|Handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination
Report Number: R-202
Publication Date: 10/22/2018
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This report is a handbook for Examining the Effects of NEMT Brokerages on Transportation Coordination. The Medicaid program is the largest federal program for human services transportation, spending approximately $3 billion annually on Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT).
The report is accompanied by a companion document that explores the state-by-state profiles for examining the effects of NEMT brokerages on transportation coordination.
Because the Medicaid program is administered by states, which are able to set their own rules within federal regulations and guidelines set by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), coordination of NEMT with public transit and human services transportation is highly dependent on each state Medicaid agency’s policies and priorities. This report provides background information about NEMT and describes the different models available to states for providing NEMT for Medicaid beneficiaries. The handbook also discusses why human services transportation and public transportation providers encourage coordination of NEMT with other transportation services.
A Transit Agency Guide to Evaluating Secondary Train Detection/Protection Systems in Communications-Based Train Control Systems
Report Number: Web-Only Document 71
Publication Date: 3/23/2018
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This guide provides a practical approach to evaluating the appropriate level of secondary train detection/protection systems (STD/PS) for a given communications-based train control system application. In terms of detection, track circuits and axle counters are both considered and compared, including the broken rail detection capabilities of track circuits and the possibility of having no secondary detection at all.
The first part of this guide presents different technologies, and discusses communications-based train control deployment trends and feedback on operations from rail transit agencies around the world. The second part provides guidance for selection of an appropriate level of STD/PS, in terms of candidate technologies, product maturity, and potential risks. The document is accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation.
Knowledge Management Resource to Support Strategic Workforce Development for Transit Agencies
Report Number: R-194
Publication Date: 2/14/2018
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This guidebook explores the importance of knowledge management (KM), which is an organization’s process for collecting, storing, and sharing organizational information and knowledge, and provides guidance on implementing KM strategies in transit agencies. In addition, the guidance includes action plans for developing particular aspects of KM, analysis of KM strategies at several transit agencies, and a catalog of KM technology tools and resources.
Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)
Report Number: R-191 (Final Report)
Publication Date: 6/29/2017
This report serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives.
A P3 Project Screening Checklist
, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, accompanies the guidebook and may assist transit agencies with screening and evaluating a P3 initiative.
A Guidebook on Transit-Supportive Roadway Strategies
Report Number: R-183
Publication Date: 4/11/2016
This report is a resource for transit and roadway agency staff seeking to improve bus speed and reliability on surface streets while addressing the needs of other roadway users, including motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians.
The guidebook identifies consistent and uniform strategies to help improve transportation network efficiency to reduce delay and improve reliability for transit operations on roadways; and includes decision-making guidance for operational planning and functional design of transit/traffic operations on roads that provides information on warrants, costs, and impacts of strategies. It also identifies the components of model institutional structures and intergovernmental agreements for successful implementation; and highlights potential changes to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) and related documents to facilitate implementation of selected strategies.
Guidebook on Pedestrian Crossing of Public Transit Rail Services
Report Number: R-175
Publication Date: 3/2/2015
This report presents a wide array of engineering treatments designed to help improve pedestrian safety for three types of public transit rail services: light rail, commuter rail, and streetcar.
The Guidebook addresses key pedestrian safety issues associated with public transit rail services; presents pedestrian crossing issues associated with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Americans with Disabilities Act; summarizes readily available decision flowcharts used to make decisions regarding pedestrian treatments at rail crossings; presents information for 34 pedestrian treatments used at rail crossings, grouped into eight appropriate categories; and includes four case studies that examine specific decisions with respect to pedestrian rail crossings. Click the link to obtain a hard copy of this report. https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7685
This report is supplemented by a final research report, TCRP Web-Only Document 63: Treatments Used at Pedestrian Crossings of Public Transit Rail Services. Click the link to view Web-only report. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172337.aspx
Improving Transit Integration Among Multiple Providers, Volume 1: Transit Integrtion Manual
Report Number: R-173
Publication Date: 1/8/2015
This Manual provides guidelines and procedures to assist transit agencies in evaluating, planning, and implementing steps to integrate transit services in areas with multiple transit providers. The report accompanies TCRP Report 173, Volume II: Research Report. Together, these documents demonstrate benefits of transit integration; illustrate the range of potential types of integration activities; and describe procedures necessary to carry out integration efforts, including tips for success.
Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry - A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-162
Publication Date: 10/3/2013
This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.
Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Introduction
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 1
Publication Date: 2/13/2013
This report contains a four-level Table of Contents for the 16 published TCRP Report 95 chapter/volumes. It describes the Traveler Response Handbook and its development. It also offers guidance to the prospective Handbook users, and includes two Handbook appendices plus known errata. The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.
Paratransit Emergency Preparedness and Operations Handbook
Report Number: R-160
Publication Date: 2/8/2013
This report includes guidance, strategies, tools, and resources to help paratransit service providers plan, prepare for, respond to, and recover from a range of emergencies. The guidance has applicability to urban, suburban, rural, and tribal paratransit operating environments. A power point presentation describing the entire project for this report is on the TRB website at www.trb.org.
Transforming Public Transportation Institutional and Business Models
Report Number: R-159
Publication Date: 12/14/2012
This report offers strategy for defining and implementing transformative change in institutional and business models, thus facilitating the operation and maintenance of public transportation systems. The report identifies the components of transformative change and examines potential consequences of change.
Guidebook for Evaluating Fuel Purchasing Strategies for Public Transit Agencies
Report Number: R-156
Publication Date: 8/13/2012
This report is designed to help identify and evaluate risks and uncertainties with respect to fuel prices. The report also describes tools and techniques for minimizing the impact of fuel price uncertainties over time. As a guidebook this report introduces the concept of fuel price risk management, identifies alternative purchasing strategies, and outlines steps necessary to implement a risk management program. It also defines and evaluates alternative cost-effective fuel purchasing strategies designed to benefit public transportation agencies of varying sizes, and provides a management framework to assist transit agencies through the fuel purchasing process.
Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition
Report Number: R-155
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
This report provides guidelines and descriptions for the design of various common types of light rail transit (LRT) track. The track structure types include ballasted track, direct fixation (“ballastless”) track, and embedded track. Characteristics and interfaces of vehicle wheels and rail, tracks and wheel gauges, rail sections, alignments, speeds, and track moduli are considered in this report. The report includes chapters on vehicles, alignment, track structures, track components, special track work, aerial structures/bridges, corrosion control, noise and vibration, signals, traction power, and the integration of LRT track into urban streets.
A Guide for Implementing Bus on Shoulder (BOS) Systems
Report Number: R-151
Publication Date: 7/10/2012
This report provides guidelines for the planning, design, and implementation of BOS operations along urban freeways and major arterials. The project that developed TCRP Report 151 also produced a PowerPoint presentation that describes the process that was used to develop the report on the TRB website at www.trb.org.
Developing, Enhancing, and Sustaining Tribal Transit Services: A Guidebook
Report Number: R-154
Publication Date: 7/9/2012
This report offers guidance about the various steps for planning and implementing a tribal transit system. The steps that are described may be used for planning a new transit system, enhancing an existing service, or taking action to sustain services. The report also provides an overview of the tribal transit planning process. In addition, the project also produced a 16-page full-color brochure, published in 2011 as "Native Americans on the Move: Challenges and Successes", with an accompanying PowerPoint presentation; and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project which is located on the TRB website at www.trb.org.
E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation -Transit Enterprise Architecture & Plannning Framework
Report Number: R-84 Volume 9
Publication Date: 8/8/2011
This report presents multi-faceted methods, tools, and examples within a framework to help transit agencies successfully implement technologies. It describes the connections between a transit agency's business and the technology, assists with building the business case for specific investments, highlights different financing options, provides guidance on an enterprise-wide approach to create more efficient and effective system deployments, and provides a method to show the benefits of a technology investment. Additionally, this report provides a framework that incorporates five systems management disciplines: Enterprise Architecture Planning, Business Case Methodology, Systems Engineering, Financial Implementation Methods, and Post-Implementation Assessment.
Preventive Maintenance Intervals for Transit Buses
Report Number: S-81
Publication Date: 4/1/2010
This report explores preventive maintenance measures taken by a sampling of transit agencies to ensure buses are on time, protect taxpayer investments, and promote passenger satisfaction and public safety.
Guidelines for Guard/Restraining Rail Installation
Report Number: R-71 Volume 7
Publication Date: 2/5/2010
This report explores two guard rail installation philosophies and the effects of vehicle types, wheel flange angle, wheel/rail friction coefficient, curve radius, cant deficiency, and track perturbation on flange climb derailments.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Transit Bus Technology
Report Number: R-132
Publication Date: 12/19/2009
This report explores decision-making guidelines coupled with a comprehensive life cycle cost (LCC) model designed to assist transit managers in evaluating, selecting, and implementing hybrid-electric technology options for transit buses. The LCC model allows the user to compare the total life cycle costs across several cost categories for up to 6 different purchase scenarios. The LCC model is contained on the accompanying CD-ROM (CRP-CD-71), with the printed version of the report and available for download as an ISO image online.
