and a number of related tangibles and intangibles on the decision to vanpool in particular; quantifies vanpooling and buspooling as best can be done. It also lookes at vanpooling trends; examines rider survey information; identifies indicators of market potential; and explores cost implications.


Innovations in Bus, Rail and Specialized Transit Operations in Latin America

Report Number:RRD-70

Publication Date: 6/3/2005

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovations in bus, rail and specialized transit operations in Latin America. It is based on individual reports provided by team members, and it reflects the views of the members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data.


Geographic Information Systems Applications in Transit

Report Number:S-55

Publication Date: 2/11/2005

This synthesis illustrates the value of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to transit agencies in service provision and in potential cost savings. It summarizes the experiences of a variety of transit agencies, with information provided from small and medium sized transit operators, as well as from large transit agencies. It also documents current practices, effective applications, and challenges. In additon, this synthesis includes a broad-based literature review, supplemented by information from a survey of transit agencies and case studies of five large transit operators. It covers the full range of transit services including planning, operations, management, information technology, and customer services.


Performance-Based Measures in Transit Fund Allocation

Report Number:S-56

Publication Date: 1/24/2005

This synthesis explores current perspectives, practices, and experiences in the use of performance measures for the allocation of financial assistance of local transit systems. It focuses primarily on the extent to which traditional measures of transit performance, internal measures of economic efficiency, service effectiveness, and productivity are used in allocating funds. The report summarizes the experences of a variety of transit agencies, it would be of interest to transit practitioners and transportation professionals, including technical and research staff.


Transit Pricing and Fares

Report Number:R-95 Chapter 12

Publication Date: 9/13/2004

This report addresses transit ridership response to fare changes as applied to conventional urban area bus and rail transit services. Topics covered are: changes in general fare level, changes in fare structure including relationships among fare categories, and free transit. It does not cover the combined outcome of implementing fare and service in the same time frame. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.


Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects

Report Number:R-102

Publication Date: 8/25/2004

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of the practice and the benefits of transit-oriented development (TOD) and joint develoment throughout the United States. This report defines TOD and joint development and offers insight into the various aspects of implementing TOD, including political and institutional factors; planning and land-use strategies, benefits, and impacts; fiscal considerations and partnerships; and design challenges and considerations. Benefits attributable to TOD initiatives include improved air quality, preservation of open space, pedestrian-friendly environments, increased ridership and revenue, reduction of urban sprawl, and reorientation of urban development patterns around both rail and bus transit facilities. This report will be helpful to transit agencies, the development community, and local decision makers considering TOD.


Transit Advertising Sales Agreements

Report Number:S-51

Publication Date: 3/19/2004

This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agency experiences with advertising sales and synthesizes current practices for advertising sales, contracting, and display. This report will be of interest to transit agency staff responsible for advertising sales in their agencies. They can use this report to learn from the experiences of other transit agencies and to compare their experiences with those of others.


Economic Benefits of Coordinating Human Service Transportaiton

Report Number:R-91

Publication Date: 9/5/2003

This report examines the net economic benefits associated with various strategies and practices for coordinating human service transportation and general public transit, provides quantitative estimates of these strategies and practices, and identifies innovative and promising coordination strategies and practices. The report provides an executive summary that provides a brief overview of basic coordination concepts and strategies that may enable transportation operators to achieve significant economic benefits from coordinating their operations. This information may be used by federal, state, and local officials in developing strategies and policies for coordinating transportation resources.


Use of Flexible Funds for Transit Under ISTEA and TEA-21

Report Number:S-42

Publication Date: 6/10/2002

This report is intended to provide greater familiarity with emerging techniques in the use of flexible funding, and to point out issues that may need further attention. It is also intended to provide a review of how current flexible funding provisions are being used to support transit invetment and to examine, through a limited number of specified experiences, lessons that may have the broadest relevance throughout the transit industry. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency professionals and the consultants who work with them in dealing with flexible funding opportunities.


Innovative Financing Techniques for Transit Agencies

Report Number:LRD-13

Publication Date: 3/31/2000

This digest describes the identified techniques that have been successfully employed or attempted by transit operators in order to increase revenues available for transit capital or operating needs or to provide development of transit assets in innovative ways. By studying the case studies set forth in this report, transit operators across the country can duplicate these techniques or expand on them with their own innovative financing techniques to produce revenues or transit assets for the commuting public.


Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems

Report Number:R-54

Publication Date: 10/14/1999

This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and “how to” instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the “cross-cutting” topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.


Economic Impact Analysis of Transit Investments

Report Number:R-35

Publication Date: 7/30/1998

This report, will be of particular intrigue to transportation economists and other analysts to help towards selecting methods to conduct economic impact analyses to assist them in the primary goal of public transportation investments to improve mobility, economic benefits are also a key to transit investment decisions. In all, it is important that reliable and defensible analytical approaches are used to support decision-making.


Assessment of the Economic Impacts of Rural Public Transportation

Report Number:R-34

Publication Date: 7/15/1998

Almost 1,200 public transportation systems now exist in rural communities across the United States and receive Federal funding. Many of these systems have been in operation since the 1970s and 1980s, but their economic impacts have seldom been quantified. This report examines the economic impacts of selected rural public transportation services at the local level through case studies, and it estimates the national economic impact of rural public transportation on an average annual per county basis. This report will be of interest to state and local transportation planners, analysts, and decision-makers to assist them in matters pertaining to the introduction and expansion of public transportation services in rural areas.


Measuring and Valuing Transit Benefits and Disbenefits

Report Number:R-20

Publication Date: 12/30/1996

This report will be of interest to transportation professionals and policy makers responsible for transit investment decisions. The report categorizes and describes transit benefits and disbenefits, presents the dimensions of transit’s economic impact, addresses the linkages between increased transit investment and use, and changes in long-term, region wide economic conditions that can be measured with current analytic methods, and provides examples of transit benefits and disbenefits based on recent analysis.

Report Number:IDEA-18

Publication Date:

This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.

College Student Transit Pass Program

Report Number: S-131

Publication Date:: 3/9/2018

This report focuses on the relationship established between transit agencies and universities and colleges, and documents current state of the practice to better develop and evaluate college student transit pass programs. Many transit agencies currently have student pass programs with colleges and universities. These programs have very different funding, fare and operating structures, and student demographics.


Multiagency Electronic Payment Fare Systems

Report Number: S-125

Publication Date:: 3/27/2017

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This report describes the current practice, challenges, and benefits of utilizing electronic fare payment systems (EFPS), such as smart cards. The synthesis reviews current systems and identifies their major challenges and benefits; describes the use of electronic fare systems in multimodal, multiagency environments; and reviews next-generation approaches through existing implementation case examples.


Legal Issues Concerning Transit Agency Use of Electronic Customer Data

Report Number: LRD-48

Publication Date:: 3/22/2017

This report explores the advantages, disadvantages, risks, and benefits for transit agencies moving to electronic, cloudbased, and other computerized systems for fare purchases and for communicating with customers. “Smart” fare cards are now commonplace, and private businesses and transit agencies are using or planning to use smartphones, smart cards and credit cards, and other systems to obtain payment, location, and other personal data from customers.The digest updates TCRP LRD 14: Privacy Issues in Public Transportation (2000) and TCRP LRD 25: Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards (/2008

) and covers additional dimensions of collection and use of personal information using new technologies developed since those studies. Appendix A-D are available online only at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/175848.aspx


Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-177

Publication Date:: 4/27/2015

This report explores attributes, implementation strategies, and applications of next generation transit fare payment (NGFP) systems. It also documents the state of the practice of emerging fare payments options for public transportation; develops a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States; and evaluates the pros and cons of the options presented in the typology.


Off-Board Fare Payment Using Proof-of-Payment Verification

Report Number: S-96

Publication Date: 3/5/2012

This Synthesis examines the application of proof-of-payment (PoP) on transit systems in North America and internationally. It updates TCRP Report 80: A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection. The Issues address by Synthesis 96 include evasion rates, inspection rates, enforcement techniques, duties of fare inspection personnel, adjudication processes, and the kinds of penalties involved for evasion.


Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees

Report Number: S-82

Publication Date: 6/16/2010

This report explores the state of the practice for transit agencies in terms of fare arrangements for public employees. It also examines issues such as leadership of the program; barriers, obstacles, and constraints; administrative procedures; implementation; lessons learned; cost, financing, and pricing; and program evaluation.


Performance Measurement and Outcomes

Report Number: RRD-95

Publication Date: 4/23/2010

This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Local and Regional Funding Mechanisms for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-129

Publication Date: 3/11/2009

This report explores a series of transit funding mechanisms with a primary focus on traditional tax- and fee-based funding; and common business, activity, and related funding sources. It includes an online regional funding database that provides an extensive list of funding sources that are in use or have the prospect of being used at the local and regional level to support public transportation. A user manual for the database is also available on the TCRP website.


Transit Systems in College and University Communities

Report Number: S-78

Publication Date: 12/24/2008

This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations


Uses of Fees or Alternatives to Fund Transit

Report Number: LRD-28

Publication Date: 12/16/2008

This report explores the use of impact fees for transit in the United States. The report examines policy and legal considerations relating to the use of impact fees and developer exactions for transit, reviews various methodologies currently in use, and identifies cases that exemplify strategies transit agencies may pursue when considering impact fees as an alternative funding source.


Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards

Report Number: LRD-25

Publication Date: 5/12/2008

This publication examines basic privacy issues associated with the acquisition and storage of financial and trip data associated with the use of a transit smart card. The report explores who can access the data collected, what data may be accessed and under what conditions, and how the information can be used.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation

Report Number: R-119

Publication Date: 12/11/2007

This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.


Smartcard Interoperability Issues for the Transit Industry

Report Number: R-115

Publication Date: 1/30/2007

This report defines interoperability; identifies key information needed by public agencies to implement smartcard payment systems interoperability; describes the necessary information flows; and outlines a set of functions needed for a standard public domain application programming interface that may be used in the development of a uniform application protocol data unit (APDU).


Bus Routing and Coverage

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 10

Publication Date: 8/17/2004

This report addresses traveler response to, and related impacts of, conventional bus transit alterations. Included are routing changes at both the individual route and system levels, new bus systems and system clousures, bus system expansion and retrenchment, increases and decreases in geographic coverage, and routing and coverage changes made together with fare changes. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers, professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MOPs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.


Bus Rapid Transit – Implementation Guidelines

Report Number: R-90 Volume 2

Publication Date: 1/7/2004

This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT – running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.


Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update

Report Number: R-94

Publication Date: 10/13/2003

This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.


Developing a Recommended Standard for Automated Fare Collection for Transit

Report Number: RRD-57

Publication Date: 2/5/2003

This digest provides guidance on how best to apply automated fare collection in multiagency, regional environments. It identifies a representative sample of existing regional fare management programs, reviews their structure, and offers suggested procedures for implementing such regional programs.


A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection

Report Number: R-80

Publication Date: 10/18/2002

A significant number of rail transit operators are not or will be looking to adopt lower-cost, less-infrastructure-intensive ways to carry out certain system functions such as fare collection. This report addresses the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection (SSFC) systems, including those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues. The Toolkit is designed for use by agencies at various points in the fare collection decision process.


Accessibility of Automated Fare Vending and Collection for Customers with Disabilities

Report Number: RRD-32

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This digest identifies issues of accessibility to automated fare collection and vending machines by transit customers, examines the extent to which these issues arise, and describes solutions that have been implemented or identified as promising.


Multipurpose Transit Payment Media

Report Number: R-32

Publication Date: 5/15/1998

This report will be of interest to transit managers, transit operations personnel involved with fare collection, parking professionals, and the financial services community. It closely examines the potential for incorporating multipurpose payment “smart cards” that can be used to purchase transit services from multiple operators, and potentially, other goods and services (e.g., parking and retail products). The report explores smart card technology, legal and institutional issues linked with introducing multipurpose card programs, cost and revenue impacts, and customer attitudes. On the basis of experiences around the world, guidelines are provided for development of multipurpose programs.


Transit Markets of the Future: The Challenge of Change

Report Number: R-28

Publication Date: 1/15/1998

This report will be of interest to transit policymakers, managers, planners, marketing professionals, and others interested in the effects of current trends (e.g., demographic, economic, social, land use, and transport policy) and trends expected over the next 15 years on current and future transit markets. Although many of these trends are not favorable to public transit, a number are identified that provide opportunities for maintaining current transit markets and creating new, expanded, or different transit markets. The report identifies 40 transit service concepts that appear to offer the most effective means of adjusting to these societal trends.


Multipurpose Fare Media: Developments and Issues

Report Number: RRD-16

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This digest presents the interim findings of Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project A-14, Potential of Multipurpose Fare Media, which is being conducted by Multisystems, Inc., in collaboration with Dove Associates, Inc., and Mundle & Associates, Inc. Included in the digest are (1) a summary of the emerging developments, (2) a discussion of key issues and concerns, and (3) a technical appendix presenting the results of a survey of transit operators’ fare collection practices and plans. This digest should be of interest to transit managers, transit planners, transit financial officers, and other financial professionals.


Bus Transit Fare Collection Practices

Report Number: S-26

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, operations planning and scheduling, finance, and accounting staffs, as well as public relations, marketing, and security staffs. It documents fixed route bus fare collection practices at selected transit agencies. Survey responses about fare policy, fare collection equipment, fare disputes, and fare evasion issues, as well as customer information and the impact of reduced financial assistance is offered.


Passenger Transfer System Review

Report Number: S-19

Publication Date: 12/1/1996

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, and agency staff in customer service, operations, budget, marketing, and financial divisions. It offers user information on a variety of transit agencies’ approaches to transfer programs. Policy and operational issues, service design, and transfer automation are discussed, based on the experience of transit agencies in the United States and in Europe. This report of the Transportation Research Board documents a wide diversity in implicit transfer policies and many different approaches used at selected transit agencies. It covers practices dealing with restricting or allowing back riding or stopovers, fare levels, and alternatives to transferring.


Fare Policies, Structures, and Technologies

Report Number: R-10

Publication Date: 1/15/1996

This report will be of interest to policy makers and managers at transit agencies developing and implementing fare policies to meet their social, financial, and service needs. The report includes the results of a comprehensive study of the major parameters of the transit fare decision-making process, and it provides guidance for making decisions related to fare policy, structure, and technology.


Evaluation of Economic Feasibility and Innovative Payment Plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN)

Report Number: IDEA-18

Publication Date:: NODATE

This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.

Transit Technical Training, Volume I: Guide to Applying Best Practices and Sharing Resources

Report Number: Report 199 – Volume 1

Publication Date: 5/31/2018

This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. It documents the best models of technical training programs serving U.S. and international transportation agencies and related industries.A product of this research also includes a training resource catalog to help transit agencies provide technical training for their employees. Training course information listed includes course descriptions, objectives, target audience, length, cost, training standards, and directions on how to access the course. The training resource catalog is available at https://ntrb.enotrans.org/.TCRP Research Report 199: Transit Technical Training is a two-volume set that presents guidance on technical training programs and the implementation of those for transportation agencies. The report’s second volume, Guide to Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Best and Innovative Training, provides public transportation agencies with best practices, strategies, and resources to assist with the implementation of effective and innovative training programs and techniques for frontline employees.Disclaimer – This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively “”TRB””) be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.


Transit Technical Training, Volume 2: Guide to Overcoming Barriers to Implementing Best and Innovative Training

Report Number: Report 199 – Volume 2

Publication Date: 5/31/2018

This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. It provides public transportation agencies with best practices, strategies, and resources to assist with the implementation of effective and innovative training programs and techniques for frontline employees.TCRP Research Report 199: Transit Technical Training is a two-volume set that presents guidance on technical training programs and the implementation of those for transportation agencies. The report’s first volume, Guide to Applying Best Practices and Sharing Resources, documents the best models of technical training programs serving U.S. and international transportation agencies and related industries.A product of this research also includes a training resource catalog to help transit agencies provide technical training for their employees. Training course information listed includes course descriptions, objectives, target audience, length, cost, training standards, and directions on how to access the course. The training resource catalog is available athttps://ntrb.enotrans.org/.Disclaimer – This software is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively “”TRB””) be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.


Tools and Strategies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators, Volume 2: User Guide

Report Number: R-193 Volume 2

Publication Date: 5/4/2018

This report provides potential countermeasures and strategies to prevent or mitigate assaults against transit operators. The User Guide includes an operator assault risk management toolbox developed to support transit agencies in their efforts to prevent, mitigate, and respond to assaults against operators. The User Guide also provides transit agencies with guidance in the use and deployment of the vulnerability self-assessment tool and the route-based risk calculator and includes supportive checklists, guidelines, and methodologies..


Tools and Strategies for Eliminating Assaults Against Transit Operators, Volume 1: Research Overview

Report Number: R-193: Volume 1

Publication Date: 5/4/2018

This report provides the materials and methodology used to produce potential countermeasures and strategies to prevent or mitigate assaults against transit operators. it also documents the materials used to develop Volume 2: User Guide The User Guide includes an operator assault risk management toolbox developed to support transit agencies in their efforts to prevent, mitigate, and respond to assaults against operators. The User Guide also provides transit agencies with guidance in the use and deployment of the vulnerability self-assessment tool and the route-based risk calculator and includes supportive checklists, guidelines, and methodologies.


Knowledge Management Resource to Support Strategic Workforce Development for Transit Agencies

Report Number: R-194

Publication Date: 2/14/2018

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This guidebook explores the importance of knowledge management (KM), which is an organization’s process for collecting, storing, and sharing organizational information and knowledge, and provides guidance on implementing KM strategies in transit agencies. In addition, the guidance includes action plans for developing particular aspects of KM, analysis of KM strategies at several transit agencies, and a catalog of KM technology tools and resources.


Bus Operator Workstation Design for Improving Occupational Health and Safety

Report Number: R-185

Publication Date: 5/26/2016

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This report is a pre-publication, non-edited draft. It provides guidance to transit agencies and bus manufacturers as they integrate emerging technologies into current procurement practices and improve bus operator workstation design across the transit industry.The research produced practical guidance documents and tools applicable to the procurement process and bus design, including a suggested procurement process and strategies for transit agencies to develop, train, and support a bus procurement team; training for the procurement team, including an ergonomics training module for bus operators; guidelines to update TCRP Report 25: Bus Operator Workstation Evaluation and Design Guidelines; and a digital model of a bus operator workstation that may be used by designers and transit agencies to develop specifications.


Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 2: Final Report

Report Number: Report 181: Volulme 2

Publication Date: 12/6/2015

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This Final Report documents the materials used to develop Volume 1: Toolkit. Volume 1 provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships.


Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 1: Toolkit

Report Number: R-181: Volume 1

Publication Date: 11/16/2015

This report provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships. The first volume describes:•The development of a labor–management partnership charter to start or improve a partnership
•Labor–management partnership guidance that provides specific recommended actions for both management and labor union leaders
•A labor–management partnership workshop framework that can be used to develop a cooperative workshop that prepares management and union representatives with essential skills for establishing and managing labor–management partnershipsVolume 2, Final Report, provides background material that was used to develop Volume 1.


Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation: Assessment for Transit Agencies

Report Number: RRD-109

Publication Date: 10/22/2014

This digest assesses the potential impact of implementing the NEMT provision of the Affordable Care Act on a state-by-state basis. The report also collates information to inform the transit community on how public transit and NEMT providers may integrate or use their respective resources and services.


Travel Training for Older Adults Part II: Research Report and Case Studies

Report Number: R-168 Volume II

Publication Date: 9/13/2014

This report, Part II presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. This supplemental research report reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.The Handbook, Part I, addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.An Executive Summary brochure summarizes the highlights of TCRP Report 168, Parts I and II on TRB’s website athttp://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/171324.aspx. To obtain a hard copy of this report click the link.https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7366


Travel Training for Older Adults Part 1: A Handbook and Part II: Research and Case Studies

Report Number: R-168

Publication Date: 9/3/2014

This report, Part I: A Handbook presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It also addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program and provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.The supplemental research report, Part II, reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.An Executive Summary brochure summarizes the highlights of TCRP Report 168, Parts I and II on TRB’s website athttp://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/171323.aspx.


How the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Other Privacy Laws Affect Public Transportation Operations

Report Number: LRD-46

Publication Date: 6/27/2014

This digest explores whether the privacy and security rules established by HIPAA apply to transit agencies that possess patrons’ health information.The first seven sections of this digest discuss HIPAA and whether various entities are subject to HIPAA’s privacy and security provisions applicable to the protection of protected health information, as defined by HIPAA. It also analyzes how protected health information is defined by HIPAA and discusses HIPAA’s Privacy Rule and Security Rule as defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in its most recent final rule. The digest also summarizes other important aspects of HIPAA as well.


Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry – A Systems Approach

Report Number: R-162

Publication Date: 10/3/2013

This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.


Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies

Report Number: R-148

Publication Date: 11/19/2011

This report provides strategies to recruit minorities for chief executive officer (CEO) positions and offers resources to assist governing boards of public transportation agencies in the recruitment of minority CEOs. It also assesses the transit industry’s recruitment processes for CEOs and provides a case for diversity that documents the benefits of minorities in public transportation leadership positions. Additionally, the report describes strategies for retaining CEOs at public transportation agencies.


Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees

Report Number: S-82

Publication Date: 6/16/2010

This report explores the state of the practice for transit agencies in terms of fare arrangements for public employees. It also examines issues such as leadership of the program; barriers, obstacles, and constraints; administrative procedures; implementation; lessons learned; cost, financing, and pricing; and program evaluation.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling

Report Number: R-135

Publication Date: 7/16/2009

This report explores information on available scheduling tools and techniques and their capabilities. Also, the report provides guidance to transit agencies on a variety of scheduling issues typically faced in a transit operating environment.


Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas

Report Number: R-127

Publication Date: 8/21/2008

This report explores salary and benefit characteristics of transit systems in rural and small urban areas. An interactive computer tool, produced as part of this project, is available online and is designed to allow transit managers to quickly and easily obtain compensation and benefit data from comparable transit systems.


Innovative Practices in Transit Workforce Development

Report Number: RRD-88

Publication Date: 7/14/2008

This publication is an overview of the mission that investigated innovative practices in workforce development in several cities in Canada, France, and Belgium. It is based on individual reports provided by the mission team members, and it reflects the observations of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented. The digest does not necessarily reflect the views of TCRP, TRB, the National Academies, American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FTA, or the Eno Transportation Foundation.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Paratransit Manager’s Skills, Qualifications, and Needs

Report Number: S-71

Publication Date: 11/21/2007

This synthesis documents current requirements for being a paratransit manager and actual experiences of current paratransit managers in their positions. Transit mangers, policy makers, educators, trainers, human resource directors, and stakeholders, as well as current and future paratransit professionals, will find the results valuable in determining action steps needed to enhance the profession and paratransit service delivery. In addition, it offers information from general managers, chief operating officers, and paratransit advisory committees about college degrees desired and guidance offered aspiring paratransit managers. Technology proficiency and knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act were identified as the most needed skills. College educations were recommended by a majority of the professionals, with business management identified as the most desirable area of study; however, aside from this, successes in the field were attributed to specifics such as ethics, customer relations, communications, management and supervision, and sensitivity.


Racial and Gender Diversity in State DOTs and Transit Agencies: A Benchmark Scoping

Report Number: R-120

Publication Date: 9/7/2007

This report documents and analyzes racial and gender diversity in state departments of transportation (state DOTs) and transit agencies for purposes of establishing a baseline that reflects the current status of racial and gender diversity in state DOTs and transit agencies based on existing data.


Methods of Rider Communication

Report Number: S-68

Publication Date: 1/22/2007

This synthesis’s purpose is to document effective methods of communicating with riders. It views the state of the practice in agency communications with customers using specific elements as a way to determine what constitutes successful communication:


Transit Passengers and Civil Rights

Report Number: LRD-20

Publication Date: 7/29/2005

This report examines how measures used by transit agencies to protect transit passengers intersect with constitutionally protected rights.


Public Transportation Operating Agencies as Employers of Choice

Report Number: R-103

Publication Date: 6/18/2004

This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in workforce recruitment, development, and retention. It includes a companion document, communications Strategy and Implementation Plan, Positioning the Public Transportation Operating Agency as an Employer of Choice that describes strategies and solutions that offer the greatest potential for positioning public transportation operating agencies as an employer of choice. The toolkit will assist transportation policy makers and practitioners in implementing more effective human resources business planning processes.


Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs

Report Number: S-52

Publication Date: 5/10/2004

This synthesis documents current information on prevention and intervention strategies and resources that can be used by transit agencies. It offers survey information obtained from individuals with the responsibility for managing health and wellness programs. It also covers the state of the practice at 14 U.S. transit agencies of various sizes, operating different modes, in diverse locales around the nations. This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff concerned with proactively addressing operator health and wellness issues at their agencies.


Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide

Report Number: R-96

Publication Date: 11/6/2003

The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.


Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Operations

Report Number: LRD-19

Publication Date: 10/2/2003

This digest provides the nation’s transit agencies with access to authoritative research, specfic, limited-scope studies of legal issues and problems having significance and applications to their business. It reports on a review of applicable statutes, a survey of state and local transit providers, and an analysis of developments pertaining to employment infrastructure and service requirements. This digest should be helpful to administrators, attorneys, financial officials, human resourcess personnel, and planners in public transportation.


Diversity Training Initiatives

Report Number: S-46

Publication Date: 7/11/2003

This synthesis study reports on the kinds of practices currently underway in transit agencies with diversity initiatives. It identifies where in the organization these programs and plans have been placed, who has accountability and oversight for diversity initiatives, and the practices that have been successful. In addition, this study shows how diversity practices and processes have been incorporated into the overall business plans and agendas of transit agencies, as well as resources allocation for diversity initiatives.


Corporate Culture as the Driver of Transit Leadership Practices

Report Number: S-47

Publication Date: 7/11/2003

This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff interested in implementing leadership development initiatives at their agencies. This systhesis discusses the state of the practice in leadership recruitment, development, evaluation, and retention. It reports on innovative approaches to the problems faced in today’s work environment in transit and other industries, in addition, it covers the manner in which corporate culture affects the hiring, development, evaluation, and retention of the top management team.


