|Public Transit and Bike Sharing
Report Number: S-132
Publication Date: 4/9/2018
This report explores cooperative transit and bikesharing relationships and documents the experiences of transit systems with bikesharing as a mode. An increasing number of transit agencies have developed cooperative arrangements with bikesharing programs to strengthen the relationship between the modes. The implementation and integration of bikesharing programs can sometimes present challenges to transit agencies. The synthesis identifies the current state of the practice, including challenges, lessons learned, and gaps in information.
Customer-Focused Service Guarantees and Transparency Practices
Report Number: S-134
Publication Date: 3/29/2018
This report documents the nature and prevalence of customer-focused practices among transit providers in North America and supplements the discussion by including information from European transit providers.
A growing number of North American public transit agencies have adopted service guarantees or transparency practices as part of a customer-focused service strategy. Service guarantees describe the level of service customers can expect and the procedures they may follow if standards are not met. Transparency practices might include reporting performance metrics as online dashboards or report cards on the agency’s website. Currently, there is little existing research on these practices and experiences among U.S. transit providers.
A Transit Agency Guide to Evaluating Secondary Train Detection/Protection Systems in Communications-Based Train Control Systems
Report Number: Web-Only Document 71
Publication Date: 3/23/2018
This guide provides a practical approach to evaluating the appropriate level of secondary train detection/protection systems (STD/PS) for a given communications-based train control system application. In terms of detection, track circuits and axle counters are both considered and compared, including the broken rail detection capabilities of track circuits and the possibility of having no secondary detection at all.
The first part of this guide presents different technologies, and discusses communications-based train control deployment trends and feedback on operations from rail transit agencies around the world. The second part provides guidance for selection of an appropriate level of STD/PS, in terms of candidate technologies, product maturity, and potential risks. The document is accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation.
Legal Implications of Video Surveillance on Transit Systems
Report Number: LRD-52
Publication Date: 3/15/2018
This report explores the use of video surveillance systems on buses, trains, and stations. The widespread use of such video surveillance systems has generated numerous legal issues, such as a system’s ability to utilize video to discipline union and non-union employees, safety issues associated with such use, public access to such video, and retention policies regarding video, among others. This digest explores federal and state laws to address these issues, along with the current practices employed by transit agencies to comply with those laws.
Private Transit: Existing Services and Emerging Directions
Report Number: R-196
Publication Date: 2/5/2018
This report provides information about private transit services and ways they are addressing transportation needs in a variety of operating environments. The document provides an overview and taxonomy of private transit services in the United States, a review of their present scope and operating characteristics, and a discussion of ways they may affect the communities in which they operate along with several case studies and other supporting information. Private transit services—including airport shuttles, shared taxis, private commuter buses, dollar vans and jitneys—have operated for decades in many American cities. Recently, business innovations and technological advances that allow real-time ride-hailing, routing, tracking, and payment have ushered in a new generation of private transit options. These include new types of public-private partnership that are helping to bridge first/last mile gaps in suburban areas. The report also examines ways that private transit services are interacting with communities and transit agencies, as well as resulting impacts and benefits.
TCRP Annual Report of Progress 2017
Publication Date: 1/2/2018
The Annual Report provides background and an overview of the program, status of each of TCRP’s projects, and a summary of some of the program's accomplishments for the year.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices
Report Number: RRD-114
Publication Date: 12/17/2017
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Public Transportation Guidebook for Small- and Medium-Sized Public-Private Partnerships (P3s)
Report Number: R-191 (Final Report)
Publication Date: 6/29/2017
This report serves as a resource to explore, evaluate, initiate, plan, and implement small- and medium-sized public-private partnership (P3) initiatives. The guidebook addresses why and when to consider P3s for small- and medium-sized initiatives, what types of initiatives may be undertaken, and how to effectively undertake these initiatives.
A P3 Project Screening Checklist
, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, accompanies the guidebook and may assist transit agencies with screening and evaluating a P3 initiative.