Practical Measures to Increase Transit Advertising Revenues
Report Number: R-133
Publication Date: 7/22/2009
This report explores strategies designed to significantly increase transit's share of total advertising expenditures. The report examines advertising decision makers' perceptions about current and future transit advertising products and highlights a strategic responsive communications plan designed to improve those perceptions and increase transit revenue.
First Amendment Implications for Transit Facilities: Speech, Advertising, and Loitering
Report Number: LRD-29
Publication Date: 6/19/2009
Transit agencies face numerous challenges in providing passengers with a safe and efficient means of travel while respecting the freedom of expression protected by the First Amendment. In May 1998, the Transportation Research Board published Transit Cooperative Research Program Legal Research Digest (LRD) 10, Restrictions on Speech and Expressive Activities in Transit Terminals and Facilities ("LRD 10"), a survey of the relevant law and its development up to the time of publication. This digest supplements LRD No. 10, summarizing and analyzing the status of this important area of the law in light of court decisions and other developments that have arisen in subsequent years.
Integration of Paratransit and Fixed-Route Transit Services
Report Number: S-76
Publication Date: 12/4/2008
This publication highlights the experiences of transit agencies that have attempted to depart from the traditional binary model of separate fixed-route and paratransit services by seeking a variety of ways to integrate their services, including the provision of paratransit feeder services, community bus or circulators, connectors, fixed-route fare incentives, and route deviation. This study places greater emphasis on feeder services and community services, but where agencies included other approaches to shifting potential paratransit riders to less costly modes, these are also discussed. As the compelling reason for setting up integrated service seems to be the need to manage paratransit costs or reduce the need for separate paratransit service, this synthesis aims to help transit agency staffs understand how the appropriate use of integrated services may help them accomplish their mission.
Employee Compensation Guidelines for Transit Providers in Rural and Small Urban Areas
Report Number: R-127
Publication Date: 8/21/2008
This report explores salary and benefit characteristics of transit systems in rural and small urban areas. An interactive computer tool, produced as part of this project, is available online and is designed to allow transit managers to quickly and easily obtain compensation and benefit data from comparable transit systems.
Resources for Legal Issues Associated with Bus Maintenance
Report Number: LRD-26
Publication Date: 7/28/2008
There is no readily accessible single source that identifies statutory provisions, regulatory provisions, and licensing/certification requirements applicable or relevant to a range of bus maintenance personnel and activities. The purpose of this report is to provide such a reference document, including information about guidance for compliance, to facilitate bus maintenance managersâ€™ ability to determine the requirements to follow in their specific jurisdictions. Identifying the types of agencies in other jurisdictions that have requirements for varying issues should make it easier for managers to determine which agencies they should consult in their own jurisdictions. The goal of this digest is to serve as a resource that informs interested persons of all current federal and state statutes, regulations, and guidance related to bus maintenance. It should be useful to attorneys, administrators, managers, mechanics, operators, and supervisors.
Guidebook for Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance of Demand-Response Transportation
Report Number: R-124
Publication Date: 4/4/2008
This guidebook is a resource to assist Demand-Response Transportation (DRT) systems to measure, assess, and improve performance, focusing on DRT in urban areas. It addresses the diversity of DRT systems, service areas, and passengers; identifies the important controllable factors affecting DRT performance; and includes performance assessment methods based on the reliable data and meaningful measures. Such methods will allow relevant assessments of DRT performance over time and across DRT systems.
Guidebook for Mitigating Fixed-Route Bus-and-Pedestrian Collisions
Report Number: R-125
Publication Date: 3/24/2008
This guidebook will assist transit agencies in understanding bus-and-pedestrian collisions, and in determining preventative or remedial strategies for reducing the frequency and severity of these types of collisions. It provides transit agencies and stakeholders with an array of strategies from which to choose for mitigating the frequency and severity of bus-and-predestrian collisions as well as approaches for doing so.