Public Transportation Security – Robotic Devices: A Guide for the Transit Environment

Report Number: R-86 Volume 3

Publication Date: 5/28/2003

Emergencies arising from terrorist threats highlight the need for transportation managers to minimize the vulnerability of passengers, employees, and physical assets through incident prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. This volume is a part of a series that focuses on the concerns that transit agencies are addressing when developing programs in response to the terrorist attacks of Septemer 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed. To reduce the chances that transportation vehicles and facilities will be targets or instruments of terrorists attacks, and to be prepared to respond to and recover from such possibilities, transportation agencies are simultaneously prepared to respond to natural disasters such as hurricans, floods, and wildfires, as well as human-caused events such as hazardous materials spills and other incidents.


K9 Units in Public Transportation: A Guide for Decision Makers

Report Number: R-86 Volume 2

Publication Date: 10/23/2002

This is the second volume of TCRP 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume will focus on the concern that transit agencies are addressing when developing programs in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the anthrax attacks that followed. This report will be of interest to federal, state, and local law enforcement K9 program operators. Trained dogs represent the best broad-spectrum, high sensitivity sensory systems. The use of canine (K9) teams to support patrol, narcotics, and explosives-detection activities is routine in major metropolitan areas. This information is based largely on extensive interviews with nine public transportation agencies that currently deploy K9s and four agencies that disbanded their K9 programs in the last 5 years.


Communication of Threats: A Guide

Report Number: R-86 Volume 01

Publication Date: 9/5/2002

This is the first volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume offers information on a variety of approaches to improving the sharing of the threat information. Current practices, operational needs, technologies for threat information dissemination, and system functional requirements are discussed. Effective strategies for sharing analyzed and unanalyzed reports of suspicious activities and a path to an interoperable set of national, regional, and local threat-information forums are proposed.


A Challenged Employment System: Hiring Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators

Report Number: S-40

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

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Transit managers are concerned about attracting and retaining quality applicants, about the ability of new hires to successfully complete training programs, and about how new bus operators will provide quality customer service. This synthesis is intended to provide a snapshot of public transit bus operator practices, addressing hiring, training, performance evaluation, and retention. Each of these four areas is uniquely different, but also highly interrelated.


Treatment of Privacy Issues in the Public Transportation Industry

Report Number: LRD-14

Publication Date: 3/29/2000

This study discusses the development of the law of privacy and examines its continuing evolution within the context of societal and technological changes, particularly how these principles apply to the public transportation industry and its employees.


Toolbox for Transit Operator Fatigue

Report Number: R-81

Publication Date: 2/2/2000

The role that operator fatigue plays in mass transit safety has become one of the central issues that U.S. bus and rail transit agencies must address. Fatigue is increasing cited as a contributing factor in bus and rail transit accidents. The National Transportation Safety Board lists human fatigue as an area where significant improvement is needed in order to increase transportation safety. In addition to reducing accidents, mitigating fatigue can also reduce the cost of transit operations. Costs due to lost productivity, employee absenteeism, employee turnover rate, reduced morale, and increased wear and tear on equipment are affected by employee fatigue.


Practices in Assuring Employee Availability

Report Number: S-33

Publication Date: 12/1/1999

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, operations, and human resources staffs responsible for attracting and retaining good employees. It will also be of interest to others who interact with transit agencies to help employees succeed. These synthesis presents state-of-the-practice information’s about the various actions transit agencies (and other employers) have taken to help ensure the availability of quality employees in an increasingly competitive employment environment. It focuses on the practices and policies transit agencies have in place to help minimize absenteeism from which other agencies may find useful applications.


Closing the Knowledge Gap for Transit Maintenance Employees: A Systems Approach

Report Number: R-29

Publication Date: 2/15/1998

This report presents guidelines on evaluating and implementing strategies to improve the skills of the transit industry’s maintenance workforce in order to keep pace with evolving technology. This report will be of interest to transit decision-makers, maintenance managers, organized labor, vendors, human resources departments, and training personnel. The report is intended to help maintenance departments develop highly skilled, high-performance work organizations. Research was undertaken by Rand Corporation to assess technological demands, document current practices, and examine and propose new approaches to link maintenance-staffing practices with evolving technology to improve effectiveness. The areas addressed in the research included the range of programs currently in place, differences and similarities in current practice, analysis of major pitfalls and keys to success, an examination of vendor roles and responsibilities in training, and the effect of labor relations and work rules.


The Impact of Civil Rights Litigation Under Title VI and Related Laws on Transit Decision Making

Report Number: LRD-07

Publication Date: 6/15/1997

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Sandra Van De Walle, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) Affirmative Action Programs for DBEs (Disadvantaged Business Enterprises); (III) Obligation to Provide Equality of Service to Minority and Nonminority Passengers; and (IV) Conclusion.


Changing Roles and Practices of Bus Field Supervisors

Report Number: S-16

Publication Date: 1/1/1996

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, personnel, human resources and training staffs, bus operations staffs, as well as to other transportation, human resources, and training professionals. The roles and responsibilities of bus field supervisors are addressed, including emerging concerns about how to improve the relationship between supervisors and bus operators, while placing supervisors in a more positive role; how to obtain a greater return from employee productivity with tightening budgets and declining ridership; and how to improve customer service. This report of the Transportation Research Board provides information about current and innovative supervisory practices at selected transit agencies. It covers information about the expectations that organizations have for their supervisors; recruitment and selection; training; new or revised regulations; and the perceived impacts of new technologies at some transit agencies


Transit Labor Protection – A Guide to Section 13c Federal Transit Act

Report Number: LRD-4

Publication Date: 12/15/1995This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report has the same title as this digest and is authored by G. Kent Woodman, Jane Sutter Starke, and Leslie D. Schwartz. Section 13(c) of the Federal Transit Act is an especially complex Federal requirement. It has a unique history, which must be appreciated. Two Federal agencies, primarily the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) and secondarily the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) administer it, which do not always share the same policies or interpretations.


State Limitations on Tort Liability of Public Transit Operations

Report Number: LRD-3

Publication Date: 12/15/1994This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Larry W. Thomas, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) State and Local Immunity Statutes in Relation to Public Transit Agencies; (III) Substantive Limitations on Tort Actions Against Public Transit Agencies; (IV) Discussion of the Governmental- Proprietary Test of Immunity; (V) Duty and Degree of Care Owed to the Traveling Public; (VI) Procedural Limitations on Actions or Recoveries in Tort Against Public Transit Agencies; (VII) Other Matters of Interest to Public Transit Agencies (A. Transit Agency’s Compliance with Federal and State Laws and Regulations and B. Significance of Insurance Coverage in Tort Actions); (VIII) Changes in the Law That Would Reduce Tort Liability; and (IX) Conclusion.


Employee Incentive Programs to Improve Transit Performance

Report Number: S-3

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, human resource officials, compensation managers, operations and maintenance managers, labor officials, and others interested in an overview of current practice in employee incentive programs. Information on incentive programs that provide a one-time payment or recognition for a particular job accomplishment is presented as gleaned from survey responses from a varied group of public transit agencies.

Customer Satisfaction Index for the Mass Transit Industry

Report Number: IDEA-01

Publication Date: Completed

This IDEA project developed and tested a customer satisfaction index (CSI) methodology in five transit districts to determine customer satisfaction with mass transit operations. The project was modeled after similar studies by the automobile and airline industries that were designed to improve and track customer satisfaction over time. This CSI application was the first systematic, non-biased, and technically credible measure for comparing customer satisfaction between districts. This verified CSI approach is now available for transit agencies to analyze their performance, compare themselves directly to a total sample average, learn from other transit districts, and understand key factors for improving customer satisfaction and ridership.


Adaptive Diagnostic System Project

Report Number: IDEA-02

Publication Date: Completed

This IDEA project developed an automated general-purpose tester with artificial intelligence capabilities that can be adapted to the testing of a variety of transit equipment electronic units.
The artificial intelligence software incorporated in the automated, programmable general-purpose test equipment consists primarily of neural networks that have the capability of being “trained” to recognize certain failures from specific waveform patterns as depicted in Figure 1. The programmable card-based instruments are under the control of a personal computer (PC) with a graphical user interface (GUI). Several graphically based, off-the-shelf software systems from National Instruments greatly simplified the encoding of the needed control and display software. Diagnosis is accomplished quickly, and often quite accurately, without the need for time consuming probing and circuit analysis procedures.

Automated Wheel Inspection Station

Report Number: IDEA-03

Publication Date: Completed

An automated railroad wheel profile inspection system designed to measure wheel profiles at operating speeds using a laser scanning technology was developed and trial tested in a bench-scale demonstration. A Transit IDEA product report was published in October 1995. In Stage 1, preliminary specifications and hardware design for the system, including layout and component specifications, were completed. Several laser sensors have been tested on actual railroad wheel segments to determine the overall feasibility of the proposed approach. A bench-scale inspection station system was designed, fabricated, and tested in the laboratory. In Stage 2, in-house trial tests of the system in simulated railroad conditions were performed and operational durability and reliability of the system examined. The cost-effectiveness was assessed and an operating design of the system for routine application by transit operators was developed.


Management Information Benefits of On-Board Integration of Electronic Fareboxes

Report Number: IDEA-04

Publication Date: Completed

This project investigated integrating fareboxes with other on-vehicle devices for estimating passenger loads and passenger miles. The farebox has great potential as a source of passenger data because nearly every bus has electronic fareboxes and nearly all boardings are registered by fareboxes. By integrating fareboxes with other on-board equipment, the value of the farebox with the vehicle’s digital odometer makes it possible to stamp farebox records with the odometer reading for verification of trip length. Likewise, integration with additional devices makes it possible to use the fareboxes as a means of counting boardings by stop, providing valuable information for planning and marketing, and opening up the possibility for estimating passenger loads and passenger miles.


Improved Passenger Counter and Classification System for Transit Applications

Report Number: IDEA-05

Publication Date: Completed

See Transit Project 20.


Wheelchair Restraint System, Baylor College of Medicine

Report Number: IDEA-07

Publication Date: Completed

This IDEA project produced an innovative modular wheelchair restraint system that uses pneumatically driven resilient bristles that engage the wheels and frame of a wheelchair. The system stabilizes movements during acceleration and braking, thereby reducing the risk of injury in collisions. By engaging the bristles with the wheelchair frame and wheels, it is feasible to hold a variety of wheelchair geometries without subjecting the wheelchair to significant sideward loading. The bristles are actuated by a compressor on the vehicle. There is also a vacuum line to accelerate disengagement of the bristles from the chair. The restraint also stows itself with minimum space requirement. The pneumatic operation permits quick release and evacuation in case of a power failure after a collision. The restraint design incorporates sensors that detect when the resilient bristles contact the side of the chair and acts to limit the subsequent travel of the bristles, so the chair will not collapse or bend.

Real-Time Transit Date Broadcast

Report Number: IDEA-08

Publication Date: Completed

This IDEA project developed transit broadcast software for a personal portable receiver that provides real time-to-arrival information to transit passengers at any selected bus stop. The innovative software system transmits bus location to the personal portable receivers by oneway broadcast. The system operates in conjunction with an automatic vehicle location and control (AVL/C) system to locate each operating transit vehicle. Transit location data are then broadcast in a format compatible with the software installed in the portable receivers. These remote receivers convert the locational data into real time-to-arrival information for passengers consonant with input station stop location numbers the users put into their receiver/processors. The actual broadcast method can be any one-way transmission system, such as an FM subcarrier, a pager network, or the Internet.


The Independent Transportation Network: Alternative Transportation for the Elderly

Report Number: IDEA-09

Publication Date: Completed

See Transit Project 18.


Automatic Data Collection on Transit Users Via Radio Frequency Identification

Report Number: IDEA-10

Publication Date: Completed

See Transit Project 19.


Customers, Conflicts, and You: A Transit Operator’s Guide to Problem Solving

Report Number: IDEA-11

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed an interactive multi-media CD-ROM training program, to improve transit bus drivers’ ability to handle incidents of violence and aggression and potential problem situations.
This training program was developed by the San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) in cooperation with six other transit agencies, in Transit IDEA Project 11, and was tested by those transit agencies, in cooperation with the National Transit Institute (NTI).

Self Paced PC-Based Track Safety Training System

Report Number: IDEA-13

Publication Date: Completed

The IDEA project developed multimedia tools for communication over the Internet to improve the education and training of transit track staff responsible for the day-to-day maintenance of track safety. Illustrated below is the Internet home page, which is presented in full color. The training program uses multimedia integrated with text, drawings, schematics, and blueprints that guide track foremen in theory, design, standards, procedures, and maintenance methods to identify and correct track defects.

Market Study and Operational Test Results for the Instant Rent-A-Car (IRAC) Station Field Tests

Report Number: IDEA-14

Publication Date: Completed

This IDEA project employed ITS technology for short-term rentals of electric or compact vehicles to and from transit stations for increasing transit ridership, and was cost-shared with the ITSIDEA program. As illustrated below, the Instant Rent-a-Car (IRAC) fleet management technology uses radio communications between the rental vehicle and a central processor to trace the status of a fleet vehicle. Rental transactions are possible by personal computer reservation or through a “walk-in” process. The user can then drive the vehicle and leave it parked on the street when finished. After the user exits the vehicle, the door is locked and a message is sent to the central processor containing billing data, rental availability, and other fleet management information, which may be used by other potential vehicle renters.


Internet Information Sharing for Transit Maintenance

Report Number: IDEA-15

Publication Date: Completed

Transit maintenance data and information may be shared by public and private ground transportation agencies through the Internet. By sharing this information, cost savings are achieved in joint purchases, trading spare parts, and disseminating information related to transit maintenance, safety, and contracts. This IDEA project supported the Internet transit-maintenance information study in cooperation with major public transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay area. The study results show that transit agencies could achieve time and cost savings through Internet sharing of maintenance information.


Transit Restraint System for Wheel Chairs

Report Number: IDEA-16

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed several restraint design concepts and tested one that brings the anchor location into proximity with the wheelchair seat. The unique design of this restraint system eliminated the disadvantages of the existing seat belt systems anchored on the vehicle floor and routed around the pelvis of the person seated in the wheelchair. The prototype was designed to offer an easier and faster operation, often eliminating the need for assistance by the bus operator. When the restraint is not in use, the adjustable rails are rotated into a stored position clear of interference with passenger seating and ambulation. The lap belt is also stored on a small retracting spool to remain clean when not in use.

Operational Evaluation of a Rail-Based Wheel Gauge Inspection System

Report Number: IDEA-17

Publication Date: Completed

This IDEA project demonstrated a low-cost prototype of an automated rail wheel-gauge inspection concept that had originally been developed under Transit IDEA Project 3. The rail wheel gauge uses a series of laser scanners and cameras mounted at trackside along with a series of ultrasonic sensors. These scan an entire cross-section of the wheel.
The measurement output is a digitized profile of the wheel that is processed by geometric algorithm software. A set of standard wheel measurement data compatible with existing measurements is derived from the digitized profile. Additional computations are incorporated into the algorithm to check for such critical specifications as wheel cracks, flange angle, wheel diameter, hollow tread, and so forth.

Pilot Testing Innovative Payment Operations for Independent Transportation Network (ITN)

Report Number: IDEA-18

Publication Date: Completed

This project (Transit IDEA Project 18) pilot tested two innovative payment operations for independent transportation for the elderly—adult child payment plans and merchant participation. It also investigated the use of geographic information system (GIS) technology for community-based transportation for seniors.

A previous Transit IDEA Project, Independent Transportation Network: Alternative Transportation for the Elderly (Transit IDEA Project 9), showed that seniors were willing to use a transportation service that models the comfort and convenience of the private automobile. (Freund, McKnight 1997) This Transit IDEA Project 18 research examined several innovative sources of revenue and the application of information system technology.
Transit IDEA Project 18 investigated innovative payment methods by looking outside the traditional public funding sources to private resources in the community. This project demonstrated that businesses and adult children are willing to participate in the cost of transportation for seniors.

Field Testing and Evaluation of the Transit Integrated Monitoring System

Report Number: IDEA-19

Publication Date: Completed

Transit IDEA Project 10 addressed the need for improved methods of data collection concerning transit users and vehicles by developing a prototype radio frequency identification (RF/ID) tag that acts as a bus pass. Passengers carrying the cards can be uniquely identified and tracked throughout the transit system. This Phase II demonstration project, Transit IDEA Project 19, improved on the prototype by field testing an integrated automatic passenger counting (APC) system and automatic vehicle location (AVL) system based on GPS and RF/ID smart cards.


Non-Contact Sensor for Passenger Counting and Classification

Report Number: IDEA-20

Publication Date: Completed

A transit passenger counting system was developed to provide counts of multiple passengers, entering rail rapid transit vehicles through a wide-stream door. The direction of travel of each passenger can also be determined. This prototype system is called the Cyclops Passenger counter and was originally developed under Transit-IDEA Project 5. In addition, an experimental method was tested to determine if individual passengers can be tracked to determine origin and destination stations. Three elements currently comprise the experimental Cyclops system: (1) a radar system; (2) a television camera; and (3) a wireless data link that transmits both radar and television images to an associated data recording system (not shown). The radar system was tested to determine if it could serve as a low-cost sensor/counter capable of detecting a passenger entering the radar beam, and determine if the detection is an entry or exit event. The television camera system was used for counting passengers and identifying the stop where a passenger boards and exits. In final form, a microprocessor controller could process the radar and television camera system data and provide that information as output to the transit vehicle’s database, on-board recording and collection system, or radio linked data collection system.


Smart Parking Lot with Just-in-Time Bus Service

Report Number: IDEA-21

Publication Date: Completed

This project was aimed at developing and trial testing an adaptive software system and scheduling algorithm for a “smart” parking lot with just-in-time shuttle bus service to improve parking efficiency in large parking lots at intermodal and transit terminals. Based on the results, prototype input-output hardware and software systems were designed to prepare for deployment trials in a large parking lot at Portland International Airport (PDX). Demonstration tests were performed at the PDX airport parking lot. The deployment testing process will be supported through external cooperative funding.


Sleeved Column System for Crashworthiness of Light Rail Vehicles

Report Number: IDEA-22

Publication Date: Completed

The concept and product that was tested is a novel, low cost, lightweight replaceable energy absorption system that can be incorporated into modern rail transit vehicles to provide substantial protection in collisions with other trains and with road vehicles at grade crossings. The system is based on the sleeved column technology, in which one or more small-diameter steel core rods carry load, compress and efficiently absorb energy within a sleeve made of mild steel or other material. The sleeve prevents buckling of the relatively slender core and can be an existing structural member in the rail vehicle underframe.


Operational Testing of Intelligent Rail Lubrication System

Report Number: IDEA-24

Publication Date: Completed

This project designed, built, and demonstrated an automated, computer-controlled onboard intelligent system for applying new environmentally safe and consumable lubricants for rail systems. The lubricant applied to the rail will reduce friction between the wheel and rail and is expected to provide significant benefits in maintenance, safety, and overall economic efficiency. A schematic diagram of the rail lubrication system for railroads is illustrated below. Progressive development of a rail lubrication system for U.S. railroads and transit systems indicates potential benefits including reduction in wheel wear, rail wear, and track maintenance costs. The scope of the Transit IDEA project was reduced to accommodate the FY’98 Transit IDEA funding shortfall. A final report was prepared for this Transit IDEA project. Tranergy continued the work on the system at its own costs after discontinuation of funding. In September 2000, a new joint venture called “Friction Management Services, LLC” was formed by Tranergy and Timken, a major international corporation. This joint venture has been continuing the work on the system and has installed many systems on locomotives of four Class I railroads in the United States and Canada for checking performance improvements on trains in revenue service.


Transit Scrathitti Removal by Controlled Fire Polishing

Report Number: IDEA-28

Publication Date: Completed

This project addressed the problem of vandalism on rail transit car windows. A type of graffiti vandalism that has emerged and prevails is the scratching or etching of polycarbonate and glass windows in subway cars, called “scratchitti.” Unlike paint graffiti, the scratches cannot be removed or covered, and they cause permanent damage.
New York City Transit supported this project from the time it was proposed and has collaborated in providing samples of scratched glass subway windows to Columbia University to test and characterize.

Fare Machine Tactile/Audio Instruction System 

Report Number: IDEA-29

Publication Date: Completed

The project addressed the difficulties that people with vision impairments encounter when they try to use most existing transit fare and ticket vending machines. The complex fare structures and operating mechanisms on many transit fare machines make it difficult to design and fabricate raised letter and Braille operating instructions that are independently usable by persons with vision impairments. Working collectively with the Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority (Tri-Rail) and the National Federation of the Blind (NFB), an audio device has been developed that can be programmed and installed on existing equipment to assist people with vision impairments to use these complex fare machines.


A Tool for Evaluating and Optimizing Bus Stop Location Decisions

Report Number: IDEA-31

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed a tool for evaluating and optimizing bus stop locations. In evaluation mode, it will determine the impacts of a proposed change in bus stop locations, adding or removing a stop. In optimization mode, it will select the optimum stop locations from a set of candidate locations (generally, all the intersections along the route).
Users of this prototype software will be able to specify the relative importance of walk distance, riding time, and operating cost. The tool will be realistic in accounting for transfer demand and demand arising along side streets that is more like point demand than like continuous demand. It will account for roadway and traffic parameters that affect stopping delays (grade, cruise speed, traffic control). While this project addressed urban bus routes in general, attention was paid to a planned bus rapid transit application and to a light rail transit case study.

Simulation and Animation Model for Planning and Designing Transit Facilities

Report Number: IDEA-32

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed a simulation and animation model of traffic flow in bus transit terminals. The model is designed to assist transit facility planners and engineers in testing alternative strategies to improve the efficiency of bus flow, increase capacity, and minimize delays and vehicle emissions in bus transit terminals. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate this computerized planning and design tool for increasing the efficiency of vehicular flow in bus transit terminals.


Community Visualization In Design of Light Rail Transit Oriented Development

Report Number: IDEA-33

Publication Date: Completed

This project was aimed at enhancing community involvement in the design of proposed light rail transit-oriented development. A combination of an advanced decision technique and virtual reality computer visualization were tested. This process is designed to enhance public input and cooperation in the planning process, and to provide recommendations for transit agencies, planners, and architects. The process was tested in Louisville, Kentucky, in cooperation with the local transit agency, Transit Authority of River City (TARC).


Innovative Bioterrorism Detection Technology for Transit Security

Report Number: IDEA-35

Publication Date: Completed

This project investigated the detection and identification of potential biological warfare agents in both a benign laboratory environment and a simulated subway situation, using an integrated approach involving proprietary laser technology. The objective of this project was to demonstrate that biological agents can be quickly detected and characterized in a transit environment. This would have the potential to improve security in subway systems and give an early warning to transit officials so that they could take appropriate actions quickly and effectively.


Cleaning Device for Electrified Third Rail Insulators

Report Number: IDEA-36

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed and tested prototype devices and methods to clean electrified third rail insulators for rail rapid transit systems. Dirt and grime can short circuit the insulator and cause arcing, burning, and smoke, which can cause the rail system to be shut down. The insulators are extremely difficult to clean because the third rail carries very high voltage, and the third rail cover and tunnel walls limit access to the insulators. Figures 1 and 2 show examples of these problems on different transit systems. This project included development, proof of concept, and prototype testing of the cleaning devices to address the problems.
The prototype device was developed and attached to a service vehicle and tested on the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Metrorail system and the Maryland Transit Administration (MTA), Baltimore rail rapid transit facilities. The following transit agencies participated in this project by providing staff review and guidance: the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART), Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), New York City Transit (NYCT), Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), and the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). These agencies have also indicated a need for a third rail insulator cleaning.

Bandwidth Expansion and Real-time Surveillance for Security on Transit Busses

Report Number: IDEA-37

Publication Date: Completed

The investigators have developed a real-time video surveillance technology for enhanced security on transit buses. The system uses digital cameras on buses, and adds a broad-bandwidth wireless network modem and unique software to expand the bandwidth for the wireless transmission of streaming digital video. The broad-bandwidth wireless real-time video surveillance system includes remote viewing, monitoring, and alerting functions at a transit central control room. Advanced data transmission and compression  technologies have been used to extend the data bandwidth constraint.


Assessment for Rear Facing Wheelchair Accommodation on BRT

Report Number: IDEA-38

Publication Date: Completed

This Project investigated the physical response of occupied wheel wheelchairs and the acceptance of wheelchair users of rear-facing containment on Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) vehicles. The concept is that wheelchairs can be safely transported using passive securement rather than active securement such as the belt systems currently in use by most transit agencies. The passive securement is accomplished by positioning wheelchairs in a location where their movement is constrained by the walls of a compartment.


Dynamic Tiimetable Generator form Schedule Data

Report Number: IDEA-39

Publication Date: Completed

The Dynamic Timetable Generator project developed a tool that enables transit agencies to dynamically generate timetables for customer Web access directly from “raw” schedule data. In general, transit agencies encounter problems in exchanging key data between applications. Updating schedules and timetables is of particular concern since they change frequently due to service demand, detours, and special events. Transit agencies expend significant staff time and resources in making minor changes to their Web sites or reformatting timetables due to these changes. Technologies such as Web sites, kiosks, and Internet-enabled cell phones support the rapid dissemination of timetable updates. However, tools for efficiently organizing, translating, and laying out the data to populate these media are needed.


Dynamic Tiimetable Generator form Schedule Data

Report Number: IDEA-39

Publication Date: Completed

This project investigated the feasibility of a novel aerosol air collector and a chemical detector for subway cars and in subway stations. This research investigated an advanced sensor technology to rapidly collect and detect the release of toxic polar chemical species. Such polar molecules include the nerve agents, phosgene, chlorine, and nitrates indicative of explosive agents, to name a few. Dr. John Fenn of Virginia Commonwealth University conceived the aerosol collector concept. He is the 2002 Nobel Prize for Chemistry winner and a consultant on this Transit IDEA project. New York City Transit (NYCT) participated in this project.