Public Transit Emergency Preparedness Against Ebola and Other Infectious Diseases: Legal Issues
Report Number: LRD-50
Publication Date: 5/17/2017
This report examines responses to infectious disease epidemics and identifies legal issues that may be confronted by transit agencies. It considers federal and state laws and available court decisions affecting transit agencies’ responses to infectious disease outbreaks, including potential cohesiveness among transit agencies’ procedures and federal and state guidance. The digest also examines the legal basis for the protocols that public transit agencies and other transportation providers such as airlines have planned or implemented to respond to epidemics and pandemics. It further builds upon the 2014 NCHRP Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response.
Practices For Evaluating the Economic Impacts and Benefits of Transit
Report Number: S-128
Publication Date: 4/17/2017
This report provides state-of-the-practice information for transit agencies to help them in incorporating economic benefits and impacts into their decision-making processes, which may lead to more sustainable funding solutions for transit agencies. The report describes the methods used for assessing transit economic impacts and benefits, the types of effects that are covered by these methods, and the ways that agencies are using the information obtained for planning, prioritizing, funding, and stakeholder support.
Multiagency Electronic Payment Fare Systems
Report Number: S-125
Publication Date: 3/27/2017
This report describes the current practice, challenges, and benefits of utilizing electronic fare payment systems (EFPS), such as smart cards. The synthesis reviews current systems and identifies their major challenges and benefits; describes the use of electronic fare systems in multimodal, multiagency environments; and reviews next-generation approaches through existing implementation case examples.
Legal Issues Concerning Transit Agency Use of Electronic Customer Data
Report Number: LRD-48
Publication Date: 3/22/2017
This report explores the advantages, disadvantages, risks, and benefits for transit agencies moving to electronic, cloudbased, and other computerized systems for fare purchases and for communicating with customers. “Smart” fare cards are now commonplace, and private businesses and transit agencies are using or planning to use smartphones, smart cards and credit cards, and other systems to obtain payment, location, and other personal data from customers.
The digest updates TCRP LRD 14: Privacy Issues in Public Transportation (2000) and TCRP LRD 25: Privacy Issues with the Use of Smart Cards (2008) and covers additional dimensions of collection and use of personal information using new technologies developed since those studies. Appendix A-D are available online only at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/175848.aspx
Addressing Difficult Customer Situations
Report Number: S-127
Publication Date: 3/1/2017
This report explores issues surrounding difficult customers or passengers and the variety of circumstances that can arise when they utilize transit system facilities or vehicles. The report identifies current practices used by transit agencies to prevent, prepare for, and deal with these incidents.
Planning and Design for Fire and Smoke Incidents in Underground Passenger Rail Systems
Report Number: S-124
Publication Date: 2/10/2017
This report documents the state-of-the-practice to address fire and smoke incidents. Fires in underground passenger rail tunnels require implementation of different measures in order to provide safety for the passengers and ensure structural and system integrity of the facilities and operating infrastructure. The publication addresses planning, design, and operations to address fire and smoke incidents, and identifies current practices including lessons learned, challenges, and gaps in information.
TCRP Annual Report of Progress 2016
Publication Date: 1/24/2017
This Annual Report provides background and an overview of the program, status of each of TCRP’s projects, and a summary of some of the program's accomplishments for the year.
Guide to Value Capture Financing for Public Transportation Projects
Report Number: R-190
Publication Date: 1/6/2017
This report identifies the requirements necessary for successful value creation through transportation infrastructure investment and capturing a portion of that value through specific value capture mechanisms. It includes six case studies that provide practical examples of successful value capture from public transportation investments.
Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies
Report Number: R-187
Publication Date: 9/19/2016
This report presents practical planning and implementation strategies to enhance livability in transit corridors. It provides a resource for planning practitioners, policy makers, and other stakeholders to measure, understand, and improve transit corridor livability.
The handbook provides a definition of transit corridor livability and a set of methods, metrics, and strategies—framed within a five-step visioning and improvement process—that communities can use to improve livability in their transit corridors. It includes a set of tools and techniques that can help in planning and building support for corridor improvements, screening alternatives in preparation for environmental review, identifying a corridor’s livability needs, and developing an action-oriented set of strategies for improving transit corridor livability and quality of life.