Toolkit for Integrating Non-Dedicated Vehicles in Paratransit Service
Report Number: R-121
Publication Date: 3/4/2008
This report can be used to determine the appropriate split between dedicated and non-dedicated paratransit services to increase cost-effectiveness and meet peak demand needs. This report includes a Non-Dedicated Vehicle Optimization Model and User Manual. The NDV model can be used to assist with making decisions regarding appropriate serivce ratios for specific conditions and environments.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving ADA Complementary Paratransit Demand Estimation
Report Number: R-119
Publication Date: 12/11/2007
This report will be of interest to public transportation systems that provide ADA complementary paratransit services; regional, state, and federal agencies that oversee, plan, or finance public transportation; and disability advocates. This report provides a handbook for estimating ADA paratransit demand together with a research report that presents the findings and conclusions of TCRP Project B-28. The handbook is accompanied by an on-line spreadsheet tool.
Paratransit Manager's Skills, Qualifications, and Needs
Report Number: S-71
Publication Date: 11/21/2007
This synthesis documents current requirements for being a paratransit manager and actual experiences of current paratransit managers in their positions. Transit mangers, policy makers, educators, trainers, human resource directors, and stakeholders, as well as current and future paratransit professionals, will find the results valuable in determining action steps needed to enhance the profession and paratransit service delivery. In addition, it offers information from general managers, chief operating officers, and paratransit advisory committees about college degrees desired and guidance offered aspiring paratransit managers. Technology proficiency and knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act were identified as the most needed skills. College educations were recommended by a majority of the professionals, with business management identified as the most desirable area of study; however, aside from this, successes in the field were attributed to specifics such as ethics, customer relations, communications, management and supervision, and sensitivity.
Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 13
Publication Date: 10/15/2007
This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.
The Americans with Disabilities Act: The Federal Transit Administration's Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments
Report Number: LRD-23
Publication Date: 9/17/2007
This document consists of findings, decisions, and five compliance assessments interpreting or pertaining to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) Letters of Findings and Compliance Assessments includes FTA interpretations of Part III of the ADA, which pertains to public accommodations and transportation. FTA interpretations can be in letter findings, decisions on complaints, and compliance assessments. FTA's interpretations are available for download as an ISO image.
Racial and Gender Diversity in State DOTs and Transit Agencies: A Benchmark Scoping
Report Number: R-120
Publication Date: 9/7/2007
This report documents and analyzes racial and gender diversity in state departments of transportation (state DOTs) and transit agencies for purposes of establishing a baseline that reflects the current status of racial and gender diversity in state DOTs and transit agencies based on existing data.
Transit Oriented Development: Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 17
Publication Date: 8/1/2007
Transit oriented development (TOD) generally refers to higher-density development, with pedestrian priority, located within easy walking distance of a major public transit station or stop(s). TODs are viewed as offering the potential to boost transit ridership, increase walking activity, mitigate sprawl, accommodate growth, and create interesting places. This chapter focuses on the TOD land use strategy and its transportation impacts. It is complementary with Chapter 15, "Land Use and Site Design," and does not seek to duplicate general information on the impacts of density, diversity, and site design presented there. Similarly, it is not intended to cover the same ground as Chapter 16, "Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities." Chapters 15 and 16 should be referred to for additional background on density, land use mix, site layout, and pedestrian-friendly design effects on travel demand. This chapter highlights the key reasons planners pursue TOD; outlines what constitutes TOD and the various dimensions along which response to it may vary; identifies approaches that are used to evaluate the impacts of transit oriented development and discussing their potential limitations; provides an encapsulization of travel behavior findings detailed in the remainder of the chapter. This chapter will be of interest to transit, transportation, and land use planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation and planning agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services
Report Number: R-116
Publication Date: 11/13/2006
TCRP Report 116: Guidebook for Evaluating, Selecting, and Implementing Suburban Transit Services examines the current status of suburban transit services and land-use environments and the relationship between the two. Types of suburban transit services include commuter, route deviation, demand response, circulators, shuttles, and vanpools. Also, the guidebook describes the emerging trends that significantly influence the availability and operation of suburban transit services. This report updates information presented in TCRP Report 55: Guidelines for Enhancing Suburban Mobility Using Public Transportation and presents the latest research results and issues related to suburban transit services. This information will be useful to transit professionals and policy makers in planning and implementing suburban transit services.
Bus Use of Shoulders
Report Number: S-64
Publication Date: 7/5/2006
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with policies and regulations that permit buses to use shoulders on arterial roads or freeways to bypass congestion either as interim or long-term treatments. Both the transit and highway perspectives are explored. The purpose is to identify and obtain information and experience about jurisdictions that allow bus use of shoulders and about how jurisdictions have considered, but have not implemented, these treatments and the reasons why. This topic will be of interest to transit agency and highway organization staff responsible for bus use of shoulders.