Counter-Terrorism Chemical Detector for Rail Transit Systems

Report Number: IDEA-40

Publication Date: Completed

This project investigated the feasibility of a novel aerosol air collector and a chemical detector for subway cars and in subway stations. This research investigated an advanced sensor technology to rapidly collect and detect the release of toxic polar chemical species. Such polar molecules include the nerve agents, phosgene, chlorine, and nitrates indicative of explosive agents, to name a few. Dr. John Fenn of Virginia Commonwealth University conceived the aerosol collector concept. He is the 2002 Nobel Prize for Chemistry winner and a consultant on this Transit IDEA project. New York City Transit (NYCT) participated in this project.


Track Geometry/Design Testing for Transit Applications

Report Number: IDEA-41

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed and tested a concept to determine actual track geometry alignment and cross level in sharp curves and turnouts in rail transit systems. The improved track geometry testing system would utilize the current track design or a “best fit” track design as a baseline for testing rail rapid transit and light rail transit track.


Detection of Radioactivity in Transit Stations

Report Number: IDEA-42

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed and tested prototype devices and methods to detect and identify radioactive material carried into rail rapid transit systems. A prerequisite for the early response and interdiction of such material is the detection and tracking of its location. It is necessary to have the ability to monitor the ambient radiation environment so that in the event of a radioactive device or dirty bomb, emergency response units will have as much information as possible. This project included development, laboratory proof of concept, and prototype testing of the radiation detection system to address this problem.


Cleaning and Recoating Electrified Third Rail Cover Boards

Report Number: IDEA-44

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed and tested a prototype device to clean and recoat the cover boards on electrified third rails for rail rapid transit systems. The ultraviolet action of the sun on the fiberglass reinforced plastic cover board degrades the protective gel coat and then delaminates the glass fibers.


Chemical and Biological Decontamination System for Rail Transit Facilities

Report Number: IDEA-45

Publication Date: Completed

This project explored a concept for a rapidly deployable decontamination system to restore rail transit facilities in the event of a chemical or biological agent release in a rail transit subway station. The system, as conceptually depicted in Figure 1, is conceived to utilize the existing rail transit system tracks to deliver an automated car using a unique decontamination system and expandable booms to reach various inaccessible areas in the station.


Cleaning Device for Electrified Third Rail Insulators Phase 2

Report Number: IDEA-47

Publication Date: Completed

Building on the successfully completed Transit IDEA Project 36, Cleaning Device for Electrified Third Rail Insulators, this project  developed and tested a higher speed automated device to clean electrified third rail insulators for rail rapid transit systems.

Transit IDEA Project 36 developed and tested an innovative prototype device with individual flat jet spray nozzles. The unique design of this device allows insulators to be cleaned all the way around, eliminating the problem of not being able to clean the back of the insulator with a hand held pressure washing gun. The prototype was designed to offer an easier and more efficient way to clean insulators.


SmartSander Enhancement for Commuter Rail

Report Number: IDEA-49

Publication Date: Completed

This project tested the effectiveness of an automated, intelligent sanding system in a US commuter rail environment. For a trial in the US, the investigator conducted a test using a SmartSander installation on a Metro-North commuter rail car.

A system with a multi-step or a proportional sand control operation would give more precise management, providing the maximum available railhead adhesion level. Low wheel-rail adhesion continues to be a major issue for many commuter rail operating agencies, particularly during the fall season when many leaves fall on the tracks. The inability to brake effectively in low adhesion conditions has important safety implications and has performance and cost impacts.

Although large strides have been made in the development of better wheel-slide protection systems, these systems can only optimize the prevailing wheel-rail adhesion that is present. What is needed is a means of improving adhesion consistently. This can be provided by reworking AEA Technology Rail’s SmartSander system for the US commuter rail industry.


Developing Regional Mobility Management Centers

Report Number: IDEA-50

Publication Date: Completed

This project identified methods of integrating transportation to different services, which are currently provided by different operators, by organizing, coordinating, scheduling, and dispatching transportation resources through regional brokerage mobility management centers. The focus was on how to integrate the information and capabilities of multiple software applications for scheduling and dispatching paratransit services so that they can transfer information seamlessly to each other.


Transit Assistance Device (TAD) to Help Transit Riders

Report Number: IDEA-52

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed a Travel Assistance Device (TAD) for transit riders with cognitive disabilities through the creation of an intelligent software system that integrates cell phones with transit agencies’ automated vehicle location (AVL) systems. This project built on the initial TAD work funded through the National Center for Transit Research at the University of South Florida (USF) by the Florida Department of Transportation and U.S. Department of Transportation.

Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation for Transit Buses

Report Number: IDEA-53

Publication Date: Completed

This project incorporated ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) into transit bus air conditioning systems. UVGI was tested for its ability to provide protection against harmful virus, bacteria, mold, and airborne pathogens for passengers riding on and employees working on transit buses. In addition, this project evaluated reduced maintenance costs on bus air conditioning systems by use of UVGI.

Detection of Radioactivity in Transit Stations- Phase 2

Report Number: IDEA-54

Publication Date: Completed

Transit IDEA Project 54, a Phase 2 project, built on the results of the previously completed Transit IDEA project 42, and installed, tested, and evaluated a prototype system using security cameras in a Metrorail transit station.


Warning Device for Rail Transit Personnel for Approaching Trains

Report Number: IDEA-55

Publication Date: Completed

This Transit IDEA project has developed and tested a device to warn rail transit personnel of approaching trains. Two additional devices have also been examined: a device to detect trains that are operating over speed and approaching a track work zone and a device to activate an automated portable train stopper.

Warning Device for Rail Transit Personnel for Approaching Trains

Report Number: IDEA-55

Publication Date: Completed

This Transit IDEA project has developed and tested a device to warn rail transit personnel of approaching trains. Two additional devices have also been examined: a device to detect trains that are operating over speed and approaching a track work zone and a device to activate an automated portable train stopper.

Detection of Explosives and Weapons in Transit Systems

Report Number: IDEA-56

Publication Date: Completed

This Transportation systems are very vulnerable to terrorist threats. The tragic attacks in Madrid, London, and Mumbai brought the horror of this vulnerability home. The early detection of explosives and other weapons in rail transit systems has the potential to save lives by alerting security personnel to the presence of such threats. With this information, transit control centers and law enforcement authorities could detect and apprehend a potential terrorist bomber. Lives could be saved and damage to the rail transit system could be avoided, ensuring the continuing operation of the system.


Independent Wheelchair Securement

Report Number: IDEA-57

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed and tested a rear-facing wheelchair containment system for transit buses. It included development of a prototype device to enable users of wheelchairs to safely and independently use rear-facing containment on large buses, in lieu of the current standard four-point tie-down wheelchair securement system.


Google Transit Data Tool for Small Transit Agencies

Report Number: IDEA-58

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed a tool to enter, export and host the transit data needed to participate in Google Transit. This tool enables small transit agencies to get their transit data on Google Transit. While mid to large size transit agencies often have the resources to provide Google Transit data feeds in accordance with the Google Transit Feed Specification (GTFS), many small transit agencies do not have the necessary resources to enter, export, and host the required transit data feed or do not have their data in the required format.


Recoating Electrified Third Rail Cover Boards – Phase 2

Report Number: IDEA-59

Publication Date: Completed

This project built on the successfully completed Transit IDEA Project 44, Recoating Electrified Third Rail Cover Boards. The purpose of this project was to test and demonstrate an operational high speed
system to clean and recoat in-place the fiberglass reinforced plastic cover boards on electrified third rails for rail rapid transit systems. The problem was that the ultraviolet action of the sun on the cover board degrades the protective gel coat and delaminates the glass fibers. The weakened cover board can be blown away by high winds or fall on the third rail. Traction power is lost and the rail system shuts down.


TCIP Traveler Information Pilot Project

Report Number: IDEA-60

Publication Date: Completed

This project included installation and field testing a TCIP-based passenger information and vehicle tracking system. This project included testing of the system at LYNX, the transit agency in Orlando, Florida, and demonstrated TCIP interfaces in a transit agency environment.

Flexible Carpooling to Transit Stations

Report Number: IDEA-61

Publication Date: Completed

This project investigated and defined a flexible carpooling service to increase the amount of carpooling to transit stations, and designed a field operating trial to test the concept.


Development of Maintenance Training Module for Bus Transit Technicians

Report Number: IDEA-62

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed an internet-based electrical training module for transit technicians to meet a growing demand for understanding modern transit bus electrical systems.


Improving Bus Transit On-Time Performance through the Use of AVL Data

Report Number: IDEA-63

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed a set of desktop tools to analyze archived fixed-route transit automatic vehicle location (AVL) data for the purpose of measuring on-time performance and developing schedule times (running times) between timepoints. The tools were developed using data from the Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA) in Albany, NY.


A Context Aware Transit Navigator

Report Number: IDEA-65

Publication Date: Completed

The objective of this project was to create a real-time, context-aware transit navigation system. The system integrates the route-planning and real-time tracking functionality provided by current systems into a single, real- time and context-aware application, combining a smartphone end-user device, such as the Apple iPhone, with a sophisticated back-end service.

Advanced Wayside Energy Storage Systems (WESS) for Rail Transit)

Report Number: IDEA-66

Publication Date: Completed

This project explored the use of wayside energy storage systems (WESS) in rail transit systems. The analysis monetized economic and technical benefits for transit agencies but also considered other stakeholders. Navigant Consulting modeled the costs and benefits of various applications through hypothetical simulations as well as case studies using real data from our participating transit agencies: Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA) and Denver Regional Transportation District (RTD).

Diesel-Electric Locomotive Energy Recovery and Conversion

Report Number: IDEA-67

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed thermodynamic and economic computer models to access technical and economic performance of a waste heat energy recovery and conversion technology as a retrofitting technology fro commuter rail locomotive applications.

Light Rail Transit / Street Grade Crossing Safety System

Report Number: IDEA-68

Publication Date: Completed

SIL4 Systems Inc. preformed Transit IDEA project 68 yo develop and test an intelligent Light Rail Transit / Street Grade Safety System that cam be used by Light Rail Transit Systems.

Predictive Failure Mode Characterization System for Rail Transit Car Equipment

Report Number: IDEA-69

Publication Date: Completed

This project will develop and test a predictive failure mode characterization system (PFMCS) for rail transit car equipment. The purpose is to improve safety and reliability and reduce life cycle costs.

Effortless Passenger Identification System

Report Number: IDEA-70

Publication Date: Completed

The objective of this project was to evaluate the technical, operational, and economic feasibility of
using medium-range radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to track of four main tasks included field testing, controlled testing, consumer acceptance, and both operational and economic feasibility.

Transit Information Access for Persons with Visual or Cognitive Impairments 

Report Number: IDEA-71

Publication Date: Completed

This project developed and tested a system to enable access to relevant transit information to all passengers, including passengers with visual or cognitive impairments.

Handheld Noncontact Electronic Rail Wheel Gauge

Report Number: IDEA-72

Publication Date: Completed

This project designed, developed, and tested a prototype non-contact, handheld electronic wheel gauge for use in measuring rail transit wheels. The project investigators worked with the New Jersey Transit commuter rail system to test and evaluate the prototype.

Innovatice Operating Strategy for Paratransit Services

Report Number: IDEA-73

Publication Date: Completed

This project explored an innovative strategy for operating paratransit services that are required by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

Many transit agencies providing paratransit services within large service areas adopt zone service strategies. Some of these services can be inefficient because of the large amount of empty trip miles driven by transit buses for serving cross-zonal customers. This project quantified the potential benefits of enabling service providers to efficiently serve trips of cross-zonal customers in need of round trip rides. This project investigated both static and dynamic scheduling scenarios.


Apparatus for Gap Management

Report Number: IDEA-74

Publication Date: Completed

Rutgers University has successfully designed, built, and tested a device that dynamically bridges the gap between the door sill of a commuter rail train and the edge of a passenger loading platform. The device is intended to provide three functions: (1) safe and easy access for mobility-impaired travelers, (2) protection against slip and fall injuries for all passengers, and (3) automated data logging of actual gap widths in order to alert maintenance personnel of track movement or other changes in accordance with the FRAs approach to managing gap safety.

Transit Trip Planning Web Application

Report Number: IDEA-75

Publication Date: Completed

This overall purpose of the work supported by this project is to provide travelers with door-to-door trip planning options for using public modes for longer distance intercity travel integrated with local transit. The work built on a prior project that was funded by the I-95 Corridor Coalition to develop a proof-of-concept system for a region including Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York. The goals of this Transit IDEA project were 91) develop a fully scalable and flexible version of the system and  (2) address the key institutional issue of how to cost-effectively assemble reliable schedule data which underline the system. Resource Systems Group, Inc. (RSG)  moved the proof-of-concept trip planner along to a production-ready form. RSG also identified institutional arrangement and partnerships that will support its deployment.

RideScout Mobile Application

Report Number: IDEA-76

Publication Date: Completed

Rideout further developed, tested, and launched the RideScout product; a mobile application that helps you get from point A to point B faster and smarter. RideScout aggregates information for travelers on all types of ground transportation options, including public, private, and social rides. RideScout shows you real-time information about transportation options that are available around a user right now.


Development of a Prototype Retrofit Bumper for Improved Light Rail Vehicle (LRV) Safety

Report Number: IDEA-77

Publication Date: Completed

The majority of fatalities that occur from light rail vehicle (LRV) operations are pedestrians and occupants of automobiles that are struck by the LRVs. This is an ongoing area of concern within the transit safety community. Recent research has been performed to develop a coupler-mounted LRV bumper system design that incorporates an optimized enclosure profile and segmented energy-absorbing corner bumpers. The system is designed to improve the collision compatibility between LRVs and road traffic, and to reduce struck occupant and pedestrian injuries.

Transit IDEA J-04/IDEA 78 [Completed (IDEA)]

Report Number: IDEA-78

Publication Date: Completed

This project aimed to reduce the accident derailment rate by further developing and testing unique Intelligent Rail Integrity System (IRIS) to determine the conditions leading to changes in Rail Neutral Monitoring Temperature (RNT), and provide the means to continuously monitor RNT in critical curve and abutment locations, to measure this effect, and communicate the condition to an IRIS website for remote access.

Implementation of Smart Card Automatic Fare Collection (AFC) Technology in Small Transit Agencies for Standards Development

Report Number: IDEA-79

Publication Date: Completed

Acumen Building Enterprises, Inc., implemented the APTA Contactless Fare Media Standard (CFMS) specification with an interface between a smart card, smart card reader, and back-office fare collection system. The implementation also included the implementation of typical fare business rules on an industry standard smart card using the ISO/IEC (ISO/IEC 14443 Parts 1–4) and APTA (CFMS Parts 1–4) standards and other ITS best practices. In conjunction with the YCIPTA), Acumen implemented the system on all fixed-route agency vehicles that were equipped previously with Acumen AcuFare readers. YCIPTA provides fixed-route transit services throughout southwestern Yuma County, including the cities of Yuma, San Luis, Somerton, the town of Wellton, Cocopah Indian Reservations, and unincorporated communities of Yuma County, including Gadsden, Ligurta, and Fortuna. The modified system was operated and monitored for apilotperiodlasting90days.Allagency fixed-route vehicles were equipped with APTA-based fare collection software.

Enhancing Safety and Security of Transit Systems Using Computer Vision

Report Number: IDEA-80

Publication Date: Completed

This project will provide bus drivers the ability to detect distractions and fatigue during driving in order to prevent accidents. The system is based on a single camera aimed at the driver’s face and will provide a warning signal when the driver is distracted or fatigued. The Rutgers team developed the system and tested the method and advanced it to a prototype for application and potential commercialization. The testing took place on buses at Southern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) and bus simulators provided by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority of NYC (MTA). The technology provides the operator with detailed information on detractions and fatigue during driving.

Advanced Locomotive Exhaust Gas simulator to Fine-Tune Energy and Conversion Systems

Report Number: IDEA-81

Publication Date: Completed

Transit IDEA TR81 developed a cost-effective, locomotive-scale, exhaust gas simulator to fine-tune waste heat recovery systems (WHRS) customized for operation at locomotive conditions. The project found that WHRS optimized for non-invasive locomotive retrofitting can reduce locomotive operating cost and support compliance of emission standards applied to old and recently manufactured locomotives.
Transit IDEA TR81 accomplishments include the successful implementation of a scaled Extended Combustion Chamber (ECC) to enable low-cost testing of various High-Pressure Heat Exchangers (HiPHEX) configured to non-invasively retrofit locomotive equipment. Data collected from the ECC coupled to different HiPHEX configurations was used to increase the accuracy of computer codes to estimate the HiPHEX effectiveness when operated under various dimensional, operational, and thermodynamic constrains characteristic of different locomotive models. The locomotive scale ECC resulting from this investigation is capable of reaching in excess of 5 MW of thermal energy represented by the locomotive exhaust gases.

Active Safety-Collision Warning Pilot in Washington State

Report Number: IDEA-82

Publication Date: Completed

The Washington State Transit Insurance Pool and its research and financial partners have completed testing and evaluating a first-generation collision warning system for transit buses. This pilot was the first ever statewide effort to test collision warning systems in a wide range of urban, suburban and rural operating environments.
The Rosco/Mobileye Shield+ system is a collision avoidance warning system (CAWS) specifically designed for transit buses. This project involved field testing and evaluation of the CAWS in revenue service over a three-month period. The system provides alerts and warnings to the bus driver for the following conditions that could lead to a collision: 1) changing lanes without activating a turn signal (lane departure warning was disabled for this pilot), 2) exceeding posted speed limit, 3) monitoring headway with the vehicle leading the bus, 4) forward vehicle collision warning, and 5) pedestrian or cyclist collision warning in front of, or alongside the bus. Alerts and warnings are displayed to the driver by visual indicators located on the windshield and front pillars. Audible warnings are issued when collisions are imminent.

Track Circuit Monitoring Tool: Standardization and Deployment at Chicago Transit Authority

Report Number: IDEA-83

Publication Date: Completed

he use of Track Circuits in the transit and railroad industry remains wide spread. Track circuits are critical components of train control systems around the world. They provide vital train location information, assuring safe and reliable revenue service operations. In the busy and tough field environment of rail transit systems, many internal and external issues can adversely impact reliable operation of track circuits as vital train detection system.

The Track Circuit Monitoring (TCM) tool offers innovative algorithms and concepts to uncover abnormal operation of track circuits. TCM continuously monitors and evaluates track circuit occupancy indications for integrity and plausibility, in real-time, 24/7. It qualifies track circuit behavior as normal, irregular, failure, or potentially safety critical condition and provides appropriate alerts and notifications to individuals of Operations and Maintenance – directly and in real-time. The evaluation of an irregular occupancy includes a threat analysis of the compromised area and provides critical information to a potential safety issue including the related train movements. TCM significantly shortens the time frame to implement any restriction to an identified threat by Transit Operations Line Controllers – as needed – in order to protect the riding public.


Location Aware Networks Optimizing Use of Transit

Report Number: IDEA-85

Publication Date: Completed

LookingBus is a smart city system that helps people with disabilities ride public transportation. Specifically, LookingBus addresses the challenges of getting around using the public bus system, including boarding and disembarking (getting on/off) the bus. People with visual impairments depend heavily on public transit as an essential service for engaging in daily life and social activities. However, they often face challenges with (1) finding the correct bus-stop, (2) determining which bus to board, especially at busy bus-stops when multiple buses approach, (3) boarding the correct bus before the bus leaves the stop, and (4) getting off the bus at the requested bus-stop.
LookingBus enhances connectivity of public transportation systems through greater communication between riders, drivers, and bus stops using smart Internet of Things sensors. By utilizing Smart City technology, LookingBus provides drivers with advanced notifications of riders with disabilities at their upcoming stops to ensure that drivers can assist the riders as they board the correct bus. Likewise, the driver gets a notification when the rider needs to get off the bus. In this way, LookingBus is looking out for every rider – the LookingBus technology allows the drivers to be aware, prepared, and cognizant of the needs of the rider.

Advanced Neutral Temperature Estimation Using Solitary Waves

Report Number: IDEA-86

Publication Date: Completed

Continuous welded rails (CWRs) are usually laid under tension in order to counteract the thermal expansion that occurs in warm days. The initial state of stress is such that the rail neutral temperature (RNT), i.e. the temperature at which the net stress in the rail is zero, is comprised between 90°F and 110°F. Over the years the RNT decreases, raising the risk of buckling during the warm season. The knowledge of the RNT or of the longitudinal stress helps transportation authorities and rail operators to minimize the risk of buckling by issuing slow orders.
The ANTEUSW system aims to be a new nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method able to estimate the neutral temperature or the longitudinal stress of CWRs anytime and anywhere with minimal traffic disruption and a single measurement. The method relies on the propagation of highly nonlinear solitary waves along a device, hereinafter called the transducer, placed in a dry point contact with the rail to be inspected and able to support the propagation of solitary waves interacting dynamically with the rail to be inspected. The research hypothesis investigated in this T-86 project was that the axial stress affects the number, amplitude and speed of the pulses reflected from the transducer- rail interface.

Sustainable Public Transportation: Environmentally Friendly Mobility

Report Number: RRD-103

Publication Date: 12/12/2011

This digest is an overview of an international study mission that explored how public transportation systems in several cities in India and China have implemented plans, policies, technologies, and strategies for creating more livable communities through bus, metro, bus rapid transit, rail, and light rail systems. The Indian and Chinese systems visited were designed to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, lower operating costs, and provide safe and accessible transportation services.


Funding for Infrastructure Maintenance: Achieving and Sustaining a State of Good Repair

Report Number: RRD-101

Publication Date: 6/27/2011

This digest examines how bus and rail agencies and operators in several European cities develop community support for public transportation and how those communities implement sustainable funding strategies for transit assets, operations, and maintenance. The digest is based on the results of a scanning mission performed from June 11 through 25, /2010

, under TCRP’s International Transit Studies Program.


Performance Measurement and Outcomes

Report Number: RRD-95

Publication Date: 4/23/2010

This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan


Balancing Infrastructure Reinvestment with System Expansion

Report Number: RRD-92

Publication Date: 11/6/2009

This report explores how public transport agencies in Australia are balancing the need to increase capacity and expand service while maintaining and upgrading their existing bus, tram, rail, and ferry infrastructure.


Public Transportation’s Role in Addressing Global Climate Change

Report Number: RRD-89

Publication Date: 3/25/2009

This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation’s role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.


Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in the Transit Industry

Report Number: RRD-87

Publication Date: 5/16/2008

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated emergency preparedness programs in the public transportation systems in several Asian cities. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the observations of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.


Rail Passenger Safety: Equipment and Technologies

Report Number: RRD-85

Publication Date: 8/30/2007

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated European rail safety programs. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the observations of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.


Innovative Techniques in Planning and Financing of Public Transportation Projects

Report Number: RRD-77

Publication Date: 6/7/2006This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovative techniques in the planning and financing of public transportation projects in Spain, Denmark, the People’s Republic of China, and Japan. This digest provides background information about each of the four cities visited by the mission team and the characteristics of their public transportation offerings. Subsequent sections dicuss the planning and financing arrangements that support public transportation in the cities.


Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Department in Europe

Report Number: RRD-71

Publication Date: 12/9/2005

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated the application of new technologies in bus and rail transit operations in Germany, Austria, and France. The theme of the study mission was Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Departments in Europe. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members. This digest includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited.


Innovations in Bus, Rail and Specialized Transit Operations in Latin America

Report Number: RRD-70

Publication Date: 6/3/2005

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovations in bus, rail and specialized transit operations in Latin America. It is based on individual reports provided by team members, and it reflects the views of the members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data.


Vehicle Design Standards and Procurement Practices in Europe

Report Number: RRD-68

Publication Date: 2/2/2005

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated vehicle design standards and procurement practices in Europe. The missioin concentrated on the development and use of standards in the design of buses and rail vehicles as well as the procurement process used to purchase both types of transit vehicles.


Transit Design, Construction, and Operations in the Mediterranean Region

Report Number: RRD-66

Publication Date: 9/1/2004

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated transit design, construction, and operation in the Mediterranean region. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.


International Transit Studies Program on the Fall 1997 Mission International Transit Studies Program

Report Number: RRD-31

Publication Date: 6/25/2004

This program is designed to assist in the professional development of transit managers, public officials, planners, and others charged with public transportation responsibilities in the United States. It provides opportunities for participants to learn from foreign experience, while expanding their network of domestic and international contacts for addressing public problems and issues. The digest summarizes the seventh mission performed under TCRP Project J-3.


International Transit Studies Program (ITSP)

Report Number: RRD-47

Publication Date: 6/25/2004

The International Transit Studies Program (ITSP) is designed to assist in the professional development of transit managers, public officials, planners, and other charged with public transportation responsibilities in the United States. The program accomplishes this objective by providing opportunities for participants to learn from foreign experience while expanding their network of domestic and international contacts for addressing public transport problems and issues. The program arranges study missions for teams of public transportation professionals to visit exemplary transit operations in other countries. Each study mission focuses on a central theme that encompasses issues of concern in public transportation.


International Transit Studies Program Design-Build Transit Infrastructure Projects in Asia and Australia

Report Number: RRD-53

Publication Date: 6/25/2004

This digest summarizes the mission on design-build transit infrastructure projects in Asia and Australia. Transit projects in the United States have traditionally been constructed using the design-bid-build (DBB) system, in which the transit agency hires an engineering firm to design a project and then puts the design specifications out for construction bids. U.S. transit agencies and owners are however, increasingly turning to the design-build project delivery system as a means of cutting costs and accelerating project delivery.


Real-Time Bus Arrival Information Systems

Report Number: S-48

Publication Date: 8/4/2003

This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. The report describes the state of the practice, including both U.S. and international experience. It documents survey information, a review of the relevant literature, as well as interviews with key personnel at agencies that have, or are in the process of, implementing these systems. This report will be of interest to transit staff concerned with implementing real-time bus arrival information systems at their agencies.


International Transit Studies Program – Emerging Trends in European Public Transport

Report Number: RRD-54

Publication Date: 12/9/2002

This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated emerging trends in European public transport. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented. The theme of the study was “Emerging Trends in European Public Transport,” with a focus on innovative ways of doing business. The team were particularly interested in policy and management innovations that might have application in the United States.