A spreadsheet-based Transit Corridor Livability Calculator tool and a separate spreadsheet used for tool testing are also available for download by clicking this link. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/174953.aspx
An instructional file accompanies the spreadsheet.
Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit
Report Number: R-188
Publication Date: 9/15/2016
This report examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand-responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. Additionally, it examines issues and explores opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes.
Contracting Commuter Rail Services
Report Number: RRD-112
Publication Date: 9/9/2016
This digest provides guidance for public agencies and other key stakeholders in contracting commuter rail services. It presents potential approaches for contracting commuter rail services, an evaluation of the approaches, and guidance on how and when to apply different approaches to existing and new services; documents current commuter rail practices and gaps in knowledge; and provides an overview of the commuter rail systems operating in the United States and Canada.
Transit Supportive Parking Policies and Programs
Report Number: S-122
Publication Date: 6/23/2016
This report documents transit agency parking policies and parking management at transit stations using three primary resources: a scan of current research on transit supportive parking policies, an original survey distributed to a sample of transit agencies, and several brief agency profiles based on interviews and existing available data. Participating transit agencies represent a broad spectrum of service type, jurisdiction, ridership, mode, types of parking, and parking policy.
Maintenance Technician Staffing Levels for Modern Public Transit Fleets
Report Number: R-184
Publication Date: 2/7/2016
This report identifies existing tools and practices used to determine optimum maintenance technician staffing levels. It also provides an analysis of variables that influence maintenance technician staffing needs. In addition, the report documents an MS Excel-based Maintenance Staffing Calculator with the report. For more information on the tools and resources available with this report, click the link http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/173927.aspx
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices
Report Number: RRD-111
Publication Date: 1/6/2016
This digest is the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Practices,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Labor-Management Partnerships for Public Transportation, Volume 1: Toolkit
Report Number: R-181: Volume 1
Publication Date: 11/16/2015
This report provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve labor–management partnerships. The first volume describes:
•The development of a labor–management partnership charter to start or improve a partnership
•Labor–management partnership guidance that provides specific recommended actions for both management and labor union leaders
•A labor–management partnership workshop framework that can be used to develop a cooperative workshop that prepares management and union representatives with essential skills for establishing and managing labor–management partnerships
Volume 2, Final Report, provides background material that was used to develop Volume 1.
Policing and Security Practices for Small-and-Medium-Sized Public Transit Systems
Report Number: R-180
Publication Date: 7/10/2015
This report explores the current state of practice and identifies and responds to the specific challenges and issues associated with the security of small-and medium-sized transit agencies. It follows the five stages of protection activity (prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) by providing baseline options and identifying potential security countermeasures that could be deployed by both of these sizes of transit agencies.
Use of Web-Based Rider Feedback to Improve Public Transit Services
Report Number: R-179
Publication Date: 6/3/2015
This report provides toolkit of practices, emerging platforms, and promising approaches for customer web-based and electronic feedback to help improve public transit services. Part I of the report identifies promising practices among transit agencies and other industries using in-house or third-party web-based and mobile platforms. The mobile platforms are meant to engage customers and provide guidance on managing web-based feedback. Part II includes a Tool Selection Guide to assist transit agencies with selecting a web-based feedback tool based on their needs.
Preliminary Strategic Analysis of Next Generation Fare Payment Systems for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-177
Publication Date: 4/27/2015
This report explores attributes, implementation strategies, and applications of next generation transit fare payment (NGFP) systems. It also documents the state of the practice of emerging fare payments options for public transportation; develops a typology of available and anticipated options for NGFP that can serve a broad range of transit agencies and stakeholders in the United States; and evaluates the pros and cons of the options presented in the typology.
Critical Incident Management and Clearance Practices for Rail Transit
Report Number: S-114
Publication Date: 4/12/2015
This synthesis summarizes the current state of the practice regarding incident response and identifies strategies for post-incident evaluations. It documents the major issues faced by agencies in responding effectively and in identifying successful strategies, and how post-incident evaluation affects response to the next incident. The synthesis can aid rail transit agencies in identifying solutions that work in the real world and also in providing a concise guide for communities and their responders.