Hazard and Security Plan Workshop: Instructor Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 10
Publication Date: 2/6/2006
This report will assist rural, small urban, and community-based passenger transportation agencies in creating hazards and security plans or evaluating and modifying existing plans, policies, and procedures consistent with the National Incident. Management System (NIMS) "NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal State, territorial, tribal, and local government to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity." To excess the accompany appendices to this report and additional resources, click the link. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/152464.aspx
Bus Rapid Transit - Implementation Guidelines
Report Number: R-90 Volume 2
Publication Date: 1/7/2004
This report presents planning and implementation guidelines for bus rapid transit (BRT). The guidelines are based on a literature review and an analysis of 26 case study cities in the United States and abroad. The guidelines cover the main components of BRT - running ways, stations, traffic controls, vehicles, intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), bus operations, fare collections and marketing, and implementation. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners.
Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes:
Report Number: RRD-61
Publication Date: 12/8/2003
This digest is structured to serve as an "Interim Introduction" for the evolving Traveler Response Handbook, replacing Chapter 1, Introduction" of the "Interim Handbook" (available as TCRP Web Document 12), and facilitating the transition to final multi-volume publication as TCRP Report 95. This digest describes the Traveler Response Handbook, contains the publication schedule and information on availability, provides guidance to the prospective Handbook user, and includes two Handbook appendices.
Road Value Pricing:Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 14
Publication Date: 10/16/2003
This chapter focuses on automobile-oriented pricing, including discussion of its impact on other travel modes. The emphasis is on areawide, corridor, and individual facility pricing schemes for urbanized areas, although one particularly instructive example of an intercity value pricing project is offered. Toll roads with static pricing are not considered within the realm of road value pricing or the scope of this chapter, but are looked to for specific relevant lessons. Pricing of parking, which can have similarities to road value pricing, is covered in Chapter 13. This chapter, Chapter 14, will be of interest to transit and transportation planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, metropolitan planning organizations, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook
Report Number: R-86 Volume 4
Publication Date: 10/15/2003
This report is designed to address transit agencies' needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.
Public Transit Board Governance Guidebook
Report Number: R-85
Publication Date: 7/18/2003
This guidebook is a reference tool that provides information on the organization and composition of transit boards. The guidebook describes the structure and practices of transit boards and includes information on board-selection methods, board size, board length of service, and board composition. The companion document to the Guidebook is a report, Public Transit System Policy Boards, that focuses on the findings of the research. This report is published as TCRP Web Document 21, available at: www4.trb.org/trb/crp.nsf.
A Guide to Public Transportation Security Resources
Report Number: RRD-59
Publication Date: 5/30/2003
Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, public transportation systems across the nation have assessed and upgraded their security functions and capabilities. As a result, the transportation industry has produced an abundance of security-related resources, such as training courses and materials, guides, manuals, reports, projects, programs, seminars and conferences. This digest list many of the resources recently made available to public transportation systems across the United States. Transportation providers can now easily acquire and learn from these resources.
Using the Internet for Transit Training and Certification
Report Number: R-84 Volume 3
Publication Date: 3/5/2003
This report is the third volume in the TCRP Report 84 series, it is the result of an investigation into the potential of web-based training (WBT) as a means of providing effective, high-quality training to the transit industry. A key source of information in the study was a panel of subject matter experts (SMEs), each of whom has expertise and experience in some combination of transportation training, WBT, and intelligent transportation systems. The study findings are included.
Improving Public Transit Options for Older Persons
Report Number: R-82 Vols 1 & 2
Publication Date: 2/13/2003
This report describes how to improve public transit services to make them more attractive to older persons. This report will be of interest to practitioners and policymakers in agencies and organizations that plan, provide, administer, and fund public transit that may serve older persons. The report provides information for public transportation providers and planners to address future transportation challenges generated by an increasingly older society. It describes exemplary transportation services and innovative transportation alternatives that will enable older persons in the United States to maintain the independence they want.
A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: R-88
Publication Date: 1/29/2003
This guidebook will assist transit system managers in developing a performance-measurement system or program that uses traditional and non-traditional performance measures to address customer and community issues. The measures presented in the book will also be of interest to metorpolitan planning organizations interested in assessing the community benefits provided by transit service.
A Summary of TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: RRD-56
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This digest provides senior transit mangers with an easy-to-read summary of the contents of and tools in TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System. The guidebook provides a step-by-step process for developing a performance-measurement program that includes both traditional and non-traditional performance indicators that addresses customer-oriented and community issues. It is intended to introduce agency staff and decision-makers to the key performance-measurement concepts described in the guidebook. Information on obtaining the guidebook is on page 25.
Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-83
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.
Guidelines for Collecting, Analyzing, and Reporting Transit Crime Data
Report Number: RRD-41
Publication Date: 12/1/2001
This digest presents findings about current methods for collecting, analyzing, and using data on transit-related crime to make decisions on personnel deployment and on allocation of security resources. The findings are based on telephone interviews and on information collected from 21 agencies. The final report, which describes the research approach and the analyses performed during the course of the project, is available as TCRP Web Document 18 on the Internet at http://www4.national-academies.org/trb/crp.nsf.
Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-62
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report provides a wealth of information about the current status of public transportation services and their use at large airports in the United States and around the world. It identifies strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through increased awareness of issues and best industry practices. Key factors affecting passenger and employee use of public transportation for airport access is presented. Market trends and factors affecting ridership at nine U.S. airports with direct rail service are presented as well as trends and factors at U.S. airports with rubber-tired access systems such as prearranged limousines, shared-ride vans, express buses, and multistop buses. The report will be of interest to individuals involved in planning and implementing improved public transportation access to large airports.
New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations
Report Number: R-58
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report presents key ideas and principles that point the way to fundamental change. It addresses why fundamental change is now needed in public transportation and how other businesses and industries have responded to similar factors and forces in the recent past. Six broad challenges that currently drive the need for fundamental change in public transportation are presented. The report progress logically from an assessment of the current organization of the transit industry to a summary of the fundamental elements of a public transportation paradigm shift based on lessons learned from other industries.
Guidebook for Developing Welfare-to-Work Transportation Services
Report Number: R-64
Publication Date: 12/8/2000
This guidebook provides information about the role of transportation in supporting welfare-to-work initiatives and identifies practical strategies to improve access to job opportunities for former welfare recipients making the transition to work. It also describes service approaches that include modifications to existing mass transit services, coordination between transportation services, ride-sharing programs, automobile ownership programs, and collaborations between faith-based and community-based groups.
Revised Inventory Management Desk Guide
Report Number: RRD-40
Publication Date: 12/1/2000
This digest was developed to provide inventory professionals with helpful information on inventory management techniques, illustrate the practical application of inventory management techniques, assist inventory professionals with improving customer service, and more fully explore the interrelationships between inventory and other departments, such as purchasing and maintenance, and promote more effective communication.
Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit
Report Number: R-57
Publication Date: 3/9/2000
This report identifies and discusses issues associated with joint operation focusing on the current regulatory and institutional environment, railroad and rail transit operations, infrastructure, and rolling stock. It also examines issues relevant to the safe operation of rail transit services with railroads; prioritizes the most critical issues affecting joint operations using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles, that do not meet current U.S. railroad regulation standards, or practices. It offers potential guidance on the most critical issues pertaining to implementing joint operation using LRT or lightweight DMU vehicles. This report will be of interest to transit managers, planning and operations professionals, policy makers, and others interested in the potential for joint operations of light rail transit (LRT) or lightweight diesel multiple unit (DMU) vehicles with freight and/or passenger railroads.
Guidebook for Change and Innovation at Rural and Small Urban Transit Systems
Report Number: R-70
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report presented in the form of a guidebook, provides a valuable resource to many people who may implement or adapt new concepts to improve public transportation in their community. This guidebook identified and compiled initiatives and innovations that improved transit service in rural and small urban communities, focusing on productivity, efficienty and quality. In addition, the guidebook presents more than 40 successful, creative strategies that have been implemented.
Simulators and Bus Safety: Guidelines for Acquiring and Using Transit Bus Operator Driving Simulators
Report Number: R-72
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report provides guidance to transit agecny managers on whether to purchase a driving simulator and, if so, what kind. Also, this document provides guidance on how to use simulation effectively to improve bus operator training and safety. The guideline are designed to be used by transit-operations management, human resource management, training instructors, operations and safety personnel.
Hazard Assessment of Alternative-Fuel-Related Systems in Transit Bus Operaitons
Report Number: RRD-39
Publication Date: 2/1/2000
A new tool is available for assessing fuel-related hazards on transit buses. It is built on quantitative analysis (summarized in this digest) that shows where the key risks for fuel-related hazards in compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefield natural gas (LNG) are expected. The Alternative-Fuel Transit Bus Hazard Assessment Model (the model) is designed as an Excel spreedsheet tool that can be tailored to the characteristics of a particular fleet and facility after reading the "One-Page User's Guide." Download the model and its accompanying final report/user's guide from the TCRP web site at http://www4.nationalacademies.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/TCRP+C-11. The model and the final report are also available on CD-ROM as CRP-CD-4 through the American Public Transportation Association's TCRP Dissemination web site at http://www.apta.com/tcrp.