International Transit Studies Program

Report Number: RRD-49

Publication Date: 6/10/2002

This digest summarizes the mission performed under TCRP J-3, “International Transit Studies Program.” The report includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited, lessons learned, and discussions of policies and practices that could be applied in the United States. This digest is an overview of the European mission focusing on excellence in transit operations in small to medium-sized cities.


Technology and Joint Development of Cost Effective Transit Systems in the Asian Pacific Region

Report Number: RRD-42

Publication Date: 12/1/2001

This digest summaries the Asian Pacific region mission performed under TCRP Project J-3, “International Transit Studies Program. The report includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited, lessons learned, and discussions of policies and practices that could be applied in the United States.


International Transit Studies Program, Revitalizing Urban Public Transport in Australia and New Zealand

Report Number: RRD-36

Publication Date: 12/15/1999

This digest summarizes the ninth mission performed under TCRP Project J-3. It includes information on the cities visited, lessons learned, and discussions of policies and practices that could be applied in the United States.


International Transit Studies Program, Private Urban Transit Systems and Low-Cost Mobility Solutions in Major Latin American

Report Number: RRD-33

Publication Date: 12/1/1999

This digest summarizes the eightth mission performed under TCRP J-3. This report has two main sections. The first section presents an overview of the transit operations in each city visited, including information on public and private suppliers of transportation services. The second section focuses on the main transit strategies and technologies observed by the mission participants.


International Transit Studies Program Report on Fall 1997 Mission; Applications of Intelligent Transportation Systems

Report Number: RRD-27

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

Abstract: This digest summarizes the seventh mission performed under Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project J-3, International Transit Studies Program. The report includes information on the cities visited and the lesson learned and discusses policies and practices that could be used in the United States. The seventh mission took place on October 10-26, 1997, and included meetings and site visits in London and Southampton (United Kingdom), Paris (France), and Berlin and Munich (Germany). The mission examined the latest applications of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) technology to public transit.


International Transit Studies Program

Report Number: RRD-20

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This program provides an opportunity for participants to learn from foreign experience while expanding their network of domestic and international contracts for addressing public transportation problems and issues. This digest provides information on the cities visited, summaries of topics investigated, and discussions of policies and practices that could be used in the United States. It also provides an overview of the many innovative practices and technologies found that are transferable, and includes the communities visited in which these innovations have been applied. This digest summaries the first three missions performed under TCRP Project J-3.


International Transit Studies Program, Report on the 1996 Mission

Report Number: RRD-22

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

Abstract: This digest summarizes the fourth and fifth missions performed under Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project J-3, International Transit Studies Program. The digest includes information on the cities visited, lessons learned, and discussions of policies and practices that could be used in the United States. The International Transit Studies Program (ITSP) is managed by the Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., under contract to the National Academy of Sciences. The ITSP is designed to assist in the professional development of transit managers, public officials, planners, and others charged with public transportation responsibilities in the United States.


Transit and Urban Forum

Report Number: R-16

Publication Date: 10/25/1996

This report will be of interest to a broad cross section of individuals involved in transportation and land use planning and development. The research addressed many facets of the relationships between land use and public transportation. These relationships are reexamined, explained, evaluated, and documented to facilitate cost-effective multimodal public transportation investment decisions. The research team, four of which are published in this two-volume report, produced six reports. This volume, Volume 1, contains two of these reports. The first one synthesizes the overall findings and conclusions of TCRP Project H-1, An Examination of the Relationships between Transit and Urban Form, and the existing body of literature on transit and urban form.


Low-Floor Transit Buses

Report Number: S-2

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers; operations, maintenance, and planning managers; and other personnel concerned with operational experiences of low-floor transit buses in fixed route service and with the viability of this technology in meeting the transit industry’s accessibility goals for the future. Information on low-floor transit buses operating in the United States and Canada, including technical specifications as well as status reports on buses manufactured in North America; buses under development; and buses under development; and buses in Europe, obtained from the contacts with international organizations is included. It contains descriptions of standard low-floor buses, as well as another smaller bus used primarily in paratransit service.

Legal Considerations in Relationships Between Transit Agencies and Ridesourcing Service Providers

Report Number: LRD-53

Publication Date: 4/30/2018

This report explores the efforts made by public transit agencies to provide on-demand services to the public. It also provides transit agencies with legal guidance for considering whether to enter into relationships with ridesourcing service providers (RSPs). The report includes a description of ridesourcing services in the United States, state and municipal legislative and regulatory schemes, procurement and procurement processes, contractual and partnership provisions in agreements between RSPs and a public transit agency, issues of compliance with federal legislation and civil rights requirements and those under the Americans with Disabilities Act, legal claims and litigation, and risk management issues stemming from relationships between RSPs and transit agencies.


Administration of ADA Paratransit Eligibility Appeal Program

Report Number: S-133

Publication Date: 3/30/2018

This report processes and documents current practices of transit systems.
ADA paratransit eligibility appeal programs allow appellants the opportunity to present new information not provided or available during the initial eligibility decision that may warrant a change in eligibility determination. At the same time, any appeal program must consistently apply the decision-making standards established by the agency’s ADA paratransit certification program. As more agencies employ some form of conditional eligibility, eligibility appeal processes are emerging as a significant area of vulnerability. If the eligibility appeal process is not administered properly, transit agencies run the risk of violating applicants’ civil rights under the ADA or Title VI requirements.Although several reports describe transit agency practices for determining eligibility for ADA paratransit service, little has been documented about how transit agencies manage appeals by applicants who are determined to be “not eligible” or who are found “conditionally eligible,” including temporary eligibility.


Legal Implications of Video Surveillance on Transit Systems

Report Number: LRD-52

Publication Date: 3/15/2018

This report explores the use of video surveillance systems on buses, trains, and stations. The widespread use of such video surveillance systems has generated numerous legal issues, such as a system’s ability to utilize video to discipline union and non-union employees, safety issues associated with such use, public access to such video, and retention policies regarding video, among others. This digest explores federal and state laws to address these issues, along with the current practices employed by transit agencies to comply with those laws.


Technology Contracting for Transit Projects

Report Number: LRD-51

Publication Date: 9/3/2017

This report examines issues that transit attorneys should be aware of when drafting technology contracts. It addresses how provisions differ depending on the nature of the contract, the type of technology being procured, and whether the system is controlled internally or externally by the agency. Specific focus is given to cloud computing as an alternative delivery mode, and indemnification. This digest also discusses federal, state, and local industry standards regarding liability and warranties, and the contract language that should be used to protect against data breaches, including inadvertent release of personal information.


Public Transit Emergency Preparedness Against Ebola and Other Infectious Diseases: Legal Issues

Report Number: LRD-50

Publication Date: 5/17/2017

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This report examines responses to infectious disease epidemics and identifies legal issues that may be confronted by transit agencies. It considers federal and state laws and available court decisions affecting transit agencies’ responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including potential cohesiveness among transit agencies’ procedures and federal and state guidance. The digest also examines the legal basis for the protocols that public transit agencies and other transportation providers such as airlines have planned or implemented to respond to epidemics and pandemics. It further builds upon the /2014

NCHRP Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response.


Updated Guide to Buy America Requirements—/2015

Supplement

Report Number: LRD-49

Publication Date: 4/28/2017

This report examines various statutory and regulatory Buy America requirements that a state or local governmental entity must examine when receiving funds for a public transportation project from one or more USDOT agencies. The purpose of this Legal Research Digest is to update the earlier TRB legal research to provide a comprehensive and current summary of the FTA Buy America provision.
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Legal Issues Concerning Transit Agency Use of Electronic Customer Data

Report Number: LRD-48

Publication Date: 3/22/2017

This report explores the advantages, disadvantages, risks, and benefits for transit agencies moving to electronic, cloudbased, and other computerized systems for fare purchases and for communicating with customers. “Smart” fare cards are now commonplace, and private businesses and transit agencies are using or planning to use smartphones, smart cards and credit cards, and other systems to obtain payment, location, and other personal data from customers.The digest updates TCRP LRD 14: Privacy Issues in Public Transportation (2000) and TCRP LRD 25: Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards (/2008

) and covers additional dimensions of collection and use of personal information using new technologies developed since those studies. Appendix A-D are available online only athttp://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/175848.aspx


Legal Issues with Obtaining Insurance for Large Transit Projects

Report Number: LRD-47

Publication Date: 9/10/2014

This digest identifies and discusses in detail the legal issues confronting transit agencies seeking to obtain insurance for large transit capital projects. It covers different types of insurance coverage required for large projects and the types of programs available, including Owner Controlled Insurance Programs and owner’s protective professional indemnity insurance. In addition, the report considers the benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of such programs as compared to consultant- or contractor-provided insurance programs.


How the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and Other Privacy Laws Affect Public Transportation Operations

Report Number: LRD-46

Publication Date: 6/27/2014

This digest explores whether the privacy and security rules established by HIPAA apply to transit agencies that possess patrons’ health information.The first seven sections of this digest discuss HIPAA and whether various entities are subject to HIPAA’s privacy and security provisions applicable to the protection of protected health information, as defined by HIPAA. It also analyzes how protected health information is defined by HIPAA and discusses HIPAA’s Privacy Rule and Security Rule as defined by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services in its most recent final rule. The digest also summarizes other important aspects of HIPAA as well.


Transit Public-Private Partnerships: Legal Issues

Report Number: LRD-45

Publication Date: 6/25/2014

This digest identifies the legal issues associated with negotiating public-private partnership (PPP) agreements for transit projects. It explores the rationale for using PPP, innovative contracting and financing approaches offered by PPPs, and transfer of risks from the public to the private sector through PPPs. In addition, the digest provides an overview of the legal barriers that PPPs confront in some states, and how PPPs comply with federal law. Funding of PPPs for transit projects and long-term leasing of transit facilities are also covered in the digest.


Legal Issues in Public Transit Emergency Planning and Operation

Report Number: LRD-44

Publication Date: 1/8/2014

This digest synthesizes and assesses laws, regulations, and guidance from the transit and homeland security industries as a means to help transit agencies better understand their legal responsibilities with respect to emergency planning and operational issues. One of the goals of the report is to help transit systems remain in compliance with emergency planning and operations requirements and guidance.


Contractual Means of Achieving High-Level Performance in Transit Contracts

Report Number: LRD-43

Publication Date: 6/25/2013

This digest explores the use by transit agencies of performance-based provisions in their contracts and identifies legal and other restrictions on an agency’s use of incentives or liquidated damages in its contracts.


Transit Labor 13(c) Employee Protection Digest

Report Number: LRD-41

Publication Date: 9/27/2012

This digest synthesizes the transit 13(c) decisions issued since publication of Selected Studies in Transportation Law (SSTL) Volume 6, Transit Labor 13(c) Decisions (49 U.S.C. 5333(b)). The digest also includes the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Employee Protection Digest- a digest of decisions on employee 13(c) claims decided by DOL hearing officers. The digest was produced in a CD-ROM format to take advantage of the enhance search, categorization, and indexing capabilities offered by an electronic document. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided on the TRB site at www.trb.org.


Issues Involving Surety for Public Transportation Projects

Report Number: LRD-40

Publication Date: 8/10/2012

This digest reviews applicable federal law, provides examples of state and local laws, and highlights industry practices related to surety. It also examines surety issues and industry practices in various types of construction and other public transportation projects. The types of surety addressed by the report include performance, payment, and warranty bonds; letters of credit; and other instruments.


Transit Oriented Joint Development: Case Studies and Legal Issues

Report Number: LRD-36

Publication Date: 10/12/2011

This digest examines a combination of large, medium, and small Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and joint development projects since 1999 and provides comprehensive case studies, with an emphasis on what made the project succeed and how legal issues relate to TODs in general. Sample documents are included with the print version of the publication in CD-ROM format. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided as well.


Legal Arrangements for Use and Control of Real-Time Data

Report Number: LRD-37

Publication Date: 7/12/2011

This digest is designed to help transit officials understand the legal options and limitations for real-time data ownership, protection, and use


Reductions in Transit Service or Increases in Fares: Civil Rights, ADA, Regulatory, and Environmental Justice Implications

Report Number: LRD-35

Publication Date: 4/12/2011

This digest explores the legal implications of reductions in transit service or increases in fares in the context of environmental justice. Based on federal environmental justice principles, the report analyzes constitutional and statutory provisions and regulations in regard to transit agencies’ compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).


Transit Agency Compliance with Title VI: Limited English Proficiency Requirements

Report Number: RRD-97

Publication Date: 2/2/2011

This digest explores the legal issues associated with transit operators’ limited English proficiency (LEP) compliance efforts. It s designed to serve as a single source of information concerning the development and current status of transit LEP implementation efforts by state and local legislative and operational bodies.


Guide to Federal Buy America Requirements — /2009

Supplement

Report Number: LRD-31

Publication Date: 3/26/2010

This report explores the Buy America requirements, with an emphasis on the specific requirements that apply to manufactured products and to rolling stock.


Legal Handbook for the New Starts Process

Report Number: LRD-30

Publication Date: 3/10/2010

This report explores legal issues associated with the U.S. Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts process.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


First Amendment Implications for Transit Facilities: Speech, Advertising, and Loitering

Report Number: LRD-29

Publication Date: 6/19/2009

Transit agencies face numerous challenges in providing passengers with a safe and efficient means of travel while respecting the freedom of expression protected by the First Amendment. In May 1998, the Transportation Research Board published Transit Cooperative Research Program Legal Research Digest (LRD) 10, Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities (“LRD 10”), a survey of the relevant law and its development up to the time of publication. This digest supplements LRD No. 10, summarizing and analyzing the status of this important area of the law in light of court decisions and other developments that have arisen in subsequent years.


Uses of Fees or Alternatives to Fund Transit

Report Number: LRD-28

Publication Date: 12/16/2008

This report explores the use of impact fees for transit in the United States. The report examines policy and legal considerations relating to the use of impact fees and developer exactions for transit, reviews various methodologies currently in use, and identifies cases that exemplify strategies transit agencies may pursue when considering impact fees as an alternative funding source.


Civil Rights Implications of the Allocation of Funds between Bus and Rail

Report Number: LRD-27

Publication Date: 9/5/2008

This publication examines complaints filed under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the Federal Transit Administration. The report also explores the number of Title VI challenges, the nature of transit agencies’ responses to these challenges, U.S. Supreme Court decisions associated with Section 602 disparateimpact violations, intentional discrimination claims, immunity, and more.


Resources for Legal Issues Associated with Bus Maintenance

Report Number: LRD-26

Publication Date: 7/28/2008

There is no readily accessible single source that identifies statutory provisions, regulatory provisions, and licensing/certification requirements applicable or relevant to a range of bus maintenance personnel and activities. The purpose of this report is to provide such a reference document, including information about guidance for compliance, to facilitate bus maintenance managers’ ability to determine the requirements to follow in their specific jurisdictions. Identifying the types of agencies in other jurisdictions that have requirements for varying issues should make it easier for managers to determine which agencies they should consult in their own jurisdictions. The goal of this digest is to serve as a resource that informs interested persons of all current federal and state statutes, regulations, and guidance related to bus maintenance. It should be useful to attorneys, administrators, managers, mechanics, operators, and supervisors.


Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards

Report Number: LRD-25

Publication Date: 5/12/2008

This publication examines basic privacy issues associated with the acquisition and storage of financial and trip data associated with the use of a transit smart card. The report explores who can access the data collected, what data may be accessed and under what conditions, and how the information can be used.


Transit Bus Stops: Ownership, Liability, and Access

Report Number: LRD-24

Publication Date: 4/10/2008

This digest will inform transit providers and government officials of the different levels of ownership, liability, and maintenance associated with bus stops and bus shelters; identify the categories of legal issues that are associated with ownership and liability; and provide information on the problems and practices of others who have dealt with such problems including protective provisions in franchise agreements and service provider contracts.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers

Report Number: R-86 Volume 13

Publication Date: 10/15/2007

This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.


The Americans with Disabilities Act: The Federal Transit Administration’s Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments

Report Number: LRD-23

Publication Date: 9/17/2007

This document consists of findings, decisions, and five compliance assessments interpreting or pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA’s) Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments includes FTA interpretations of Part III of the ADA, which pertains to public accommodations and transportation. FTA interpretations can be in letter findings, decisions on complaints, and compliance assessments. FTA’s interpretations are available for download as an ISO imag


Using Archived AVL – APC Data to Improve Transit Performance and Management

Report Number: R-113

Publication Date: 9/12/2006This report developed guidance on the effective collection and use of archieved AVL-APC data to improve the performance and management of transit systems. It offers guidance on five subjects: Analyses that use AVL-APC data to improve management and performance; AVL-APC system design to facilitate the capture of data with the accuracy and detail needed for off-line data analysis; ata structure and analysis software for facilitating analysis of AVL-APC data; Screening, parsing, and balancing automatic passenger counts; Use of APC systems for estimating passenger-miles for National Tansit Database reporting.


Trademarking and Licensing for Transit Problems

Report Number: LRD-21

Publication Date: 12/27/2005

The purpose of this report is to give the intellectual property novice an understanding of the process of creating and protecting trademark assets. Included is a step-by-step explanation of the process used to prepare and file an application for a federal trademark. This report contains a webliography, which should be convenient for interactive research for those accessing the report through http://www4.trb.org/trb/onlinepubs.nsf.


The Case for Searches on Public Transportation

Report Number: LRD-22

Publication Date: 11/2/2005

This report provides information concerning the ability of public transportation systems or their agents, within the context of federal or state law, to conduct either random searches or targeted searches of passengers on public transportation vehicles or on public transportation property.


Transit Passengers and Civil Rights

Report Number: LRD-20

Publication Date: 7/29/2005

This report examines how measures used by transit agencies to protect transit passengers intersect with constitutionally protected rights.


Identifying and Reducing Fraudulent Third Party Tort Claims Against Public Transit Agencies

Report Number: S-36

Publication Date: 6/25/2004

This synthesis describes the practices in place at public transit agencies to prevent and respond to third party fraudulent claims, including a review of salient aspects of the public transit claims process in the context of managing current and partial tort liability. It examines the level of claims, presents a structured methodology for approaching the fraudulent claims issue, and describes practices that have been implemented to reduce claims abuse. The emphasis is on strategies that organizations have adopted to counter insurance fraud. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, supervisors, and staff dealing with legal services and risk management issues, as well as to consultants that work with them


Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide

Report Number: R-96

Publication Date: 11/6/2003

The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.


Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Operations

Report Number: LRD-19

Publication Date: 10/2/2003

This digest provides the nation’s transit agencies with access to authoritative research, specfic, limited-scope studies of legal issues and problems having significance and applications to their business. It reports on a review of applicable statutes, a survey of state and local transit providers, and an analysis of developments pertaining to employment infrastructure and service requirements. This digest should be helpful to administrators, attorneys, financial officials, human resourcess personnel, and planners in public transportation.


Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs

Report Number: RRD-50

Publication Date: 8/8/2002

This digest reports on legal issues associated with transit and intermodal law. Each document is intended to provide transit attorneys with authoritative, well-researched, specific information that is limited in scope. The studies focus on legal issues and problems having national significance to the transit industry.


Federal and State Licensing and Other Safety Requirements for Commercial Motor Vehicle Operators

Report Number: LRD-18

Publication Date: 1/23/2002

This report presents a compilation of state CDL/CMV regulations, an overview summary of the federal motor carrier safety regulations, and information on the availability of state CMV and regular driver’s manuals, among other information.


Impact of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 on the Transit Industry

Report Number: LRD-15

Publication Date: 12/15/2001

This digest is designed to provide insight into the operating practices and legal elements of specific problems in transportation agencies. The report presents information collected from transit agencies, and gives the researchers’ analyses of the perceived legal issues. This report should be helpful to attorneys, administrators, human resources officials, labor specialists, managers, and supervisors.


Guide to Federal Buy America Requirements

Report Number: LRD-17

Publication Date: 10/4/2001

The purpose of this report is to provide an easy-to-use guide that provides all the Buy America requirements with an emphasis on the specific requirements that apply both to manufactured products and to rolling stock. This report should be useful to attorneys, administrators, contracting officers, engineers, and all officials that have purchasing responsibilities


Legal Aspects Relevant to Outsourcing Transit Functions Not Traditionally Outsourced

Report Number: LRD-38

Publication Date: 8/5/2001

This digest focus on the legal aspects relevant to outsourcing transit functions not traditionally outsourced, such as maintenance services, architectural and engineering work, custodial services, security services, human resources, call center services, and marketing and advertising. For the purpose of the report, revenue operations and paratransit services are considered traditional outsourced transit functions.


Drug & Alcohol Testing: A Survey of Labor-Management Relations

Report Number: LRD-16

Publication Date: 6/25/2001

This report examines the relationship between the laws that prescribe bargaining requirements for employees such as the Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991, the National Labor Relations Act, and the Railroad Labor Act as well as the impact that intersections have had on existing collective bargaining agreements.


Innovative Financing Techniques for Transit Agencies

Report Number: LRD-13

Publication Date: 3/31/2000

This digest describes the identified techniques that have been successfully employed or attempted by transit operators in order to increase revenues available for transit capital or operating needs or to provide development of transit assets in innovative ways. By studying the case studies set forth in this report, transit operators across the country can duplicate these techniques or expand on them with their own innovative financing techniques to produce revenues or transit assets for the commuting public.


Treatment of Privacy Issues in the Public Transportation Industry

Report Number: LRD-14

Publication Date: 3/29/2000

This study discusses the development of the law of privacy and examines its continuing evolution within the context of societal and technological changes, particularly how these principles apply to the public transportation industry and its employees.


The Zoning and Real Estate Implications of Transit-Oriented Development

Report Number: LRD-12

Publication Date: 4/14/1999

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by S. Mark White, provides information on legal and other issues associated with transit-oriented development. The report should be useful to transit and development attorneys, financial officials, planners, development officials, and anyone interested in transit- oriented development. It is organized as follows: (1) Introduction; ( 2) Elements of Transit-Oriented Development Policies; (3) Legal Basis for Transit-Oriented Development; (4) Conclusion; Appendix A – Survey Questions; Appendix B – Techniques Used by Survey Respondents to Encourage TOD; and Appendix C – Survey Participants Engaged in Joint Development Projects.


Potential Tort Liability for Transit Agencies Arising out of the Americans with Disabilities Act

Report Number: LRD-11

Publication Date: 12/15/1998

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Robert A. Hirsch, presents an assessment of problems in implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Public Law 101- 336, enacted in 1990, from the perspective of transit operators.


Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities

Report Number: LRD-10

Publication Date: 9/15/1998

This study is an analysis of current case law as it affects transportation facilities. It is intended for use nationwide by attorneys confronted with problems arising from restriction on speech and related activities in transit and termination facilities.


Strategies to Minimize Liability under Federal and State Environment Laws

Report Number: LRD-9

Publication Date: 6/15/1998

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by G. Martin Cole and Christine M. Brookbank, provides insight into the potential liability of transit agencies for hazardous waste, and methods and policies that would avoid or reduce the potential liability. The report should be useful to transit administrators, attorneys, planners, engineers, financial officials, development and contracting officers, and contract managers.


Transportation Service Agreements: A Preparation and Reference Guide for Transit Attorneys

Report Number: LRD-8

Publication Date: 12/15/1997

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Barbara A. Adams and Clifford L. Weaver, provides an up-to- date reference and guide on the essentials of contracting for service agreements and should be useful to attorneys and contract administrators. The report is organized as follows: Introduction and Overview; (I) Basic Provisions; (II) Definitions; (III) Services to Be Purchased; (IV) Vehicles and Equipment for Transportation Services and Other Services; (V) Real Property and Facilities; (VI) Employees; (VII) Nondiscrimination, Equal Employment, and Business Opportunity; (VIII) Reports, Records, and Inspections; (IX) Purchasing; (X) Insurance, Risk Management, and Bonds; (XI) Indemnification; (XII) Payment; (XIII) Term, Termination, and Remedies; (XIV) Contractor Covenants and Representations; (XV) General Provisions; Endnotes; and Appendix A – Outline of Model Agreement.


The Impact of Civil Rights Litigation Under Title VI and Related Laws on Transit Decision Making

Report Number: LRD-07

Publication Date: 6/15/1997

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Sandra Van De Walle, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) Affirmative Action Programs for DBEs (Disadvantaged Business Enterprises); (III) Obligation to Provide Equality of Service to Minority and Nonminority Passengers; and (IV) Conclusion.


Requirements That Impact the Acquisition of Capital-Intensive Long-Lead Items, Rights of Way, and Land for Transit

Report Number: LRD-6

Publication Date: 12/15/1996

This study addresses Federal and State requirments governing acquisition of capital assets by transit systems. The challenges and stratigies to competing a “timely” procurement are reviewed in this report.


Legal Issues Associated with Intermodalism

Report Number: LRD-5

Publication Date: 6/15/1996

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Russell Leibson and William Penner, is organized as follows: (A) Background and Purpose of the Study; (B) How the Study Was Conducted; (C) Survey Results (1-Survey Respondents’ Definition of Intermodalism, 2-Survey Respondents’ Ratings of Some Problems Associated with Intermodalism, and 3-Conclusions Based on Survey Responses); (D) Legal Issues Associated with Intermodalism (1-Funding Issues, 2-Regulations Regarding Freight Carriers, 3-Environmental Restrictions, 4-Zoning, Land Use, and Noise Restrictions, and 5-Labor Laws and Standards); (E) Conclusion; Appendix A–Bibliography; Appendix B–Intermodalism Survey Form; and Appendix C–Selected Survey Respondents’ Definitions of Intermodalism.


Transit Labor Protection – A Guide to Section 13c Federal Transit Act

Report Number: LRD-4

Publication Date: 12/15/1995This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report has the same title as this digest and is authored by G. Kent Woodman, Jane Sutter Starke, and Leslie D. Schwartz. Section 13(c) of the Federal Transit Act is an especially complex Federal requirement. It has a unique history, which must be appreciated. Two Federal agencies, primarily the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) and secondarily the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) administer it, which do not always share the same policies or interpretations.