The Role of Transit Amenities and Vehicle Characteristics in Building Transit Ridership
Report Number: R-046
Publication Date: 12/28/1999
This report consists of a Handbook and a Workbook. The Handbook identifies and describes passenger amenities and transit vehicle characteristics that attract ridership and explores how amenities may affect ridership. The Workbook includes information gathered from passenger surveys, focus groups, discussion sessions, and transit agency staff on the effect of recently implemented transit amenities on passengers. As a companion to the Workbook, a disk, The Transit Design Game, enables transit agencies to survey their customers about their priorities for enhancements and estimate the potential effect of enhancements on ridership.
Integrating School Bus and Public Transportation in Non-Urban Communities
Report Number: R-56
Publication Date: 12/13/1999
This report identifies and discusses issues related to coordination and integration and provides numerous case studies of communities that have successfully coordinated or integrated some aspect of school and public transportation services. The report is primarily geared towards those who are interested in the potential for coordinating or integrating school bus and public transportation services in non-urban areas. For those that reside in a non-urban environment, it provides an implementation guide that suggests "next steps" for the introduction and coordination of school and public transportation.
Practices in Assuring Employee Availability
Report Number: S-33
Publication Date: 12/1/1999
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency managers, operations, and human resources staffs responsible for attracting and retaining good employees. It will also be of interest to others who interact with transit agencies to help employees succeed. These synthesis presents state-of-the-practice information's about the various actions transit agencies (and other employers) have taken to help ensure the availability of quality employees in an increasingly competitive employment environment. It focuses on the practices and policies transit agencies have in place to help minimize absenteeism from which other agencies may find useful applications.
Transit Manager Tool Kit for Rural and Small Urban Transportation Systems
Report Number: R-54
Publication Date: 10/14/1999
This toolkit identifies an array of management principles and techniques, for use by small urban and rural public transportation providers, to assist in managing their transportation services and resources effectively. The toolkit has two parts: a guidebook and a self-assessment tool. The guidebook introduces the idea of customer-driven transit service attributes and includes general management philosophies. Also included in the guidebook are exemplary practices and "how to" instructions for some topics. The guidebook also includes four chapters on the "cross-cutting" topics, including operations management, risk management, vehicle maintenance, and procurement. The self-assessment tool on disk, that accompanies this report, is designed to give the user a baseline or current picture of the status of the transit system.
A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality
Report Number: R-47
Publication Date: 4/27/1999
A Handbook for Measuring Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality" developed a methodology to assist transit agencies in identifying, implementing, and evaluating customer-defined service quality, and in defining performance indicators that include customer-defined quality service measures for fixed-route transit. The report focuses on how to measure customer satisfaction and how to develop transit agency performance measures. Methods for benchmarking and tracking information are also identified. The report includes rural, suburban, and urban markets.
Passenger Information Services: A Guidebook for Transit Systems
Report Number: R-45
Publication Date: 4/7/1999
This guidebook will be of interest to marketing and graphics professionals, customer service personnel, schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the design, distribution, and placement of passenger information materials for public transit systems. This guidebook provides instructions for designing passenger information aids. The research focused on traditional media (e.g., schedules, maps, and signage) for presentation of information. The guidebook consists of three sections. The first section addresses the basic information needs of transit passengers, including wayfinding behavior and decision making during a trip. The second section describes route guidance information and, where appropriates, provides examples to illustrate this information. The third section discusses the design and format details for information aids (e.g., print sizes, visual contrast, use of color and symbols, and map legends).
Transit Scheduling: Basic and Advanced Manuals
Report Number: R-30
Publication Date: 12/1/1998
This manual will be of great interest to new transit schedulers, experienced schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the scheduling process. The manual is divided up into two sections: a basic treatment and an advanced section. The foremost is in an instructional format, designed primarily for novice schedulers and other transit staff. The advanced section covers more complex scheduling requirements.
Closing the Knowledge Gap for Transit Maintenance Employees: A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-29
Publication Date: 2/15/1998
This report presents guidelines on evaluating and implementing strategies to improve the skills of the transit industry's maintenance workforce in order to keep pace with evolving technology. This report will be of interest to transit decision-makers, maintenance managers, organized labor, vendors, human resources departments, and training personnel. The report is intended to help maintenance departments develop highly skilled, high-performance work organizations. Research was undertaken by Rand Corporation to assess technological demands, document current practices, and examine and propose new approaches to link maintenance-staffing practices with evolving technology to improve effectiveness. The areas addressed in the research included the range of programs currently in place, differences and similarities in current practice, analysis of major pitfalls and keys to success, an examination of vendor roles and responsibilities in training, and the effect of labor relations and work rules.
Operational Analysis of Bus Lanes on Arterials
Report Number: R-26
Publication Date: 11/19/1997
This report contains guidelines for estimating bus lane capacities and speeds along arterial streets. It recommends level-of-service thresholds for buses based on speed, and it presents procedures for estimating the speed of buses using dedicated bus lanes on arterial streets.
Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual
Report Number: R-23
Publication Date: 4/30/1997
This manual will be of interest to engineers responsible for wheel/rail noise control in the design, construction, and operation of rail transit systems. It provides practical step-by-step procedures for identifying wheel/rail noise control technologies with demonstrated effectiveness. Procedures are included for identifying wheel/rail noise sources, developing mitigation designs, and estimating probable costs and effectiveness. The manual covers noise generated on tangent track, curved track, and special trackwork. Mitigation measures include onboard, track, and wayside treatments. Accompanying the manual is a user-friendly software package that assists in identifying appropriate noise mitigation techniques for various types of wheel/rail noise. The user is presented with several screens to navigate a decision tree until a set of possible mitigation options is reached. Several sound clips are included to assist the user in determining the type of noise that most closely resembles that which is to be controlled. The software package also provides several calculation worksheets to estimate life-cycle costs and expected noise attenuation for various mitigation measures. The manual is presented in the following ten chapters: (1) Introduction; (2) Fundamentals of Acoustics; (3) Design Guidelines; (4) Wheel/Rail Noise Generation; (5) Selection of Noise Control Treatment; (6) Cost Analysis; (7) Onboard Treatments; (8) Trackwork Treatments; (9) Wayside Treatments; and (10) Rail Corrugation Control.
Institutional Barriers to Intermodal Transportation Policies and Planning in Metropolitan Areas
Report Number: R-14
Publication Date: 8/15/1996
This report will be of value to those individuals involved in implementing the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), in particular, those involved in planning, approving, and financing intermodal surface passenger transportation projects. The report identifies institutional barriers to intermodal transportation procedures and planning, examines opportunities for improvement, and provides ten strategies to mitigate current barriers and more importantly implement ISTEA.
Users' Manual for Assessing Service-Delivery Systems for Rural Passenger Transportation
Report Number: R-6
Publication Date: 8/15/1995
Which rural transportation services are appropriate for particular types of rural communities? After many years of rural transit operations, this question remains unanswered. The need to make publicly sponsored rural passenger transportation services efficient and effective is even greater than before. Designing services that are closely tailored to the needs and resources of their specific communities can significantly increase efficiency and effectiveness. Service models and planning methods developed for urban transportation systems do not apply to rural areas. Differences between successful rural and small urban transportation systems and their counterparts in large urban areas are enormous, due in part to rural populations which still contain proportionally more persons who are aged, disabled, and low income than do urban populations. From the first days of publicly- funded rural transportation, successful rural transportation operations have applied hard work and common sense to four key areas: realistic financing, reasonable objectives, appropriate service, and broad-based service delivery and community support. Still, no detailed methodology has yet been produced to specify what services are appropriate for particular rural communities. This project rectifies that deficiency with a manual of recommended methods and a computer-based software package, incorporating demographic and transportation data, which allows local planners and operators to identify and analyze transportation operations in similar rural communities.
Management Information Systems
Report Number: S-5
Publication Date: 12/1/1994
This synthesis will be of interest to general managers of transit agencies, managers of management information systems (MIS) departments, and information systems personnel, as well as operations, scheduling, maintenance, finance, and other management personnel concerned with improving information flow and data base development. The synthesis identifies the current direction and key factors of selected transit agencies that have successfully implemented MIS. The synthesis documents the range, variety, and benefits derived from the current information and examine how effectively information from special- purpose systems is integrated into the overall information systems environment and used across departmental boundaries.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-2
Publication Date: 12/1/1994
This staff digest summarizes the progress and status of TCRP Project J- 7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Included in this digest are tables listing (1) Synthesis Studies in progress as of December 1995, (2) Members of TCRP Project Committee J-7, (3) Published TCRP Syntheses, and (4) Index to Syntheses and Studies.