State Limitations on Tort Liability of Public Transit Operations

Report Number: LRD-3

Publication Date: 12/15/1994This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Larry W. Thomas, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) State and Local Immunity Statutes in Relation to Public Transit Agencies; (III) Substantive Limitations on Tort Actions Against Public Transit Agencies; (IV) Discussion of the Governmental- Proprietary Test of Immunity; (V) Duty and Degree of Care Owed to the Traveling Public; (VI) Procedural Limitations on Actions or Recoveries in Tort Against Public Transit Agencies; (VII) Other Matters of Interest to Public Transit Agencies (A. Transit Agency’s Compliance with Federal and State Laws and Regulations and B. Significance of Insurance Coverage in Tort Actions); (VIII) Changes in the Law That Would Reduce Tort Liability; and (IX) Conclusion.


Strategies to Facilitate Acquisition and Use of Railroad Right of Way by Transit Providers

Report Number: LRD-1

Publication Date: 10/12/1994This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Project J-5 is designed to provide insight into the operating practices and legal elements of specific problems in transportation agencies. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Kevin M. Sheys, is organized as follows: Introduction; A Frame of Reference; Common Issues in Rail Transit Projects; Organization of Article; Acquisition and Use Strategies with Willing Sellers (Voluntary Sales–Abandonable Lines, Voluntary Sales–Nonabandonable Lines, and Control of Management and Operations); Acquisition and Use Strategies with Unwilling Sellers; Conclusion; and Notes.


Successful Risk Management for Ridesharing and Carpool-Matching Programs

Report Number: LRD-2

Publication Date: 10/12/1994This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Russell Leibson and William Penner, is organized as follows: (A) Introduction; (B) Public and Private Rideshare Programs; ( C) Legal Liability; (D) Statutory Limitations on Liability; (E) Insurance; (F) Strategies to Minimize Potential Tort Liability; and (G) Conclusions. A bibliography is included and Appendix A presents a chart which summarizes state laws affecting rideshare arrangements.

Contracting Commuter Rail Services: Guidebook

Report Number: R-200 – Volume 1

Publication Date: 9/17/2018

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This report is a two-volume set that presents guidance on the different approaches for providing commuter rail service and includes decision trees to assist public transportation agencies and other key stakeholders in determining how to implement commuter rail or evaluate changes in their approach to service delivery of an existing system.Volume 1: Guidebook provides an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each potential approach for providing commuter rail service, including the primary functions for commuter rail delivery—train operations, dispatch, maintenance of way, and maintenance of equipment. The guidebook includes a decision tree analysis and summarizes current trends for contracting commuter rail services, as well as highlights innovative approaches for contracting transportation services.Volume 2: Commuter Rail System Profiles describes the 31 commuter rail services in North America and the various delivery approaches, and documents a broad range of strategies and approaches for managing the operation and maintenance issues associated with the contracting of commuter rail services.


Contracting Commuter Rail Services: Commuter Rail System Profiles

Report Number: R-200 – Volume 2

Publication Date: 9/17/2018

This report is a two-volume set that presents guidance on the different approaches for providing commuter rail service and includes decision trees to assist public transportation agencies and other key stakeholders in determining how to implement commuter rail or evaluate changes in their approach to service delivery of an existing system.Volume 2: Commuter Rail System Profiles describes the 31 commuter rail services in North America and the various delivery approaches, and documents a broad range of strategies and approaches for managing the operation and maintenance issues associated with the contracting of commuter rail services.Volume 1: Guidebook provides an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each potential approach for providing commuter rail service, including the primary functions for commuter rail delivery—train operations, dispatch, maintenance of way, and maintenance of equipment. The guidebook includes a decision tree analysis and summarizes current trends for contracting commuter rail services, as well as highlights innovative approaches for contracting transportation services.


Practices for Utility Coordination in Transit Projects

Report Number: S-118

Publication Date: 4/10/2015

This synthesis summarizes utility coordination practices at transit agencies around the country. Specifically, the report focuses on utility coordination issues that transit agencies undertake during typical phases of project development and delivery, including planning, designing, and constructing civil infrastructure facilities.Most utility relocation appears to be associated with rail and streetcar projects, and very rarely, bus projects. The topic panel and consultant chose to work closely with the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) to extract information about general trends around the country as reported here and to identify the potential agencies with whom to conduct more detailed interviews.


Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit

Report Number: R-144 Volume 1

Publication Date: 3/17/2011

The report explores issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit leads the user through the process of setting up the necessary cost accounting system, identifying the data requirements and the measurement parameters, and describing procedures for applying the model. This volume includes instructions for using the actual Cost Sharing Model for setup and application on a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. An executive summary of the report is included.


Sharing the Costs of Human Services Transportation Volume 2: Research Report

Report Number: R-144 Volume 2

Publication Date: 3/16/2011

The report explore issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs. Collectively, the two volumes examine current practices and offer strategies for collecting necessary data, addressing administrative and policy-related issues, and establishing cost allocation procedures. Volume 2: The Research Report summarizes all of the study components that contributed to formation of the Toolkit. It includes an extended evaluation of current experiences, and describes the regulatory environment that frames transportation service delivery requirements. An executive summary of the report is included.


Performance Measurement and Outcomes

Report Number: RRD-95

Publication Date: 4/23/2010

This report explores how performance measurements are used to achieve organizational goals and enhance quality of service at public transport planning, funding, and operating agencies in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China; in the city-state of Singapore; in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and in Taipei, Taiwan


Guide to Federal Buy America Requirements — /2009

Supplement

Report Number: LRD-31

Publication Date: 3/26/2010

This report explores the Buy America requirements, with an emphasis on the specific requirements that apply to manufactured products and to rolling stock.


Legal Handbook for the New Starts Process

Report Number: LRD-30

Publication Date: 3/10/2010

This report explores legal issues associated with the U.S. Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts process.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Technology

Report Number: R-132

Publication Date: 12/19/2009

This report explores decision-making guidelines coupled with a comprehensive life cycle cost (LCC) model designed to assist transit managers in evaluating, selecting, and implementing hybrid-electric technology options for transit buses. The LCC model allows the user to compare the total life cycle costs across several cost categories for up to 6 different purchase scenarios. The LCC model is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-71), with the printed version of the report and available for download as an ISO image online.


Guidebook for Rural Demand-Response Transportation: Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance

Report Number: R-136

Publication Date: 12/17/2009

This report explores the diversity of demand-response transportation (DRT) services and examines definitions of performance data and performance measures. This report also highlights the typology of rural DRT systems and includes examples of performance data from more than 20 representative rural systems.


Balancing Infrastructure Reinvestment with System Expansion

Report Number: RRD-92

Publication Date: 11/6/2009

This report explores how public transport agencies in Australia are balancing the need to increase capacity and expand service while maintaining and upgrading their existing bus, tram, rail, and ferry infrastructure.


Rural Transit Achievements: Assessing the Outcomes of Increased Funding for Rural Passenger Services Under SAFETEA-LU

Report Number: RRD-93

Publication Date: 10/1/2009

This report is a summary of a report that explores data and information on the changes in rural public and intercity bus transportation that have resulted from the increases in funding made available through SAFETEA-LU.


Controlling System Costs: Basic and Advanced Scheduling Manuals and Contemporary Issues in Transit Scheduling

Report Number: R-135

Publication Date: 7/16/2009

This report explores information on available scheduling tools and techniques and their capabilities. Also, the report provides guidance to transit agencies on a variety of scheduling issues typically faced in a transit operating environment.


A Guidebook for the Evaluation of Project Delivery Methods

Report Number: R-131

Publication Date: 5/12/2009

This report examines various project delivery methods for major transit capital projects. The report also explores the impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of including operations and maintenance as a component of a contract for a project delivery method.


Public Transportation’s Role in Addressing Global Climate Change

Report Number: RRD-89

Publication Date: 3/25/2009

This report provides an overview of an International Transit Studies Program mission that investigated public transportation’s role in addressing global climate change in several cities in Ireland, Germany, Italy, and Spain.


Local and Regional Funding Mechanisms for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-129

Publication Date: 3/11/2009

This report explores a series of transit funding mechanisms with a primary focus on traditional tax- and fee-based funding; and common business, activity, and related funding sources. It includes an online regional funding database that provides an extensive list of funding sources that are in use or have the prospect of being used at the local and regional level to support public transportation. A user manual for the database is also available on the TCRP website.


Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner’s Guide

Report Number: R-130

Publication Date: 3/2/2009

This report examines a business case for the shared use of non-Federal Railroad Administration-compliant public transit rail vehicles (e.g., light rail vehicles) with freight operations and highlights a business model for such shared-use operations. This report also explores potential advantages and disadvantages of shared-use operations and the issues and barriers that can arise in the course of implementation.


Transit Systems in College and University Communities

Report Number: S-78

Publication Date: 12/24/2008

This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations


Uses of Fees or Alternatives to Fund Transit

Report Number: LRD-28

Publication Date: 12/16/2008

This report explores the use of impact fees for transit in the United States. The report examines policy and legal considerations relating to the use of impact fees and developer exactions for transit, reviews various methodologies currently in use, and identifies cases that exemplify strategies transit agencies may pursue when considering impact fees as an alternative funding source.


Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services

Report Number: S-76

Publication Date: 12/4/2008

This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.


Effects of TOD on Housing, Parking, and Travel

Report Number: R-128

Publication Date: 10/2/2008

This report explores the demographics of transit-oriented development (TOD) residents and employers, and their motives for locating in TODs. The report also examines the travel characteristics of residents before and after moving to a TOD and ways to increase transit ridership among these residents. In addition, the report reviews the potential effect of land-use and design features on travel patterns, transit ridership, and the decision to locate in a TOD. This report will be helpful to project, land-use, and transportation planners; transit agencies; the development community; and federal, state, and local decision makers considering transit oriented development.


Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas

Report Number: R-127

Publication Date: 8/21/2008

This report explores salary and benefit characteristics of transit systems in rural and small urban areas. An interactive computer tool, produced as part of this project, is available online and is designed to allow transit managers to quickly and easily obtain compensation and benefit data from comparable transit systems.


Innovative Practices in Transit Workforce Development

Report Number: RRD-88

Publication Date: 7/14/2008

This publication is an overview of the mission that investigated innovative practices in workforce development in several cities in Canada, France, and Belgium. It is based on individual reports provided by the mission team members, and it reflects the observations of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented. The digest does not necessarily reflect the views of TCRP, TRB, the National Academies, American Public Transportation Association (APTA), FTA, or the Eno Transportation Foundation.


Leveraging ITS Data for Transit Market Research: A Practitioner’s Guidebook

Report Number: R-126

Publication Date: 7/8/2008

This publication describes currently used intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and Transit ITS technologies that have the greatest promise for transit market research. This guidebook documents ITS and Transit ITS technologies currently in use, assesses their potential to provide market research data, and presents methods for collecting and analyzing these data. Also, the guidebook provides three in-depth case studies that illustrate how ITS data have been successfully used to improve market research practices.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Racial and Gender Diversity in State DOTs and Transit Agencies: A Benchmark Scoping

Report Number: R-120

Publication Date: 9/7/2007

This report documents and analyzes racial and gender diversity in state departments of transportation (state DOTs) and transit agencies for purposes of establishing a baseline that reflects the current status of racial and gender diversity in state DOTs and transit agencies based on existing data.


Current State Issues with Implementing Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Section 5310 and Section 5311 Programs

Report Number: NCHRP RRD-320

Publication Date: 7/16/2007

This digest identifies and prioritizes current issues facing state DOTs in the management and administration of their S.5311 and S.5310 programs and explores options for addressing these issues.


Buy America Issues Associated with the State DOT Procurement of Paratransit Vehicles Using FTA Funds

Report Number: NCHRP RRD-319

Publication Date: 7/12/2007

This digest examines the Buy America requirements applicable to state DOTs and their subrecipients in purchases of paratransit vehicles and considers opportunities for change.


Centralized versus Decentralized State Procurement of Paratransit Vehicles for the Federal Section 5310 Program

Report Number: NCHRP RRD-315

Publication Date: 6/12/2007

In this study, information was collected on the multiyear procurement experience of states that directly and indirectly procure paratransit vehicles applying funds from the federal Elderly Persons and Persons with Disabilities Program (49 U.S.C. § 5310, hereafter referred to as Section 5310). The objective of this study was to help states improve their current procurement processes or enable them to strategically consider alternative processes for acquiring vehicles for this program.


Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services

Report Number: R-116

Publication Date: 11/13/2006TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.


Managing Capital Costs of Major Federally Funded Public Transportation Projects

Report Number: RRD-78

Publication Date: 10/25/2006This digest contains recommendations for strategies, tools, and techniques to better manage major transit capital projects over $100 million. Information is presented on various stimation, project-management, and cost-containment approaches that were applied successfully to 14 case studies. The results, which indicate which tools and techniques contributed to more effective project management, will be useful to transit systems and communities endeavoring to plan or implement major transit investments.


Using Archived AVL – APC Data to Improve Transit Performance and Management

Report Number: R-113

Publication Date: 9/12/2006This report developed guidance on the effective collection and use of archieved AVL-APC data to improve the performance and management of transit systems. It offers guidance on five subjects: Analyses that use AVL-APC data to improve management and performance; AVL-APC system design to facilitate the capture of data with the accuracy and detail needed for off-line data analysis; ata structure and analysis software for facilitating analysis of AVL-APC data; Screening, parsing, and balancing automatic passenger counts; Use of APC systems for estimating passenger-miles for National Tansit Database reporting.


Trademarking and Licensing for Transit Problems

Report Number: LRD-21

Publication Date: 12/27/2005

The purpose of this report is to give the intellectual property novice an understanding of the process of creating and protecting trademark assets. Included is a step-by-step explanation of the process used to prepare and file an application for a federal trademark. This report contains a webliography, which should be convenient for interactive research for those accessing the report through http://www4.trb.org/trb/onlinepubs.nsf.


E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-84 Volume 7

Publication Date: 8/19/2005

This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. It describes how web-based tools have been used to assist with controlling and managing active and planned construction projects, including schedules and cost of the projects, through three organizations that have successfully used web-based collaborative software: The Chicago Transit Authority, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and Raytheon.


Availability and Accessibility of Liability and Excess Insurance for Public Transit and Private Coach Operators

Report Number: NCHRP RRD-295

Publication Date: 4/11/2005

This digest provides alternatives to conventional liability insurance coverage for public transit agencies and private motorcoach (coach) operators in response to the insurance crisis of the early 2000s that has had, and continues to have, a significant impact on the cost and availability of liability insurance coverage. The digest discusses the role of liability insurance in the passenger transportation industry, current insurance issues and impacts on public transit agencies and private motorcoach operators, alternative insurance models, and activities and strategies that can help to mitigate liability insurance costs and availability.


Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture

Report Number: R-84 Volume 5

Publication Date: 10/25/2004

TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.


Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects

Report Number: R-102

Publication Date: 8/25/2004

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the state of the practice and the benefits of transit-oriented development (TOD) and joint develoment throughout the United States. This report defines TOD and joint development and offers insight into the various aspects of implementing TOD, including political and institutional factors; planning and land-use strategies, benefits, and impacts; fiscal considerations and partnerships; and design challenges and considerations. Benefits attributable to TOD initiatives include improved air quality, preservation of open space, pedestrian-friendly environments, increased ridership and revenue, reduction of urban sprawl, and reorientation of urban development patterns around both rail and bus transit facilities. This report will be helpful to transit agencies, the development community, and local decision makers considering TOD.


Transit Advertising Sales Agreements

Report Number: S-51

Publication Date: 3/19/2004

This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agency experiences with advertising sales and synthesizes current practices for advertising sales, contracting, and display. This report will be of interest to transit agency staff responsible for advertising sales in their agencies. They can use this report to learn from the experiences of other transit agencies and to compare their experiences with those of others.


Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide

Report Number: R-96

Publication Date: 11/6/2003

The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.


Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook

Report Number: R-86 Volume 4

Publication Date: 10/15/2003

This report is designed to address transit agencies’ needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.


Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Operations

Report Number: LRD-19

Publication Date: 10/2/2003

This digest provides the nation’s transit agencies with access to authoritative research, specfic, limited-scope studies of legal issues and problems having significance and applications to their business. It reports on a review of applicable statutes, a survey of state and local transit providers, and an analysis of developments pertaining to employment infrastructure and service requirements. This digest should be helpful to administrators, attorneys, financial officials, human resourcess personnel, and planners in public transportation.


Financing Capital Investment: A Primer for the Transit Practitioner

Report Number: R-89

Publication Date: 4/10/2003

This report provides a valuable resource for people who are responsible for financing public transportation capital projects. The primary objective of the primer is to identify and evaluate financing options for public transportation capital projects. It is organized to provide a wide-ranging audience with easy access to the information they need most regarding capital financing. The primer inlcudes descriptive sections that outline the basic financing approaches and structures available, as well as sections that help system managers and public officials decide when it is most appropriate to apply alternative financing techniques.


Managing Transit’s Workforce in the New Millennium

Report Number: R-77

Publication Date: 5/21/2002

This report assesses the transit’ industry’s workforce needs and prospects for the coming decades. Further, the report provides guidelines to enable employers to assess their own workforce needs, describes best practices for recruiting and retaining employees, and identifies ways to enhance or establish partnerships between management and labor for attracting, training, and maintaining a qualified workforce.


A Challenged Employment System: Hiring Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators

Report Number: S-40

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

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Transit managers are concerned about attracting and retaining quality applicants, about the ability of new hires to successfully complete training programs, and about how new bus operators will provide quality customer service. This synthesis is intended to provide a snapshot of public transit bus operator practices, addressing hiring, training, performance evaluation, and retention. Each of these four areas is uniquely different, but also highly interrelated.


Effective Use of Transit Websites

Report Number: S-43

Publication Date: 1/10/2002

This report synthesizes current practices and recent experiences concerning website content, design, marketing, and administration, based on information collected from 47 transit agencies representing a cross section of the U.S. transit industry. For each is a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. Transit executives and website managers and designers can use this report to learn from the experiences of other agenices and to compare their own experiences with those of others.


Part-time Transit Operations: The Trends and Impacts

Report Number: R-68

Publication Date: 4/9/2001

This report examine how part-time labor has affected the cost and performance of transit systems over the past 25 years and consider how part-time labor can be meaningfully incorporated into the workforce while avoiding potential negative impacts. This research reflects concern for transit system operating costs, safety, service, reliability, customer satisfaction, labor-management relations, and employee satisfaction.


Using Geographic Information Systems for Welfare to Work Transportation Planning and Service Delivery

Report Number: R-60

Publication Date: 12/31/2000

This handbook will be of interest to transportation planners, human service agencies transportation providers, and others concerned with using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to support welfare to work transportation planning and service delivery. The handbook includes guidance on how agencies can either implement GIS or enhance their current GIS applications for this purpose. Accompany this handbook is a CD-Rom containing case study descriptions and color illustrations of GIS applications for transit planning and welfare to work purposes.


Information Technology Update for Transit

Report Number: S-35

Publication Date: 12/1/2000

This synthesis is an update of TCRP Synthesis 5: Management Information Systems, and documents the transit industry’s state-of-the-practice in information and communication technologies against a contemporary background of business practice. It is organized into the basic architectural pieces that constitute an IT plan in order to provide the essential framework for the planning process.


Managing Transit Construction Claims

Report Number: S-28

Publication Date: 10/26/2000

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, their legal, risk management, engineering and construction staffs, and others dealing with contract management issues on behalf of transit agencies. It offers information from selected transit agencies about the underlying causes of construction disputes and practices in use today to identify and resolve them before they become formal claims. The synthesis focuses on avoidance and resolution of disputes, examines ways of settling disputes at their inception, and considers the experiences of the transit industry in the use of alternative dispute resolution techniques.


Risk Management Software for Bus Transit Systems

Report Number: RRD-012

Publication Date: 5/2/2000

This digest describes a new software product developed under TCRP Project G-3, Tools for Transit Risk-Exposure Identification and Treatment for Bus Transit Systems. This software product, called Transit Risk Manager, is a PC-based, user-friendly, menu-driven, Windows (Trademark) operated computer tool designed to help bus transit systems of all sizes identify exposure to loss, evaluate their loss control practices and make informed decisions about financing risk. The program provides the means to assess current risk management programs as well as risk financing alternatives. Ancillary tools such as insurance specifications, loss triangle templates, policy statements, and a self-insurance plan are provided for export into word processors or spreadsheets.


Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems

Report Number: R-54

Publication Date: 10/14/1999

This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and “how to” instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the “cross-cutting” topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.


New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations

Report Number: R-53

Publication Date: 8/2/1999

The Transit Cooperative Research Program has identified key aspects of public transportation where new ideas and methods are, in the current vernacular, new paradigms. This report is intended to (1) present the case for a paradigm shift in local public transportation in terms strong enough that a consensus can be reached on the need for action and (2) trigger a wide-ranging debate and dialogue on the basic premises that necessitate a paradigm shift in local public transportation. It also looks closely at selected organizations, both within and outside the transportation sector, which have pursued and achieved dramatic change.


Transit Advertising Revenue: Traditional and New Sources and Structures

Report Number: S-32

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, their marketing and advertising staffs, as well as to others dealing with revenue generation on behalf of transit agencies. It offers information from selected North American and other transit agencies about the existing environment for advertising on transit property and describes agency experiences. It also explores innovative revenue- generating practices. This report of the Transportation Research Board reports on the notion that there are as many opportunities to generate advertising revenue, as there are pieces of equipment, property, and printed material at the transit agency.


Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities

Report Number: LRD-10

Publication Date: 9/15/1998

This study is an analysis of current case law as it affects transportation facilities. It is intended for use nationwide by attorneys confronted with problems arising from restriction on speech and related activities in transit and termination facilities.


A Handbook: Integrating Market Research into Transit Management

Report Number: R-37

Publication Date: 9/15/1998

This report will of significance to the likes of transit managers, marketing professionals, planners and others that hold a keen interest towards the implementation of market segmentation strategies to increase transit ridership. The handbook provides an overview of market segmentation in terms of what it is and why it is relevant to public transit agencies. Its primary function is to act as an introduction for managers to the general concepts of market segmentation and provides steps and procedures for marketers or researchers who hold the responsibility for implementing a market segmentation program.


Strategies to Minimize Liability under Federal and State Environment Laws

Report Number: LRD-9

Publication Date: 6/15/1998

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by G. Martin Cole and Christine M. Brookbank, provides insight into the potential liability of transit agencies for hazardous waste, and methods and policies that would avoid or reduce the potential liability. The report should be useful to transit administrators, attorneys, planners, engineers, financial officials, development and contracting officers, and contract managers.


Funding Strategies for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-31

Publication Date: 4/15/1998

This report addresses the current state of funding for public transportation in the United States, the various circumstances that have contributed to today’s funding environment, and specific strategies that transit agencies are pursuing to identify new sources of funding. The report is presented in two parts, firstly, a final report which details a national perspective on public transportation funding and secondly, a casebook detailing innovative methods for generating revenue for public transportation capital and operating costs. The report would be of great interest to federal, state, and local transportation officials, policy makers, and professionals concerned with funding for local public transportation services during the past decade and in the near future.


Transportation Service Agreements: A Preparation and Reference Guide for Transit Attorneys

Report Number: LRD-8

Publication Date: 12/15/1997

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Barbara A. Adams and Clifford L. Weaver, provides an up-to- date reference and guide on the essentials of contracting for service agreements and should be useful to attorneys and contract administrators. The report is organized as follows: Introduction and Overview; (I) Basic Provisions; (II) Definitions; (III) Services to Be Purchased; (IV) Vehicles and Equipment for Transportation Services and Other Services; (V) Real Property and Facilities; (VI) Employees; (VII) Nondiscrimination, Equal Employment, and Business Opportunity; (VIII) Reports, Records, and Inspections; (IX) Purchasing; (X) Insurance, Risk Management, and Bonds; (XI) Indemnification; (XII) Payment; (XIII) Term, Termination, and Remedies; (XIV) Contractor Covenants and Representations; (XV) General Provisions; Endnotes; and Appendix A – Outline of Model Agreement.


Guidelines for the Consistent Collection, Categorization and Dissemination of Bus Transit Loss Data

Report Number: RRD-11

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This digest provides the results of Task 6 of TCRP Project G-3, Tools for Transit Risk-Exposure Identification and Treatment for Bus Systems. The objective of Task 6 was to develop guidelines for the consistent collection, categorization, and dissemination of loss data that are compatible among transit bus systems in order to assist in the successful procurement of lower cost insurance products and services. The digest is organized as follows: Introduction; The Problem; Availability and Computerization of Data; and Recommended Guidelines for Collection, Categorization, and Dissemination of Loss Data. Appendix A contains a list of standard underwriting and claims management definitions. Appendix B contains a sample set of loss triangles.


Transit Risk Manager for Bus Systems

Report Number: RRD-12

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

Transit Risk Manager for Bus Systems


Improving Transit Security

Report Number: S-21

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, police and security, operations, training, and human resources staffs, and to local police officials. It offers information on a variety of approaches to improving transit security. The nature and extent of transit crime, effective strategies to combat problem situations, and case studies of specific control practices deemed successful by transit agency professionals (with no distinctions drawn between bus and rail modes) are discussed. It reports on the various practices, making specific recommendations where appropriate but without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Nonetheless, these documents can serve similar purposes, for each is a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. The extent to which these reports are useful will be tempered by the users’ knowledge and experience in the particular problem areas.


Strategies to Assist Local Transportation Agencies in Becoming Mobility Managers

Report Number: R-21

Publication Date: 11/13/1997

This report will be of interest to individuals and organizations seeking to better understand the concept of mobility management and those seeking to make the transition from traditional transit operating agency to mobility manager. The report presents a useful compendium of mobility management functions; identifies barriers to mobility management; includes findings drawn from seven case studies, which are documented as Appendix A; presents actions to promote mobility management; and documents the results of technical assistance provided to two transit systems in Appendixes C and D.


Requirements That Impact the Acquisition of Capital-Intensive Long-Lead Items, Rights of Way, and Land for Transit

Report Number: LRD-6

Publication Date: 12/15/1996

This study addresses Federal and State requirments governing acquisition of capital assets by transit systems. The challenges and stratigies to competing a “timely” procurement are reviewed in this report.


Risk Management for Small and Medium Transit Agencies

Report Number: S-13

Publication Date: 12/1/1995This synthesis provides information on how small and medium-sized transit agencies can evaluate various approaches to risk management and can access risk management services at reasonable cost. This report addresses risk management practices, their systematic application, and the measurement of program results. It emphasizes liability and worker’s compensation risks and insurance, but the discussion applies to property risks and insurance, as well. The report also contains information on differing transit agencies’ risk management experiences. To develop this synthesis in a comprehensive manner and to ensure inclusion of significant knowledge, available information was assembled from numerous sources, including a number of public transportation agencies.


Guidelines for Development of Public Transportation Facilities and Equipment Management Systems

Report Number: R-5

Publication Date: 10/30/1995This report will capture the interest of individuals involved in developing a Public Transportation Facilities and Equipment Management System (hereinafter referred to as PTMS) for a state department of transportation (DOT). A range of options is described for each of the components in a PTMS, and minimum requirements are clearly defined.


The Quality Journey: A TQM Roadmap for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-8

Publication Date: 1/15/1995This report presents the results of a study of Total Quality Management in Public Transportation. Research findings provide an historical perspective of Total Quality Management (TQM), highlight important events in the private and public sectors, and delineate principles of TQM for the transit industry.


Total Quality Management in Public Transportation

Report Number: RRD-3

Publication Date: 12/1/1994The objectives of TCRP Research Project F-3 are to identify, evaluate, and recommend applications of potentially successful methods of implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) in public transportation to increase ridership through improved customer satisfaction, to increase productivity, and to reduce costs. This Research Results Digest presents the Phase I findings of this two-phase project in the following sections: Introduction; What Is TQM?; Study Objectives and Scope; Historical Perspective on Management; TQM in the Public Transportation Industry; TQM Principles for the Public Transportation Industry; Lessons of Success and Failure in TQM; Pilot TQM Initiatives; and Research Results, Documentation, and Products. Appendix A contains a 10-page bibliography and Appendix B a glossary.


Management Information Systems

Report Number: S-5

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This synthesis will be of interest to general managers of transit agencies, managers of management information systems (MIS) departments, and information systems personnel, as well as operations, scheduling, maintenance, finance, and other management personnel concerned with improving information flow and data base development. The synthesis identifies the current direction and key factors of selected transit agencies that have successfully implemented MIS. The synthesis documents the range, variety, and benefits derived from the current information and examine how effectively information from special- purpose systems is integrated into the overall information systems environment and used across departmental boundaries.


The Role of Performance-Based Measures in Allocating Funding for Transit Operations

Report Number: S-6

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This synthesis explores current practice and trends regarding the linkages between financial assistance, service provisions, and performance measurement. It provides an overview of selected transit agency funding programs, as well as some current information from state. This report examines the role of performance measurement in financing transit service. Specifically, the role of state government in assisting local transit service is discussed, as well as the challenges in the use of performance measurement. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, financial officers, policy and planning personnel, and others concerned with the economic and budget aspects of providing transit services, as well as funding officials and policymakers in organizations such as departments of transportation (DOTs) and metropolitan plannign organizations (MPOs).


Designing Transit Services for the Mode-Choice Market Stage III Planning

Report Number: IDEA-26

Publication Date: NODATE

This project developed a “mobility index” that is a function of trip time by which to measure and map mobility in a metropolitan region for both auto and transit modes, as well as to identify opportunities and evaluate transit improvements for their impact on regional mobility. This includes a complementary market positioning exercise for mode-choice-focused transit services, employing focus groups and an ethnographic analytical methodology for identifying the explicit “bellwether” segment of the mode-choice market. The research uses the San Diego metropolitan area for a test bed, in collaboration with the major transit agency, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board(MTDB), and local and regional agencies, including the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Please note: This project is still in progress.


State DOT Staff Resources for Administering Federal Public Transportation Programs

Report Number: NCHRP RRD-314

Publication Date: NODATE

The primary objectives of this research project were to collect information on the staff resources that state departments of transportation (DOTs) devote to public transportation programs and to evaluate the ability of the states to adequately administer existing and emerging Federal Transit Administration (FTA) public transportation programs. A secondary objective of the project was to develop a method for regularly updating the data in future years.

Dialysis Transportation: Intersection of Transportation and Healthcare

Report Number: R-203

Publication Date: 2/28/2019

This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. The report responds to major concerns of public transportation agencies about the rising demand and costs to provide kidney dialysis trips and about experiences showing these trips require service more specialized than public transportation is designed to provide.

The report also documents the complicated relationship of two different industries—public transportation and healthcare, each with its own perspective and requirements—to highlight problems, identify strategies addressing concerns, and suggest options that may be more appropriate for dialysis transportation.

Accompanying the report are a supplemental report and Excel spreadsheet. The Supplemental Report includes, along with a literature review and results from the project’s surveys, an assessment of the comprehensive data provided by the U.S. Renal Data System. The community data tool is an Excel forecasting tool.


Handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination

Report Number: R-202

Publication Date: 10/22/2018

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This report is a handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination. The Medicaid program is the largest federal program for human services transportation, spending approximately $3 billion annually on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT).The report is accompanied by a companion document that explores the state-by-state profiles for examining the effects of NEMT brokerages on transportation coordination.Because the Medicaid program is administered by states, which are able to set their own rules within federal regulations and guidelines set by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), coordination of NEMT with public transit and human services transportation is highly dependent on each state Medicaid agency’s policies and priorities. This report provides background information about NEMT and describes the different models available to states for providing NEMT for Medicaid beneficiaries. The handbook also discusses why human services transportation and public transportation providers encourage coordination of NEMT with other transportation services.


A Transit Agency Guide to Evaluating Secondary Train Detection/Protection Systems in Communications-Based Train Control Systems

Report Number: Web-Only Document 71

Publication Date: 3/23/2018

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This guide provides a practical approach to evaluating the appropriate level of secondary train detection/protection systems (STD/PS) for a given communications-based train control system application. In terms of detection, track circuits and axle counters are both considered and compared, including the broken rail detection capabilities of track circuits and the possibility of having no secondary detection at all.The first part of this guide presents different technologies, and discusses communications-based train control deployment trends and feedback on operations from rail transit agencies around the world. The second part provides guidance for selection of an appropriate level of STD/PS, in terms of candidate technologies, product maturity, and potential risks. The document is accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation.


Knowledge Management Resource to Support Strategic Workforce Development for Transit Agencies

Report Number: R-194

Publication Date: 2/14/2018

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This guidebook explores the importance of knowledge management (KM), which is an organization’s process for collecting, storing, and sharing organizational information and knowledge, and provides guidance on implementing KM strategies in transit agencies. In addition, the guidance includes action plans for developing particular aspects of KM, analysis of KM strategies at several transit agencies, and a catalog of KM technology tools and resources.


Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)

Report Number: R-191 (Final Report)

Publication Date: 6/29/2017

This report serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives.A P3 Project Screening Checklist, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, accompanies the guidebook and may assist transit agencies with screening and evaluating a P3 initiative.


Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation: Guidebook on Planning and Managing Park-and-Ride

Report Number: R-192 (Final Report)

Publication Date: 6/15/2017

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This report provides approaches to managing park-and-ride facilities, from developing the park-and-ride concept for a community to day-to-day management. Key themes include design, implementation, operations, and maintenance of these facilities. Supplementing the report isTCRP Web-Only Document 69: Decision-Making Toolbox to Plan and Manage Park-and-Ride Facilities for Public Transportation: Research Report and Transit Agency Case Studies.


Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces

Report Number: R-189

Publication Date: 2/14/2017

This report provides treatment strategies to prevent incidents and improve safety at platform/guideway and platform/vehicle interfaces. The research focused on rail transit systems with level or near level boarding where the vehicle floors are level or near level with the platform.


A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies

Report Number: R-183

Publication Date: 4/11/2016

This report is a resource for transit and roadway agency staff seeking to improve bus speed and reliability on surface streets while addressing the needs of other roadway users, including motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians.The guidebook identifies consistent and uniform strategies to help improve transportation network efficiency to reduce delay and improve reliability for transit operations on roadways; and includes decision-making guidance for operational planning and functional design of transit/traffic operations on roads that provides information on warrants, costs, and impacts of strategies. It also identifies the components of model institutional structures and intergovernmental agreements for successful implementation; and highlights potential changes to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and related documents to facilitate implementation of selected strategies.


Guidebook on Pedestrian Crossing of Public Transit Rail Services

Report Number: R-175

Publication Date: 3/2/2015

This report presents a wide array of engineering treatments designed to help improve pedestrian safety for three types of public transit rail services: light rail, commuter rail, and streetcar.The Guidebook addresses key pedestrian safety issues associated with public transit rail services; presents pedestrian crossing issues associated with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Americans with Disabilities Act; summarizes readily available decision flowcharts used to make decisions regarding pedestrian treatments at rail crossings; presents information for 34 pedestrian treatments used at rail crossings, grouped into eight appropriate categories; and includes four case studies that examine specific decisions with respect to pedestrian rail crossings. Click the link to obtain a hard copy of this report.https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7685This report is supplemented by a final research report, TCRP Web-Only Document 63: Treatments Used at Pedestrian Crossings of Public Transit Rail Services. Click the link to view Web-only report.http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172337.aspx


Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume 1: Transit Integrtion Manual

Report Number: R-173

Publication Date: 1/8/2015

This Manual provides guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple transit providers. The report accompanies TCRP Report 173, Volume II: Research Report. Together, these documents demonstrate benefits of transit integration; illustrate the range of potential types of integration activities; and describe procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success.


Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry – A Systems Approach

Report Number: R-162

Publication Date: 10/3/2013

This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.


Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Introduction

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 1

Publication Date: 2/13/2013

This report contains a four-level Table of Contents for the 16 published TCRP Report 95 chapter/volumes. It describes the Traveler Response Handbook and its development. It also offers guidance to the prospective Handbook users, and includes two Handbook appendices plus known errata. The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.


Paratransit Emergency Preparedness and Operations Handbook

Report Number: R-160

Publication Date: 2/8/2013

This report includes guidance, strategies, tools, and resources to help paratransit service providers plan, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a range of emergencies. The guidance has applicability to urban, suburban, rural, and tribal paratransit operating environments. A power point presentation describing the entire project for this report is on the TRB website at www.trb.org.


Transforming Public Transportation Institutional and Business Models

Report Number: R-159

Publication Date: 12/14/2012

This report offers strategy for defining and implementing transformative change in institutional and business models, thus facilitating the operation and maintenance of public transportation systems. The report identifies the components of transformative change and examines potential consequences of change.


Guidebook for Evaluating Fuel Purchasing Strategies for Public Transit Agencies

Report Number: R-156

Publication Date: 8/13/2012

This report is designed to help identify and evaluate risks and uncertainties with respect to fuel prices. The report also describes tools and techniques for minimizing the impact of fuel price uncertainties over time. As a guidebook this report introduces the concept of fuel price risk management, identifies alternative purchasing strategies, and outlines steps necessary to implement a risk management program. It also defines and evaluates alternative cost-effective fuel purchasing strategies designed to benefit public transportation agencies of varying sizes, and provides a management framework to assist transit agencies through the fuel purchasing process.


Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition

Report Number: R-155

Publication Date: 8/3/2012

This report provides guidelines and descriptions for the design of various common types of light rail transit (LRT) track. The track structure types include ballasted track, direct fixation (“ballastless”) track, and embedded track. Characteristics and interfaces of vehicle wheels and rail, tracks and wheel gauges, rail sections, alignments, speeds, and track moduli are considered in this report. The report includes chapters on vehicles, alignment, track structures, track components, special track work, aerial structures/bridges, corrosion control, noise and vibration, signals, traction power, and the integration of LRT track into urban streets.


A Guide for Implementing Bus on Shoulder (BOS) Systems

Report Number: R-151

Publication Date: 7/10/2012

This report provides guidelines for the planning, design, and implementation of BOS operations along urban freeways and major arterials. The project that developed TCRP Report 151 also produced a PowerPoint presentation that describes the process that was used to develop the report on the TRB website at www.trb.org.


Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook

Report Number: R-154

Publication Date: 7/9/2012

This report offers guidance about the various steps for planning and implementing a tribal transit system. The steps that are described may be used for planning a new transit system, enhancing an existing service, or taking action to sustain services. The report also provides an overview of the tribal transit planning process. In addition, the project also produced a 16-page full-color brochure, published in /2011

as “Native Americans on the Move: Challenges and Successes”, with an accompanying PowerPoint presentation; and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project which is located on the TRB website at www.trb.org.


E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation -Transit Enterprise Architecture & Plannning Framework

Report Number: R-84 Volume 9

Publication Date: 8/8/2011

This report presents multi-faceted methods, tools, and examples within a framework to help transit agencies successfully implement technologies. It describes the connections between a transit agency’s business and the technology, assists with building the business case for specific investments, highlights different financing options, provides guidance on an enterprise-wide approach to create more efficient and effective system deployments, and provides a method to show the benefits of a technology investment. Additionally, this report provides a framework that incorporates five systems management disciplines: Enterprise Architecture Planning, Business Case Methodology, Systems Engineering, Financial Implementation Methods, and Post-Implementation Assessment.


Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses

Report Number: S-81

Publication Date: 4/1/2010

This report explores preventive maintenance measures taken by a sampling of transit agencies to ensure buses are on time, protect taxpayer investments, and promote passenger satisfaction and public safety.


Guide to Federal Buy America Requirements — /2009

Supplement

Report Number: LRD-31

Publication Date: 3/26/2010

This report explores the Buy America requirements, with an emphasis on the specific requirements that apply to manufactured products and to rolling stock.


Legal Handbook for the New Starts Process

Report Number: LRD-30

Publication Date: 3/10/2010

This report explores legal issues associated with the U.S. Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts process.


Guidelines for Guard/Restraining Rail Installation

Report Number: R-71 Volume 7

Publication Date: 2/5/2010

This report explores two guard rail installation philosophies and the effects of vehicle types, wheel flange angle, wheel/rail friction coefficient, curve radius, cant deficiency, and track perturbation on flange climb derailments.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Technology

Report Number: R-132

Publication Date: 12/19/2009

This report explores decision-making guidelines coupled with a comprehensive life cycle cost (LCC) model designed to assist transit managers in evaluating, selecting, and implementing hybrid-electric technology options for transit buses. The LCC model allows the user to compare the total life cycle costs across several cost categories for up to 6 different purchase scenarios. The LCC model is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-71), with the printed version of the report and available for download as an ISO image online.


Guidebook for Rural Demand-Response Transportation: Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance

Report Number: R-136

Publication Date: 12/17/2009

This report explores the diversity of demand-response transportation (DRT) services and examines definitions of performance data and performance measures. This report also highlights the typology of rural DRT systems and includes examples of performance data from more than 20 representative rural systems.


A Guide to Planning Resources on Transportation and Hazards

Report Number: RRD-90

Publication Date: 9/29/2009

This report highlights a framework for thinking about the stages of a disaster, and identifies some of the most current and innovative hazard-related research.


Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues

Report Number: R-133

Publication Date: 7/22/2009

This report explores strategies designed to significantly increase transit’s share of total advertising expenditures. The report examines advertising decision makers’ perceptions about current and future transit advertising products and highlights a strategic responsive communications plan designed to improve those perceptions and increase transit revenue.


First Amendment Implications for Transit Facilities: Speech, Advertising, and Loitering

Report Number: LRD-29

Publication Date: 6/19/2009

Transit agencies face numerous challenges in providing passengers with a safe and efficient means of travel while respecting the freedom of expression protected by the First Amendment. In May 1998, the Transportation Research Board published Transit Cooperative Research Program Legal Research Digest (LRD) 10, Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities (“LRD 10”), a survey of the relevant law and its development up to the time of publication. This digest supplements LRD No. 10, summarizing and analyzing the status of this important area of the law in light of court decisions and other developments that have arisen in subsequent years.


Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services

Report Number: S-76

Publication Date: 12/4/2008

This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.


Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas

Report Number: R-127

Publication Date: 8/21/2008

This report explores salary and benefit characteristics of transit systems in rural and small urban areas. An interactive computer tool, produced as part of this project, is available online and is designed to allow transit managers to quickly and easily obtain compensation and benefit data from comparable transit systems.


Resources for Legal Issues Associated with Bus Maintenance

Report Number: LRD-26

Publication Date: 7/28/2008

There is no readily accessible single source that identifies statutory provisions, regulatory provisions, and licensing/certification requirements applicable or relevant to a range of bus maintenance personnel and activities. The purpose of this report is to provide such a reference document, including information about guidance for compliance, to facilitate bus maintenance managers’ ability to determine the requirements to follow in their specific jurisdictions. Identifying the types of agencies in other jurisdictions that have requirements for varying issues should make it easier for managers to determine which agencies they should consult in their own jurisdictions. The goal of this digest is to serve as a resource that informs interested persons of all current federal and state statutes, regulations, and guidance related to bus maintenance. It should be useful to attorneys, administrators, managers, mechanics, operators, and supervisors.


Guidebook for Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance of Demand-Response Transportation

Report Number: R-124

Publication Date: 4/4/2008

This guidebook is a resource to assist Demand-Response Transportation (DRT) systems to measure, assess, and improve performance, focusing on DRT in urban areas. It addresses the diversity of DRT systems, service areas, and passengers; identifies the important controllable factors affecting DRT performance; and includes performance assessment methods based on the reliable data and meaningful measures. Such methods will allow relevant assessments of DRT performance over time and across DRT systems.


Guidebook for Mitigating Fixed-Route Bus-and-Pedestrian Collisions

Report Number: R-125

Publication Date: 3/24/2008

This guidebook will assist transit agencies in understanding bus-and-pedestrian collisions, and in determining preventative or remedial strategies for reducing the frequency and severity of these types of collisions. It provides transit agencies and stakeholders with an array of strategies from which to choose for mitigating the frequency and severity of bus-and-predestrian collisions as well as approaches for doing so.


Toolkit for Integrating Non-Dedicated Vehicles in Paratransit Service

Report Number: R-121

Publication Date: 3/4/2008

This report can be used to determine the appropriate split between dedicated and non-dedicated paratransit services to increase cost-effectiveness and meet peak demand needs. This report includes a Non-Dedicated Vehicle Optimization Model and User Manual. The NDV model can be used to assist with making decisions regarding appropriate serivce ratios for specific conditions and environments.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation

Report Number: R-119

Publication Date: 12/11/2007

This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.


Paratransit Manager’s Skills, Qualifications, and Needs

Report Number: S-71

Publication Date: 11/21/2007

This synthesis documents current requirements for being a paratransit manager and actual experiences of current paratransit managers in their positions. Transit mangers, policy makers, educators, trainers, human resource directors, and stakeholders, as well as current and future paratransit professionals, will find the results valuable in determining action steps needed to enhance the profession and paratransit service delivery. In addition, it offers information from general managers, chief operating officers, and paratransit advisory committees about college degrees desired and guidance offered aspiring paratransit managers. Technology proficiency and knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act were identified as the most needed skills. College educations were recommended by a majority of the professionals, with business management identified as the most desirable area of study; however, aside from this, successes in the field were attributed to specifics such as ethics, customer relations, communications, management and supervision, and sensitivity.


Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers

Report Number: R-86 Volume 13

Publication Date: 10/15/2007

This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.


The Americans with Disabilities Act: The Federal Transit Administration’s Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments

Report Number: LRD-23

Publication Date: 9/17/2007

This document consists of findings, decisions, and five compliance assessments interpreting or pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA’s) Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments includes FTA interpretations of Part III of the ADA, which pertains to public accommodations and transportation. FTA interpretations can be in letter findings, decisions on complaints, and compliance assessments. FTA’s interpretations are available for download as an ISO image.


Racial and Gender Diversity in State DOTs and Transit Agencies: A Benchmark Scoping

Report Number: R-120

Publication Date: 9/7/2007

This report documents and analyzes racial and gender diversity in state departments of transportation (state DOTs) and transit agencies for purposes of establishing a baseline that reflects the current status of racial and gender diversity in state DOTs and transit agencies based on existing data.


Transit Oriented Development: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 17

Publication Date: 8/1/2007

Transit oriented development (TOD) generally refers to higher-density development, with pedestrian priority, located within easy walking distance of a major public transit station or stop(s). TODs are viewed as offering the potential to boost transit ridership, increase walking activity, mitigate sprawl, accommodate growth, and create interesting places. This chapter focuses on the TOD land use strategy and its transportation impacts. It is complementary with Chapter 15, “Land Use and Site Design,” and does not seek to duplicate general information on the impacts of density, diversity, and site design presented there. Similarly, it is not intended to cover the same ground as Chapter 16, “Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities.” Chapters 15 and 16 should be referred to for additional background on density, land use mix, site layout, and pedestrian-friendly design effects on travel demand. This chapter highlights the key reasons planners pursue TOD; outlines what constitutes TOD and the various dimensions along which response to it may vary; identifies approaches that are used to evaluate the impacts of transit oriented development and discussing their potential limitations; provides an encapsulization of travel behavior findings detailed in the remainder of the chapter. This chapter will be of interest to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.


Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services

Report Number: R-116

Publication Date: 11/13/2006TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.


Bus Use of Shoulders

Report Number: S-64

Publication Date: 7/5/2006This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies’ experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.


Hazard and Security Plan Workshop: Instructor Guide

Report Number: R-86 Volume 10

Publication Date: 2/6/2006This report will assist rural, small urban, and community-based passenger transportation agencies in creating hazards and security plans or evaluating and modifying existing plans, policies, and procedures consistent with the National Incident. Management System (NIMS) “NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal State, territorial, tribal, and local government to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.” To excess the accompany appendices to this report and additional resources, click the link.http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/152464.aspx


Bus Rapid Transit – Implementation Guidelines

Report Number: R-90 Volume 2

Publication Date: 1/7/2004

This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT – running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.


Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes:

Report Number: RRD-61

Publication Date: 12/8/2003

This digest is structured to serve as an “Interim Introduction” for the evolving Traveler Response Handbook, replacing Chapter 1, Introduction” of the “Interim Handbook” (available as TCRP Web Document 12), and facilitating the transition to final multi-volume publication as TCRP Report 95. This digest describes the Traveler Response Handbook, contains the publication schedule and information on availability, provides guidance to the prospective Handbook user, and includes two Handbook appendices.


Road Value Pricing:Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 14

Publication Date: 10/16/2003

This chapter focuses on automobile-oriented pricing, including discussion of its impact on other travel modes. The emphasis is on areawide, corridor, and individual facility pricing schemes for urbanized areas, although one particularly instructive example of an intercity value pricing project is offered. Toll roads with static pricing are not considered within the realm of road value pricing or the scope of this chapter, but are looked to for specific relevant lessons. Pricing of parking, which can have similarities to road value pricing, is covered in Chapter 13. This chapter, Chapter 14, will be of interest to transit and transportation planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, and local, state, and federal government agencies.


Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook

Report Number: R-86 Volume 4

Publication Date: 10/15/2003

This report is designed to address transit agencies’ needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.


Staff Digest of the Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-63

Publication Date: 9/23/2003

This report is a staff digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Public Transit Board Governance Guidebook

Report Number: R-85

Publication Date: 7/18/2003

This guidebook is a reference tool that provides information on the organization and composition of transit boards. The guidebook describes the structure and practices of transit boards and includes information on board-selection methods, board size, board length of service, and board composition. The companion document to the Guidebook is a report, Public Transit System Policy Boards, that focuses on the findings of the research. This report is published as TCRP Web Document 21, available at: www4.trb.org/trb/crp.nsf.


A Guide to Public Transportation Security Resources

Report Number: RRD-59

Publication Date: 5/30/2003

Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, public transportation systems across the nation have assessed and upgraded their security functions and capabilities. As a result, the transportation industry has produced an abundance of security-related resources, such as training courses and materials, guides, manuals, reports, projects, programs, seminars and conferences. This digest list many of the resources recently made available to public transportation systems across the United States. Transportation providers can now easily acquire and learn from these resources.


Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification

Report Number: R-84 Volume 3

Publication Date: 3/5/2003

This report is the third volume in the TCRP Report 84 series, it is the result of an investigation into the potential of web-based training (WBT) as a means of providing effective, high-quality training to the transit industry. A key source of information in the study was a panel of subject matter experts (SMEs), each of whom has expertise and experience in some combination of transportation training, WBT, and intelligent transportation systems. The study findings are included.


Improving Public Transit Options for Older Persons

Report Number: R-82 Vols 1 & 2

Publication Date: 2/13/2003

This report describes how to improve public transit services to make them more attractive to older persons. This report will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers in agencies and organizations that plan, provide, administer, and fund public transit that may serve older persons. The report provides information for public transportation providers and planners to address future transportation challenges generated by an increasingly older society. It describes exemplary transportation services and innovative transportation alternatives that will enable older persons in the United States to maintain the independence they want.


A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System

Report Number: R-88

Publication Date: 1/29/2003

This guidebook will assist transit system managers in developing a performance-measurement system or program that uses traditional and non-traditional performance measures to address customer and community issues. The measures presented in the book will also be of interest to metorpolitan planning organizations interested in assessing the community benefits provided by transit service.


Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports

Report Number: R-83

Publication Date: 1/8/2003

This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.


A Summary of TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System

Report Number: RRD-56

Publication Date: 1/8/2003

This digest provides senior transit mangers with an easy-to-read summary of the contents of and tools in TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System. The guidebook provides a step-by-step process for developing a performance-measurement program that includes both traditional and non-traditional performance indicators that addresses customer-oriented and community issues. It is intended to introduce agency staff and decision-makers to the key performance-measurement concepts described in the guidebook. Information on obtaining the guidebook is on page 25.


Guidebook for Selecting Appropriate Technology Systems for Small Urban and Rural Public Transportation Operators

Report Number: R-76

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This report provides guidance to public transportation managers and other professionals in the selection of technology that is appropriate for the needs, size, and type of their operations. Study findings also have some applications to larger urban transit operations though the focus is on rural and small urban operations.


Guidelines for Collecting, Analyzing, and Reporting Transit Crime Data

Report Number: RRD-41

Publication Date: 12/1/2001

This digest presents findings about current methods for collecting, analyzing, and using data on transit-related crime to make decisions on personnel deployment and on allocation of security resources. The findings are based on telephone interviews and on information collected from 21 agencies. The final report, which describes the research approach and the analyses performed during the course of the project, is available as TCRP Web Document 18 on the Internet at http://www4.national-academies.org/trb/crp.nsf.


New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations

Report Number: R-58

Publication Date: 12/29/2000

This report presents key ideas and principles that point the way to fundamental change. It addresses why fundamental change is now needed in public transportation and how other businesses and industries have responded to similar factors and forces in the recent past. Six broad challenges that currently drive the need for fundamental change in public transportation are presented. The report progress logically from an assessment of the current organization of the transit industry to a summary of the fundamental elements of a public transportation paradigm shift based on lessons learned from other industries.


Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports

Report Number: R-62

Publication Date: 12/29/2000

This report provides a wealth of information about the current status of public transportation services and their use at large airports in the United States and around the world. It identifies strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through increased awareness of issues and best industry practices. Key factors affecting passenger and employee use of public transportation for airport access is presented. Market trends and factors affecting ridership at nine U.S. airports with direct rail service are presented as well as trends and factors at U.S. airports with rubber-tired access systems such as prearranged limousines, shared-ride vans, express buses, and multistop buses. The report will be of interest to individuals involved in planning and implementing improved public transportation access to large airports.


Guidebook for Developing Welfare-to-Work Transportation Services

Report Number: R-64

Publication Date: 12/8/2000

This guidebook provides information about the role of transportation in supporting welfare-to-work initiatives and identifies practical strategies to improve access to job opportunities for former welfare recipients making the transition to work. It also describes service approaches that include modifications to existing mass transit services, coordination between transportation services, ride-sharing programs, automobile ownership programs, and collaborations between faith-based and community-based groups.


Revised Inventory Management Desk Guide

Report Number: RRD-40

Publication Date: 12/1/2000

This digest was developed to provide inventory professionals with helpful information on inventory management techniques, illustrate the practical application of inventory management techniques, assist inventory professionals with improving customer service, and more fully explore the interrelationships between inventory and other departments, such as purchasing and maintenance, and promote more effective communication.


Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit

Report Number: R-57

Publication Date: 3/9/2000

This report identifies and discusses issues associated with joint operation focusing on the current regulatory and institutional environment, railroad and rail transit operations, infrastructure, and rolling stock. It also examines issues relevant to the safe operation of rail transit services with railroads; prioritizes the most critical issues affecting joint operations using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles, that do not meet current U.S. railroad regulation standards, or practices. It offers potential guidance on the most critical issues pertaining to implementing joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles. This report will be of interest to transit managers, planning and operations professionals, policy makers, and others interested in the potential for joint operations of light rail transit (LRT) or lightweight diesel multiple unit (DMU) vehicles with freight and/or passenger railroads.


Guidebook for Change and Innovation at Rural and Small Urban Transit Systems

Report Number: R-70

Publication Date: 2/2/2000

This report presented in the form of a guidebook, provides a valuable resource to many people who may implement or adapt new concepts to improve public transportation in their community. This guidebook identified and compiled initiatives and innovations that improved transit service in rural and small urban communities, focusing on productivity, efficienty and quality. In addition, the guidebook presents more than 40 successful, creative strategies that have been implemented.


Simulators and Bus Safety: Guidelines for Acquiring and Using Transit Bus Operator Driving Simulators

Report Number: R-72

Publication Date: 2/2/2000

This report provides guidance to transit agecny managers on whether to purchase a driving simulator and, if so, what kind. Also, this document provides guidance on how to use simulation effectively to improve bus operator training and safety. The guideline are designed to be used by transit-operations management, human resource management, training instructors, operations and safety personnel.


Hazard Assessment of Alternative-Fuel-Related Systems in Transit Bus Operaitons

Report Number: RRD-39

Publication Date: 2/1/2000

A new tool is available for assessing fuel-related hazards on transit buses. It is built on quantitative analysis (summarized in this digest) that shows where the key risks for fuel-related hazards in compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefield natural gas (LNG) are expected. The Alternative-Fuel Transit Bus Hazard Assessment Model (the model) is designed as an Excel spreedsheet tool that can be tailored to the characteristics of a particular fleet and facility after reading the “One-Page User’s Guide.” Download the model and its accompanying final report/user’s guide from the TCRP web site at http://www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+C-11. The model and the final report are also available on CD-ROM as CRP-CD-4 through the American Public Transportation Association’s TCRP Dissemination web site at http://www.apta.com/tcrp.


The Role of Transit Amenities and Vehicle Characteristics in Building Transit Ridership

Report Number: R-046

Publication Date: 12/28/1999

This report consists of a Handbook and a Workbook. The Handbook identifies and describes passenger amenities and transit vehicle characteristics that attract ridership and explores how amenities may affect ridership. The Workbook includes information gathered from passenger surveys, focus groups, discussion sessions, and transit agency staff on the effect of recently implemented transit amenities on passengers. As a companion to the Workbook, a disk, The Transit Design Game, enables transit agencies to survey their customers about their priorities for enhancements and estimate the potential effect of enhancements on ridership.


Integrating School Bus and Public Transportation in Non-Urban Communities

Report Number: R-56

Publication Date: 12/13/1999

This report identifies and discusses issues related to coordination and integration and provides numerous case studies of communities that have successfully coordinated or integrated some aspect of school and public transportation services. The report is primarily geared towards those who are interested in the potential for coordinating or integrating school bus and public transportation services in non-urban areas. For those that reside in a non-urban environment, it provides an implementation guide that suggests “next steps” for the introduction and coordination of school and public transportation.


Practices in Assuring Employee Availability

Report Number: S-33

Publication Date: 12/1/1999

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, operations, and human resources staffs responsible for attracting and retaining good employees. It will also be of interest to others who interact with transit agencies to help employees succeed. These synthesis presents state-of-the-practice information’s about the various actions transit agencies (and other employers) have taken to help ensure the availability of quality employees in an increasingly competitive employment environment. It focuses on the practices and policies transit agencies have in place to help minimize absenteeism from which other agencies may find useful applications.


Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems

Report Number: R-54

Publication Date: 10/14/1999

This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and “how to” instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the “cross-cutting” topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.


A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality

Report Number: R-47

Publication Date: 4/27/1999

A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality” developed a methodology to assist transit agencies in identifying, implementing, and evaluating customer-defined service quality, and in defining performance indicators that include customer-defined quality service measures for fixed-route transit. The report focuses on how to measure customer satisfaction and how to develop transit agency performance measures. Methods for benchmarking and tracking information are also identified. The report includes rural, suburban, and urban markets.


Passenger Information Services: A Guidebook for Transit Systems

Report Number: R-45

Publication Date: 4/7/1999

This guidebook will be of interest to marketing and graphics professionals, customer service personnel, schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the design, distribution, and placement of passenger information materials for public transit systems. This guidebook provides instructions for designing passenger information aids. The research focused on traditional media (e.g., schedules, maps, and signage) for presentation of information. The guidebook consists of three sections. The first section addresses the basic information needs of transit passengers, including wayfinding behavior and decision making during a trip. The second section describes route guidance information and, where appropriates, provides examples to illustrate this information. The third section discusses the design and format details for information aids (e.g., print sizes, visual contrast, use of color and symbols, and map legends).


Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals

Report Number: R-30

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This manual will be of great interest to new transit schedulers, experienced schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the scheduling process. The manual is divided up into two sections: a basic treatment and an advanced section. The foremost is in an instructional format, designed primarily for novice schedulers and other transit staff. The advanced section covers more complex scheduling requirements.


Closing the Knowledge Gap for Transit Maintenance Employees: A Systems Approach

Report Number: R-29

Publication Date: 2/15/1998

This report presents guidelines on evaluating and implementing strategies to improve the skills of the transit industry’s maintenance workforce in order to keep pace with evolving technology. This report will be of interest to transit decision-makers, maintenance managers, organized labor, vendors, human resources departments, and training personnel. The report is intended to help maintenance departments develop highly skilled, high-performance work organizations. Research was undertaken by Rand Corporation to assess technological demands, document current practices, and examine and propose new approaches to link maintenance-staffing practices with evolving technology to improve effectiveness. The areas addressed in the research included the range of programs currently in place, differences and similarities in current practice, analysis of major pitfalls and keys to success, an examination of vendor roles and responsibilities in training, and the effect of labor relations and work rules.


Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials

Report Number: R-26

Publication Date: 11/19/1997

This report contains guidelines for estimating bus lane capacities and speeds along arterial streets. It recommends level-of-service thresholds for buses based on speed, and it presents procedures for estimating the speed of buses using dedicated bus lanes on arterial streets.


Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual

Report Number: R-23

Publication Date: 4/30/1997

This manual will be of interest to engineers responsible for wheel/rail noise control in the design, construction, and operation of rail transit systems. It provides practical step-by-step procedures for identifying wheel/rail noise control technologies with demonstrated effectiveness. Procedures are included for identifying wheel/rail noise sources, developing mitigation designs, and estimating probable costs and effectiveness. The manual covers noise generated on tangent track, curved track, and special trackwork. Mitigation measures include onboard, track, and wayside treatments. Accompanying the manual is a user-friendly software package that assists in identifying appropriate noise mitigation techniques for various types of wheel/rail noise. The user is presented with several screens to navigate a decision tree until a set of possible mitigation options is reached. Several sound clips are included to assist the user in determining the type of noise that most closely resembles that which is to be controlled. The software package also provides several calculation worksheets to estimate life-cycle costs and expected noise attenuation for various mitigation measures. The manual is presented in the following ten chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Fundamentals of Acoustics; (3) Design Guidelines; (4) Wheel/Rail Noise Generation; (5) Selection of Noise Control Treatment; (6) Cost Analysis; (7) Onboard Treatments; (8) Trackwork Treatments; (9) Wayside Treatments; and (10) Rail Corrugation Control.


Institutional Barriers to Intermodal Transportation Policies and Planning in Metropolitan Areas

Report Number: R-14

Publication Date: 8/15/1996

This report will be of value to those individuals involved in implementing the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), in particular, those involved in planning, approving, and financing intermodal surface passenger transportation projects. The report identifies institutional barriers to intermodal transportation procedures and planning, examines opportunities for improvement, and provides ten strategies to mitigate current barriers and more importantly implement ISTEA.


Users’ Manual for Assessing Service-Delivery Systems for Rural Passenger Transportation

Report Number: R-6

Publication Date: 8/15/1995Which rural transportation services are appropriate for particular types of rural communities? After many years of rural transit operations, this question remains unanswered. The need to make publicly sponsored rural passenger transportation services efficient and effective is even greater than before. Designing services that are closely tailored to the needs and resources of their specific communities can significantly increase efficiency and effectiveness. Service models and planning methods developed for urban transportation systems do not apply to rural areas. Differences between successful rural and small urban transportation systems and their counterparts in large urban areas are enormous, due in part to rural populations which still contain proportionally more persons who are aged, disabled, and low income than do urban populations. From the first days of publicly- funded rural transportation, successful rural transportation operations have applied hard work and common sense to four key areas: realistic financing, reasonable objectives, appropriate service, and broad-based service delivery and community support. Still, no detailed methodology has yet been produced to specify what services are appropriate for particular rural communities. This project rectifies that deficiency with a manual of recommended methods and a computer-based software package, incorporating demographic and transportation data, which allows local planners and operators to identify and analyze transportation operations in similar rural communities.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-2

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This staff digest summarizes the progress and status of TCRP Project J- 7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Included in this digest are tables listing (1) Synthesis Studies in progress as of December 1995, (2) Members of TCRP Project Committee J-7, (3) Published TCRP Syntheses, and (4) Index to Syntheses and Studies.


Management Information Systems

Report Number: S-5

Publication Date: 12/1/1994This synthesis will be of interest to general managers of transit agencies, managers of management information systems (MIS) departments, and information systems personnel, as well as operations, scheduling, maintenance, finance, and other management personnel concerned with improving information flow and data base development. The synthesis identifies the current direction and key factors of selected transit agencies that have successfully implemented MIS. The synthesis documents the range, variety, and benefits derived from the current information and examine how effectively information from special- purpose systems is integrated into the overall information systems environment and used across departmental boundaries.

Web-Based Survey Techniques

Report Number: S-69

Publication Date: 2/23/2007

This synthesis describes how web-based surveys are being used by transit agencies and other transit researchers, and documents the experiences of web-based survey research as applied to transit.


Transit Advertising Sales Agreements

Report Number: S-51

Publication Date: 3/19/2004

This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agency experiences with advertising sales and synthesizes current practices for advertising sales, contracting, and display. This report will be of interest to transit agency staff responsible for advertising sales in their agencies. They can use this report to learn from the experiences of other transit agencies and to compare their experiences with those of others.


Transit Information and Promotion

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 11

Publication Date: 3/2/2004

A subset of transit marketing, namely transit information and promotion, is the focus of this chapter. Traveler response to mass market information, mass market promotions, targeted information, targeted promotions, customer information services, and real-time transit information dissemination are examined. This report will be of interest to transit marketing staff and general managers, as well as strategic planners, educators, and researchers.


Bus Rapid Transit – Implementation Guidelines

Report Number: R-90 Volume 2

Publication Date: 1/7/2004

This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT – running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.


Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports

Report Number: R-83

Publication Date: 1/8/2003

This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.


Supplemental Analysis of National Survey on Contracting Transit Services

Report Number: RRD-46

Publication Date: 4/29/2002

This digest describes findings from a follow-on study designed to analyze in greater detail the data obtained from the agency and general manager surveys on contracting conducted as part of the study, “Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience,” The original study was published as TRB Special Report 258.


Effective Use of Transit Websites

Report Number: S-43

Publication Date: 1/10/2002

This report synthesizes current practices and recent experiences concerning website content, design, marketing, and administration, based on information collected from 47 transit agencies representing a cross section of the U.S. transit industry. For each is a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. Transit executives and website managers and designers can use this report to learn from the experiences of other agenices and to compare their own experiences with those of others.


Enhancing the Visibility and Image of Transit in the United States and Canada

Report Number: R-63

Publication Date: 9/15/2000

This report will be of interest to transit managers, marketing professionals, and others at the local, regional, and national levels, interested in improving the visibility and image of transit in the United States and Canada through the implementation of image campaigns. This report documents and presents how the image of transit can be strengthened by building on existing positive perceptions.


Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems

Report Number: R-54

Publication Date: 10/14/1999

This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and “how to” instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the “cross-cutting” topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.


Low Cost and Cost-Effective Marketing Techniques for Public Transit Agencies

Report Number: R-50

Publication Date: 5/26/1999

Marketing plays a critical role in assisting transit agencies in attracting new riders, retaining existing ones, and ensuring support from the community at-large. To maximize its effectiveness, marketing must be viewed as a comprehensive process through which transit agencies develop and provide transit service and communicate the benefits to their employees, patrons, and the general public. TCRP Report #50 “A Handbook of Proven Marketing Strategies for Public Transit,” a “how-to” handbook for selecting and implementing marketing techniques and strategies at transit agencies identifies and describes low-cost and cost-effective marketing techniques currently used at large, medium, and small, urban and rural transit agencies throughout the transit industry. The complete range of low-cost marketing activities includes traditional, broad marketing activities such as pricing, promotions, advertising, planning, and service delivery targeted at specific sub-markets. A method was developed to define the criteria that would be used to assess and select creative and promising marketing techniques. A general overview of each strategy is provided.


A Guidebook for Marketing Transit Services to Business

Report Number: R-51

Publication Date: 5/17/1999

The guidebook provides information on successful business-to-business marketing lessons from the private sector as well as the transit industry, guidance on how to implement a business-to-business marketing program, tools and techniques for business-to-business marketing, and evaluation measures. The report should be useful to transit planners, managers, marketing professionals, and others interested in the use of marketing strategies to build ridership.


A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality

Report Number: R-47

Publication Date: 4/27/1999

A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality” developed a methodology to assist transit agencies in identifying, implementing, and evaluating customer-defined service quality, and in defining performance indicators that include customer-defined quality service measures for fixed-route transit. The report focuses on how to measure customer satisfaction and how to develop transit agency performance measures. Methods for benchmarking and tracking information are also identified. The report includes rural, suburban, and urban markets.


Building Transit Ridership

Report Number: R-27

Publication Date: 12/30/1998

An Exploration of Transit’s Market Share and the Public Policies That Influence It. State and local transportation officials constitute the primary intended audience for this report. This includes elected and appointed board members who deal with local transportation policy, transit agency officials, transit agency professionals, and metropolitan area transportation planners. The report addresses transit’s ridership and its share of the travel market. The research explored a variety of different public policies and transit management actions that can potentially influence transit ridership, particularly in comparison to local travel by private vehicle. The policies are presented through case studies, which are summarized in the report and documented in greater detail in the accompanying appendices.


Continuing Examination of Successful Transit

Report Number: RRD-29

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This digest provides the results of Task 19 of Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project J-6, Quick Response for Special Needs. It identifies key factors and initiatives that have led to ridership increases at more than 50 transit agencies during the period from 1994 through 1996. This information will be of particular use to transit managers and planners interested in better understanding various mechanisms that have played a role in recent ridership increases.


Transit Advertising Revenue: Traditional and New Sources and Structures

Report Number: S-32

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, their marketing and advertising staffs, as well as to others dealing with revenue generation on behalf of transit agencies. It offers information from selected North American and other transit agencies about the existing environment for advertising on transit property and describes agency experiences. It also explores innovative revenue- generating practices. This report of the Transportation Research Board reports on the notion that there are as many opportunities to generate advertising revenue, as there are pieces of equipment, property, and printed material at the transit agency.


A Handbook: Integrating Market Research into Transit Management

Report Number: R-37

Publication Date: 9/15/1998

This report will of significance to the likes of transit managers, marketing professionals, planners and others that hold a keen interest towards the implementation of market segmentation strategies to increase transit ridership. The handbook provides an overview of market segmentation in terms of what it is and why it is relevant to public transit agencies. Its primary function is to act as an introduction for managers to the general concepts of market segmentation and provides steps and procedures for marketers or researchers who hold the responsibility for implementing a market segmentation program.


A Handbook: Using Market Segmentation to Increase Transit Ridership

Report Number: R-36

Publication Date: 8/15/1998

This handbook focuses on the status of market research as practiced in transit agencies and identifies major market issues confronting them. It also evaluates market research strategies that are appropriate for transit and provides guidance to integrate and institutionalize market research into decision-making processes of transit agencies. In an overall perspective it examines some barriers that limit the use of market research. The handbook is designed to expose transit managers and staff to up-to-date market research practices and cutting-edge ideas in market research.


Transit Markets of the Future: The Challenge of Change

Report Number: R-28

Publication Date: 1/15/1998

This report will be of interest to transit policymakers, managers, planners, marketing professionals, and others interested in the effects of current trends (e.g., demographic, economic, social, land use, and transport policy) and trends expected over the next 15 years on current and future transit markets. Although many of these trends are not favorable to public transit, a number are identified that provide opportunities for maintaining current transit markets and creating new, expanded, or different transit markets. The report identifies 40 transit service concepts that appear to offer the most effective means of adjusting to these societal trends.


Leveraging Information for Better Transit-Maintenance

Report Number: RRD-13

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This TCRP Digest summarizes the findings of TCRP Project E-1, Innovative Maintenance Procedures for Transit Buses. The objectives of TCRP Project E-1 were to survey innovative maintenance practices being used in transit agencies or in transportation-related private firms, to evaluate their applicability to the population of transit agencies in the United States, and to develop recommendations and strategies for implementation. No specific area of focus was specified at the onset of the project. Work was executed in two phases: the first was a general survey of candidate new practices; the second was a more detailed study of several candidates identified in the first phase of research. The candidate innovations were grouped into three resource areas–capital, labor, and information. This Digest includes two appendices: (A) Identification of Effective Practices from Site Visits and (B) Phase II Case Studies.


Coordinated Intermodal Transportation Pricing and Funding Strategies

Report Number: RRD-14

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

This digest will be of interest to transportation officials and planners considering coordinated pricing issues. It provides a summary of Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project H-6, Transit Fare Pricing Strategy in Regional Intermodal Transportation Systems. This project was designed to (1) examine factors that influence the ability to coordinate transportation pricing and funding strategies in a regional intermodal context and (2) develop a conceptual approach for pursuing such coordination. Included in the digest are (1) a summary of the key issues and study findings, and (2) several technical appendices providing key background information.


Guidebook to Attracting Paratransit Patrons to Fixed-Route Services

Report Number: R-24

Publication Date: 6/15/1997

This Guidebook will be of interest to transit managers and planners in transit systems that provide complementary paratransit services under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Paratransit services are more expensive to provide on a per-trip basis than fixed-route transit, so operating efficiencies could be achieved by attracting some paratransit riders to fixed route.


Customer Information at Bus Stops

Report Number: S-17

Publication Date: 12/1/1996

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, bus operations, facilities and maintenance, and marketing and customer service staffs, as well as to other municipal transportation and marketing professionals. It addresses user information systems and describes current transit agency practices regarding customer information at bus stops within the text and through tables and multiple graphic illustrations. Types of signs and supplemental information displays, program implementation considerations, program effectiveness and advanced technology applications are also covered. Transit agency case studies detail five different perspectives on the development and deployment of on-street programs.


Electronic On-Vehicle Passenger Information Displays (Visual and Audible)

Report Number: RRD-5

Publication Date: 12/1/1995This TCRP Digest provides the interim results of TCRP Project A-4, Electronic On-Vehicle Passenger Information Displays (Visual and Audible). The project explores ways in which transit agencies and transit users can benefit from on-board audio and visual display technologies. The major focus of this project is on the information needs of passengers while on board transit vehicles. This Digest summarizes passenger information needs, agency concerns, and the current and emerging display technologies. It is organized as follows: Introduction; Needs Assessment; Synthesis of Technologies; Conclusions; and Future Research.


Research Agenda for Increasing Transit Ridership

Report Number: RRD-6

Publication Date: 12/1/1995This digest summarizes TCRP Project H-5, “National Workshop to Develop a Research Agenda for Increasing U.S. Transit Ridership.” The objective of the workshop is to develop problem statements for research on increasing ridership.


Transit Ridership Initiative

Report Number: RRD-4

Publication Date: 12/1/1994The following TCRP digest provides the results TCRP Research project J-6. The objectives of this task were to (1) Identify and report on transit ridership success stories and (2) Identify research needs to increase U.S. transit ridership. The research ideas presented in this Digest served as a background w material for a workshop sponsored by TCRP project H-5. The project comprises of: Project Purpose; Background; Project Approach; Where have Ridership increases been most pronounced and Transit System Interviews.


Designing Transit Services for the Mode-Choice Market Stage III Planning

Report Number: IDEA-26

Publication Date: NODATE

This project developed a “mobility index” that is a function of trip time by which to measure and map mobility in a metropolitan region for both auto and transit modes, as well as to identify opportunities and evaluate transit improvements for their impact on regional mobility. This includes a complementary market positioning exercise for mode-choice-focused transit services, employing focus groups and an ethnographic analytical methodology for identifying the explicit “bellwether” segment of the mode-choice market. The research uses the San Diego metropolitan area for a test bed, in collaboration with the major transit agency, the Metropolitan Transit Development Board(MTDB), and local and regional agencies, including the San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG). Please note: This project is still in progress.

Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies

Report Number: R-204

Publication Date: 4/16/2019

This report is designed to help transit agencies that have decided to pursue partnerships with one or more TNCs. The report provides information on where, when, and how partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs should be considered and pursued.

As new mobility service providers emerge, many public transit agencies have partnered, or are in the process of partnering, with such providers. Among these providers are TNCs. While partnerships between transit agencies and private mobility providers are not new, partnerships with TNCs create unique opportunities and challenges as both parties work toward mutually beneficial program models.

This report provides 20 in-depth case studies of partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs. Its Partnership Playbook synthesizes lessons learned from these case studies and provides step-by-step practical guidance for transit practitioners on how they should be considered and pursued.

The report also provides an up-to-date guide on partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs in all stages of development and realization. It covers partnerships developed with several target markets in mind, including:

  • First/last-mile connections to transit;
  • Customers of ADA Paratransit and Demand-Response Services;
  • People traveling in lower density environments;
  • People with late night travel needs; and
  • People with occasional trip needs (e.g. guaranteed ride home).

Implementing the U.S. DOT Reasonable Modification Rule

Report Number:S-142

Publication Date: 4/12/2019

This report provides an overview of the current state of practice regarding transit systems implementation of the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) regulation 49 C.F.R Part 37.

The report describes the experiences of agencies as they make reasonable modifications to their practices and policies in order to both respond to the regulation and ensure service to people with disabilities. The report also includes case examples of six transit systems, which present an in-depth analysis of the issues, opportunities, challenges, lessons learned, and keys to success in implementation of reasonable modifications . The need for future research is also discussed.


Microtransit or General Public Demand–Response Transit Services: State of the Practice

Report Number: S-141

Publication Date: 4/4/2019

This report provides an overview of the current state of the practice of transit systems that are directly providing general public demand–response or microtransit with their own vehicles and personnel or using a traditional contractor.

The report presents a literature review and results from a survey of 22 transit agencies that have had current experiences with microtransit. Case examples of five transit systems are provided. These case examples present in-depth analyses of the processes and considerations, challenges, lessons learned, and keys to success.


Dialysis Transportation: Intersection of Transportation and Healthcare

Report Number: R-203

Publication Date: 2/28/2019

This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. The report responds to major concerns of public transportation agencies about the rising demand and costs to provide kidney dialysis trips and about experiences showing these trips require service more specialized than public transportation is designed to provide.

The report also documents the complicated relationship of two different industries—public transportation and healthcare, each with its own perspective and requirements—to highlight problems, identify strategies addressing concerns, and suggest options that may be more appropriate for dialysis transportation.

Accompanying the report are a supplemental report and Excel spreadsheet. The Supplemental Report includes, along with a literature review and results from the project’s surveys, an assessment of the comprehensive data provided by the U.S. Renal Data System. The community data tool is an Excel forecasting tool.


ADA Paratransit Service Models

Report Number: S-135

Publication Date: 4/17/2018

View webinar for this report

This report provides information about current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant paratransit service models and the underlying reasons why specific transit agencies have opted to keep or change their service model. ADA paratransit demand continues to grow while resources are dwindling. For that reason, transit agencies nationwide are exploring service models to more effectively meet present and future demand. This synthesis study explains available service delivery models to date, and documents the way various elements of the service and contracts are structured to enhance the likelihood of achieving certain results related to cost efficiency, service quality, or the balance of the two.


Administration of ADA Paratransit Eligibility Appeal Program

Report Number: S-133

Publication Date: 3/30/2018

This report processes and documents current practices of transit systems.
ADA paratransit eligibility appeal programs allow appellants the opportunity to present new information not provided or available during the initial eligibility decision that may warrant a change in eligibility determination. At the same time, any appeal program must consistently apply the decision-making standards established by the agency’s ADA paratransit certification program. As more agencies employ some form of conditional eligibility, eligibility appeal processes are emerging as a significant area of vulnerability. If the eligibility appeal process is not administered properly, transit agencies run the risk of violating applicants’ civil rights under the ADA or Title VI requirements.Although several reports describe transit agency practices for determining eligibility for ADA paratransit service, little has been documented about how transit agencies manage appeals by applicants who are determined to be “not eligible” or who are found “conditionally eligible,” including temporary eligibility.


Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit

Report Number: R-188

Publication Date: 9/15/2016

View webinar for this report

This report examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand-responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. Additionally, it examines issues and explores opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes.


Use of Taxis in Public Transportation for People with Disabilities and Older Adults

Report Number: S-119

Publication Date: 3/1/2016

This report summarizes how taxis may be used by public transportation agencies to provide disabled or older adults with greater mobility and access to their destinations. The report also identifies potential advantages and challenges that public transportation agencies may face when using taxis.


Practices for Establishing ADA Paratransit Eligibility Assessment Facilities

Report Number: S-116

Publication Date: 3/24/2015

This synthesis examines practices that transit agencies use to determine if a user is eligible for paratransit under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Specifically, it reviews the processes, facilities, equipment, and tools used by transit agencies, through data collection that included in-person interviews and functional assessments.


Guidebook on Pedestrian Crossing of Public Transit Rail Services

Report Number: R-175

Publication Date: 3/2/2015

This report presents a wide array of engineering treatments designed to help improve pedestrian safety for three types of public transit rail services: light rail, commuter rail, and streetcar.The Guidebook addresses key pedestrian safety issues associated with public transit rail services; presents pedestrian crossing issues associated with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Americans with Disabilities Act; summarizes readily available decision flowcharts used to make decisions regarding pedestrian treatments at rail crossings; presents information for 34 pedestrian treatments used at rail crossings, grouped into eight appropriate categories; and includes four case studies that examine specific decisions with respect to pedestrian rail crossings. Click the link to obtain a hard copy of this report.https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7685This report is supplemented by a final research report, TCRP Web-Only Document 63: Treatments Used at Pedestrian Crossings of Public Transit Rail Services. Click the link to view Web-only report.http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172337.aspx


Travel Training for Older Adults Part II: Research Report and Case Studies

Report Number: R-168 Volume II

Publication Date: 9/13/2014

This report, Part II presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. This supplemental research report reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.The Handbook, Part I, addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.An Executive Summary brochure summarizes the highlights of TCRP Report 168, Parts I and II on TRB’s website athttp://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/171324.aspx. To obtain a hard copy of this report click the link.https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7366


Travel Training for Older Adults Part 1: A Handbook and Part II: Research and Case Studies

Report Number: R-168

Publication Date: 9/3/2014

This report, Part I: A Handbook presents a comprehensive roadmap for designing a travel training program to meet the mobility needs of older persons. It also addresses the primary components of an effective travel training program and provides an extensive set of guidelines for transit agencies and human services providers on how to build and implement training programs to help older adults who are able to use fixed-route public transit.The supplemental research report, Part II, reviews the research plan that produced this report as well as the case studies used to formulate the overall strategic program.An Executive Summary brochure summarizes the highlights of TCRP Report 168, Parts I and II on TRB’s website athttp://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/171323.aspx.


Use of Mobility Devices on Paratransit Vehicles and Buses

Report Number: R-171

Publication Date: 8/11/2014

This report describes the current and emerging issues which limit the use of mobility devices in paratransit vehicles and buses, and includes a guidance document to assist transit systems, manufacturers, and transit users in the implementation of potential accessible design and accommodation solutions for the short and long term.


Strategy Guide to Enable and Promote the Use of Fixed-Route Transit by People with Disabilities

Report Number: R-163

Publication Date: 4/30/2014

View webinar for this report

This report is designed to help transit agencies fulfill the primary goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) by making mainstream fixed-route bus and rail systems accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The focus of the Strategy Guide is to offer guidance on providing public services in the most integrated setting possible. The project that developed the Strategy Guide, also produced the following, which are available only in PDF format athttp://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170626.aspx
• a final research report that includes a summary of the literature, description of the research methodology, copies of the survey instruments used, and detailed tabulations of the survey responses; and
• information briefs that summarize key findings and findings of the research in the following five areas: – the overall strategy that is suggested, – current use of fixed-route transit by persons with disabilities, – bus stop and pedestrian infrastructure improvement efforts, – fare incentive programs, and – ADA paratransit eligibility determination programs.


Developing Partnerships Between Transportation Agencies and the Disability and Underrepresented Communities

Report Number: RRD-107

Publication Date: 5/17/2013

This digest includes best practices, and outreach strategies and suggestions that can be used by transit personnel to develop and maintain partnerships with the disability and underrepresented communities. The guide includes “how to” approaches and information in narrative and graphic form on developing these partnerships.


Improving ADA Paratransit Demand Estimation: Regional Modeling

Report Number: R-158

Publication Date: 9/7/2012

This report presents a sketch planning model and regional models designed to help metropolitan planning organizations and transit operators better estimate the probable future demand for Americans with Disability Act (ADA) complementary paratransit service, as well as predict travel by ADA paratransit-eligible individuals on all public transportation modes. Both models permit more detailed forecasts and deeper understanding of the travel behavior of ADA paratransit-eligible people. All model parameters and coefficients are contained in the report and a fully implemented version is available on a CD-ROM that is included with the print version of the report.


Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation and Emergency Management Toolkit

Report Number: R-150

Publication Date: 10/5/2011

This report describes how to create a communication process to reach vulnerable populations regarding their transportation options in emergencies. The toolkit provides a guiding framework and tools for constructing a scalable, adaptable communication process built on a network of agencies from public, private, and nonprofit sectors. Together, the partners form interconnected communication channels with the ability to carry out the function of emergency communication not necessarily possible by working alone. A PowerPoint slide show, which summarizes the toolkit, is available online at TRB.org.


Reductions in Transit Service or Increases in Fares: Civil Rights, ADA, Regulatory, and Environmental Justice Implications

Report Number: LRD-35

Publication Date: 4/12/2011

This digest explores the legal implications of reductions in transit service or increases in fares in the context of environmental justice. Based on federal environmental justice principles, the report analyzes constitutional and statutory provisions and regulations in regard to transit agencies’ compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VI) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).


Guidebook for Recruiting, Developing, and Retaining Transit Managers for Fixed-Route Bus and Paratransit Systems

Report Number: R-139

Publication Date: 9/13/2010

This report explores resources for fixed-route bus, general public demand response, and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) paratransit systems resources to assist in the recruitment, development, and retention of managers. The Guidebook is accompanied by CRP-CD-77, which provides Model Job Descriptions for 32 broad job titles that indicate the structure and content for job descriptions for manager jobs. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image. Links to the ISO image and instructions for burning a CD-ROM from an ISO image are provided.


Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations

Report Number: R-142

Publication Date: 9/9/2010

This report provides guidance for understanding the relationships that influence and enhance operator recruitment, retention, and performance in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit services. Appendixes to TCRP Report 142 were published electronically as TCRP Web-Only Document 50: Survey Instrument, Productivity Charts, and Interview Protocol for Case Studies for TCRP Report 142.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-94

Publication Date: 2/1/2010

This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments

Report Number: R-137

Publication Date: 12/14/2009

This report examines pedestrian and motorist behaviors contributing to light rail transit (LRT) safety and explores mitigating measures available designed to improve safety along LRT alignments. The report also includes suggestions to facilitate the compilation of accident data in a coordinated and homogeneous manner across LRT systems. Finally, the report provides a catalog of existing and innovative safety devices, safety treatments, and practices along LRT alignments. Appendices B through E of TCRP Report 137 were published as TCRP Web-Only Document 42.


Transit Systems in College and University Communities

Report Number: S-78

Publication Date: 12/24/2008

This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations


Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services

Report Number: S-76

Publication Date: 12/4/2008

This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.


Policies and Practices for Effectively and Efficiently Meeting ADA Paratransit Demand

Report Number: S-74

Publication Date: 7/7/2008

This synthesis covers a wide range of policies and practices that transit agencies use to provide services to persons with disabilities more effectively and efficiently.


Transit Bus Stops: Ownership, Liability, and Access

Report Number: LRD-24

Publication Date: 4/10/2008

This digest will inform transit providers and government officials of the different levels of ownership, liability, and maintenance associated with bus stops and bus shelters; identify the categories of legal issues that are associated with ownership and liability; and provide information on the problems and practices of others who have dealt with such problems including protective provisions in franchise agreements and service provider contracts.


Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems

Report Number: RRD-86

Publication Date: 1/24/2008

This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.


The Americans with Disabilities Act: The Federal Transit Administration’s Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments

Report Number: LRD-23

Publication Date: 9/17/2007

This document consists of findings, decisions, and five compliance assessments interpreting or pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Federal Transit Administration’s (FTA’s) Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments includes FTA interpretations of Part III of the ADA, which pertains to public accommodations and transportation. FTA interpretations can be in letter findings, decisions on complaints, and compliance assessments. FTA’s interpretations are available for download as an ISO image.


Practices in No-Show and Late Cancellation Policies for ADA Paratransit

Report Number: S-60

Publication Date: 9/13/2005

This report examines current and innovative practices of U.S. transit agencies in the development and implementation of passenger no-show and late cancellation policies for paratransit programs operated under the regulatory requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). It reviews the administration, community response, and effectiveness of policies in small, medium, and large transit agencies. It also addresses policies as a way to improve system productivity, efficiency, and capacity, and as a means to better service riders with disabilities who may experience difficulties with the advance reservation aspect of most ADA complementary paratransit operations.


Strategies to Increase Coordination of Transportation Services for the Transportation Disadvantaged

Report Number: R-105

Publication Date: 12/13/2004

This report’s goal is to identify strageties for initiating or improving coordination of publicly funded transportation services for transportation-disadvantaged individuals – older adults, people with disabilities, human services agency clients, and others that could be implemented on the regional or lecal level. The rapid growth and suburbanization that has taken place in many communities has made it more costly and difficult to provide publicly funded transportation access to many destinations, at a time when public resources at many levels are constrained. These conditions make the corrdination of transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged an even more desirable goal than ever.


Demand-Responsive/ADA

Report Number: R-95 Chapter 6

Publication Date: 5/25/2004

This report includes traveler response and related information for services open to the general public and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) services intended for persons with disabilities.


Use of Rear-Facing Position for Common Wheelchairs on Transit Buses

Report Number: S-50

Publication Date: 1/22/2004

This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency staff and those who work with them in dealing with common wheelchair securement on transit buses. It offers information on existing programs in many countries and documents transit agency experiences for the benefit of others considering similar deployments, in particular with respect to the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and to its use in U.S. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems. The report describes the state of the practice with respect to the use of rear-facing position for accommodating “common wheelchairs” (as defined by the ADA) on large transit buses (more than 30,000 lb) and identifies pertinent issues related to its transferability to the U.S. context.


Impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act on Transit Operations

Report Number: LRD-19

Publication Date: 10/2/2003

This digest provides the nation’s transit agencies with access to authoritative research, specfic, limited-scope studies of legal issues and problems having significance and applications to their business. It reports on a review of applicable statutes, a survey of state and local transit providers, and an analysis of developments pertaining to employment infrastructure and service requirements. This digest should be helpful to administrators, attorneys, financial officials, human resourcess personnel, and planners in public transportation.


Communicating with Persons with Disabilities in a Multimodal Transit Environment

Report Number: S-37

Publication Date: 12/1/2000

This synthesis focuses on the communication techniques for persons with sensory and cognitive disabilities, and describes current North American transit practices in information and communication technologies, as well as operations, implementation, and human factor issues. Attention is given to information and communication technologies related to planning, customer service, marketing, and training that can improve the travel experience for all persons traveling in a transit environment.


Potential Tort Liability for Transit Agencies Arising out of the Americans with Disabilities Act

Report Number: LRD-11

Publication Date: 12/15/1998

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Robert A. Hirsch, presents an assessment of problems in implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Public Law 101- 336, enacted in 1990, from the perspective of transit operators.


Accessibility of Automated Fare Vending and Collection for Customers with Disabilities

Report Number: RRD-32

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This digest identifies issues of accessibility to automated fare collection and vending machines by transit customers, examines the extent to which these issues arise, and describes solutions that have been implemented or identified as promising.


ADA Paratransit Eligibility Certification Practices

Report Number: S-30

Publication Date: 12/1/1998

This report describes the complexities involved in creating an accurate eligibility determination process that complies with ADA requirements and is regionally and politically feasible to implement. This study documents the range of out-comes produced by the different eligibility certification models and offers information about their overall effectiveness. This report also focuses on the range of eligibility certification models that have been adopted nationwide. It presents information in order to generate new approaches for transit agencies attempting to enhance existing procedures. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, the appropriate special services staffs, and any others dealings with ADA paratransit eligibility certification on behalf of transit agencies.


Integrating Americans with Disabilities Act Paratransit Service and Health and Human Service Transportation

Report Number: RRD-10

Publication Date: 12/1/1997

Public transit operators have to be in full compliance with all service criteria for the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) paratransit services by January 1997. This digest will help public transit operators coordinate ADA paratransit and Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) transportation programs in an ongoing effort to reduce the cost of providing ADA services. It explains the impact of the implementation of ADA paratransit requirements on public and human services transportation, presents an overview of federal and state coordination activities, and summarizes selected ADA/HHS coordination models.


The Impact of Civil Rights Litigation Under Title VI and Related Laws on Transit Decision Making

Report Number: LRD-07

Publication Date: 6/15/1997

This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Legal Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency coordinating the research. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Sandra Van De Walle, is organized as follows: (I) Introduction; (II) Affirmative Action Programs for DBEs (Disadvantaged Business Enterprises); (III) Obligation to Provide Equality of Service to Minority and Nonminority Passengers; and (IV) Conclusion.


Guidebook to Attracting Paratransit Patrons to Fixed-Route Services

Report Number: R-24

Publication Date: 6/15/1997

This Guidebook will be of interest to transit managers and planners in transit systems that provide complementary paratransit services under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Paratransit services are more expensive to provide on a per-trip basis than fixed-route transit, so operating efficiencies could be achieved by attracting some paratransit riders to fixed route.


Transit Operations for Individuals with Disabilities

Report Number: R-9

Publication Date: 12/15/1995The goal of TCRP Research Project B-1 is to develop information to assist local transit providers in the implementation of appropriate service options and enhancements to serve individuals with disabilities. The specific research objective, consistent with this goal, is the development of a methodology for transit managers and planners to design and evaluate integrated transit systems that (1) provide accessible integrated service complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (2) facilitate the appropriate use of paratransit service; and (3) support service or system enhancements to encourage travel on accessible fixed routes by individuals with disabilities. This Research Results Digest presents the Phase I findings. Phase I, which was completed in Fall 1993, identified service options and described enhancements.


Transit Operations for Individuals with Disabilities

Report Number: RRD-1

Publication Date: 1/1/1994This digest will assist local transit providers in the implementation of appropriate service options and enhancements to serve individuals with disabilities. The specific research objective, is the development of a methodology for transit managers and planners to design and evaluate integrated transit systems that provide accessible integrated service complying with the ADA, facilitate the appropriate use of paratransit service, and support service or system enhancements to encourage travel on accessible fixed routes by individuals with disabilities.


Evaluation of Economic Feasibility and Innovative Payment Plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN)

Report Number: IDEA-18

Publication Date: NODATE

This was a follow-up project for pilot testing and product transfer of the successful IDEA concept, Transit-9. The project tested innovative payment plans of the Independent Transportation Network (ITN) as an alternative transportation means for the elderly using nontraditional payment plans. A survey, designed to address differing populations with a differing role in the transportation service, was completed for five focus groups. The focus groups included seniors currently using the ITN, seniors not using the ITN, adult children whose parents use the ITN, businesses that serve the senior population, and volunteer drivers. Based on survey results, pilot test and operational evaluations for levels of service and innovative payment plans for the transportation of seniors were developed and discussed with a panel of regional experts. In the next stage, the application of ITS technology to ITN was explored. This used smart cards for electronic fare and data collection and record keeping, global positioning satellites (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) mapping. Pilot testing of the ITN operation was carried out under an FTA grant for ITN deployment. Based on test results, the economic and social benefits of the ITN system will be esvaluated, and guidelines for possible application in other representative communities, including rural areas, will be considered.


Optimizing Travel Path for People with Disabilities

Report Number: IDEA-23

Publication Date: NODATE

This project developed a method for people with various types of disabilities to review barriers to travel before embarking on a transit trip so they can plan their routes to more easily reach destinations surrounding transit stations. The research analyzed typical travel barriers for the disabled around transit access points. A database of physical landscapes and barriers was developed and a prototype transit accessibility mapping system was implemented. An interactive 3D model in a CD format for presenting the accessibility information was demonstrated. The model is based on Metrolink light rail transit stops in the St. Louis, Missouri, region.

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Microtransit or General Public Demand–Response Transit Services: State of the Practice

Report Number: S-141

Publication Date: 4/4/2019

This report provides an overview of the current state of the practice of transit systems that are directly providing general public demand–response or microtransit with their own vehicles and personnel or using a traditional contractor.

The report presents a literature review and results from a survey of 22 transit agencies that have had current experiences with microtransit. Case examples of five transit systems are provided. These case examples present in-depth analyses of the processes and considerations, challenges, lessons learned, and keys to success.


Partnerships Between Transit Agencies and Transportation Network Companies

Report Number: R-204

Publication Date: 4/16/2019

This report is designed to help transit agencies that have decided to pursue partnerships with one or more TNCs. The report provides information on where, when, and how partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs should be considered and pursued.

As new mobility service providers emerge, many public transit agencies have partnered, or are in the process of partnering, with such providers. Among these providers are TNCs. While partnerships between transit agencies and private mobility providers are not new, partnerships with TNCs create unique opportunities and challenges as both parties work toward mutually beneficial program models.

This report provides 20 in-depth case studies of partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs. Its Partnership Playbook synthesizes lessons learned from these case studies and provides step-by-step practical guidance for transit practitioners on how they should be considered and pursued.

The report also provides an up-to-date guide on partnerships between transit agencies and TNCs in all stages of development and realization. It covers partnerships developed with several target markets in mind, including:

  • First/last-mile connections to transit;
  • Customers of ADA Paratransit and Demand-Response Services;
  • People traveling in lower density environments;
  • People with late night travel needs; and
  • People with occasional trip needs (e.g. guaranteed ride home).

Dialysis Transportation: Intersection of Transportation and Healthcare

Report Number: R-203

Publication Date: 2/28/2019

This report is a pre-publication, non-edited version. The report responds to major concerns of public transportation agencies about the rising demand and costs to provide kidney dialysis trips and about experiences showing these trips require service more specialized than public transportation is designed to provide.

The report also documents the complicated relationship of two different industries—public transportation and healthcare, each with its own perspective and requirements—to highlight problems, identify strategies addressing concerns, and suggest options that may be more appropriate for dialysis transportation.

Accompanying the report are a supplemental report and Excel spreadsheet. The Supplemental Report includes, along with a literature review and results from the project’s surveys, an assessment of the comprehensive data provided by the U.S. Renal Data System. The community data tool is an Excel forecasting tool.


Understanding Changes in Demographics, Preferences, and Markets for Public Transportation

Report Number: R-201

Publication Date: 10/25/2018

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This report explores how changes in demographics, traveler preferences, and markets for public transportation affect transit ridership now and in the future. Additionally, it explores how an individual’s demographics affect their longterm values, their current attitudes, and the type of neighborhood they choose to live in. Each of these factors also affects their likelihood to ride transit. Accompanying the report are seven technical appendices:
Technical Appendix 1: Literature Review and Project BibliographyTechnical Appendix 2: Demographics in Support of Chapter 2Technical Appendix 3: Geography and Neighborhood Type in Support of Chapter 3Technical Appendix 4: Survey and Market Segmentation in Support of Chapter 4Technical Appendix 5: Analysis of Preference in Support of Chapter 5Technical Appendix 6: Integrated Behavioral Modeling in Support of Chapter 6Technical Appendix 7: Information and Communications Technology in Support of Chapter 7


Handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination

Report Number: R-202

Publication Date: 10/22/2018

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This report is a handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination. The Medicaid program is the largest federal program for human services transportation, spending approximately $3 billion annually on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT).The report is accompanied by a companion document that explores the state-by-state profiles for examining the effects of NEMT brokerages on transportation coordination.Because the Medicaid program is administered by states, which are able to set their own rules within federal regulations and guidelines set by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), coordination of NEMT with public transit and human services transportation is highly dependent on each state Medicaid agency’s policies and priorities. This report provides background information about NEMT and describes the different models available to states for providing NEMT for Medicaid beneficiaries. The handbook also discusses why human services transportation and public transportation providers encourage coordination of NEMT with other transportation services.


Contracting Fixed-Route Bus Transit Service

Report Number: S-136

Publication Date: 4/25/2018

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This report documents the state of the practice in contracting bus services. Today many transit agencies contract out their fixed-route bus transit services; however, there is not enough research that focuses on the procurement and oversight process of these contracts. This synthesis will assist transit agencies in their decision-making process as they consider contracting fixed-route transit services instead of directly operating the service. The report is accompanied byAppendix G, which is available online only.


ADA Paratransit Service Models

Report Number: S-135

Publication Date: 4/17/2018

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This report provides information about current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant paratransit service models and the underlying reasons why specific transit agencies have opted to keep or change their service model. ADA paratransit demand continues to grow while resources are dwindling. For that reason, transit agencies nationwide are exploring service models to more effectively meet present and future demand. This synthesis study explains available service delivery models to date, and documents the way various elements of the service and contracts are structured to enhance the likelihood of achieving certain results related to cost efficiency, service quality, or the balance of the two.


Customer-Focused Service Guarantees and Transparency Practices

Report Number: S-134

Publication Date: 3/29/2018

This report documents the nature and prevalence of customer-focused practices among transit providers in North America and supplements the discussion by including information from European transit providers.A growing number of North American public transit agencies have adopted service guarantees or transparency practices as part of a customer-focused service strategy. Service guarantees describe the level of service customers can expect and the procedures they may follow if standards are not met. Transparency practices might include reporting performance metrics as online dashboards or report cards on the agency’s website. Currently, there is little existing research on these practices and experiences among U.S. transit providers.


Battery Electric Buses – State of the Practice

Report Number: S-130

Publication Date: 3/22/2018

This report documents current practices of transit systems in the planning, procurement, infrastructure installation, operation, and maintenance of battery electric buses (BEBs). The synthesis is intended for transit agencies that are interested in understanding the potential benefits and challenges associated with the introduction and operation of battery electric buses. The synthesis will also be valuable to manufacturers trying to better meet the needs of their customers and to federal, state, and local funding agencies and policy makers.


College Student Transit Pass Program

Report Number: S-131

Publication Date: 3/9/2018

This report focuses on the relationship established between transit agencies and universities and colleges, and documents current state of the practice to better develop and evaluate college student transit pass programs. Many transit agencies currently have student pass programs with colleges and universities. These programs have very different funding, fare and operating structures, and student demographics.


Knowledge Management Resource to Support Strategic Workforce Development for Transit Agencies

Report Number: R-194

Publication Date: 2/14/2018

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This guidebook explores the importance of knowledge management (KM), which is an organization’s process for collecting, storing, and sharing organizational information and knowledge, and provides guidance on implementing KM strategies in transit agencies. In addition, the guidance includes action plans for developing particular aspects of KM, analysis of KM strategies at several transit agencies, and a catalog of KM technology tools and resources.


Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions

Report Number: R-196

Publication Date: 2/5/2018

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This report provides information about private transit services and ways they are addressing transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. The document provides an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, a review of their present scope and operating characteristics, and a discussion of ways they may affect the communities in which they operate along with several case studies and other supporting information. Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans and jitneys—have operated for decades in many American cities. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transit options. These include new types of public-private partnership that are helping to bridge first/last mile gaps in suburban areas. The report also examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits.


Broadening Understanding of the Interplay Between Public Transit, Shared Mobility, and Personal Automobiles

Report Number: R-195

Publication Date: 1/25/2018

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This report is a pre-publication, non-edited draft version. The study broadens the understanding of the interplay among emerging and established modes of transportation. Built upon the findings ofTCRP Research Report 188, this report explores how shared modes—and ridesourcing companies in particular—interact with the use of public transit and personal automobiles.


Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops

Report Number: S-129

Publication Date: 5/29/2017

This report documents current practices of transit systems to determine methods and procedures used for maintaining transit stops and associated infrastructure during and following such weather events. This synthesis also provides a state-of-the-practice report on transit systems’ management of extreme weather events; associated planning; management responsibilities; efforts to respond; standards and specifications; associated legal claims; and communication with customers.


Practices For Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit

Report Number: S-128

Publication Date: 4/17/2017

This report provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.