Practices for Utility Coordination in Transit Projects
Report Number: S-118
Publication Date: 4/10/2015
This synthesis summarizes utility coordination practices at transit agencies around the country. Specifically, the report focuses on utility coordination issues that transit agencies undertake during typical phases of project development and delivery, including planning, designing, and constructing civil infrastructure facilities.
Most utility relocation appears to be associated with rail and streetcar projects, and very rarely, bus projects. The topic panel and consultant chose to work closely with the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) to extract information about general trends around the country as reported here and to identify the potential agencies with whom to conduct more detailed interviews.
Quantifying Transit's Impact on GHG Emissions and Energy Use - The Land Use Component
Report Number: R-176
Publication Date: 4/2/2015
This report examines interrelationships between transit and land use patterns to understand their contribution to compact development and the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction benefits.
The report is accompanied by an Excel-based tool that applies the research findings. The calculator tool estimates the land use benefits of existing or planned transit projects. The report and tool will enable users to determine quantifiable impacts of transit service on compact development, energy use, and air quality in urbanized areas. To obtain a hard copy of this report, and the Excel-based tool, click on the link. Please note the software disclaimer. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172110.aspx
Guidebook on Pedestrian Crossing of Public Transit Rail Services
Report Number: R-175
Publication Date: 3/2/2015
This report presents a wide array of engineering treatments designed to help improve pedestrian safety for three types of public transit rail services: light rail, commuter rail, and streetcar.
The Guidebook addresses key pedestrian safety issues associated with public transit rail services; presents pedestrian crossing issues associated with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Americans with Disabilities Act; summarizes readily available decision flowcharts used to make decisions regarding pedestrian treatments at rail crossings; presents information for 34 pedestrian treatments used at rail crossings, grouped into eight appropriate categories; and includes four case studies that examine specific decisions with respect to pedestrian rail crossings. Click the link to obtain a hard copy of this report. https://www.mytrb.org/Store/Product.aspx?ID=7685
This report is supplemented by a final research report, TCRP Web-Only Document 63: Treatments Used at Pedestrian Crossings of Public Transit Rail Services. Click the link to view Web-only report. http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/172337.aspx
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-110
Publication Date: 1/6/2015
This digest is the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems,” for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Establishing a National Transit Industry Rail Vehicle Technician Qualification Program - Building for Success
Report Number: R-170
Publication Date: 7/21/2014
This report describes a system of qualification that has been developed for rail vehicle technicians. This qualification system is available for implementation through the Transportation Learning Center. The program integrates national training standards, progressive classroom curricula and introductory courseware, on-the-job learning modules, an apprenticeship framework that combines well-designed sequences of learning, mentoring to support learners, and coordination of classroom and on-the-job learning. The qualification system also includes written and hands-on certification assessments to confirm that technicians have the practical knowledge and skills required to perform their jobs at the highest level of expertise.
Sub-Allocating FTA Section 5307 Funding Among Multiple Recipients in Metropolitan Areas
Report Number: S-113
Publication Date: 7/15/2014
This report documents the approaches, methodologies, and practices for the sub-allocation of U.S. Federal Transit Administration Section 5307 Formula Funds in urbanized areas of multiple types and sizes.
Section 5307 formula funds are the primary source of financial support for public transportation capital projects including vehicle, facility, and equipment purchases; preventive maintenance; and other eligible expenses. The report also summarizes practices for fund distribution to help regions interested in developing a distribution practice or altering their current methodology.
Transit Public-Private Partnerships: Legal Issues
Report Number: LRD-45
Publication Date: 6/25/2014
This digest identifies the legal issues associated with negotiating public-private partnership (PPP) agreements for transit projects. It explores the rationale for using PPP, innovative contracting and financing approaches offered by PPPs, and transfer of risks from the public to the private sector through PPPs. In addition, the digest provides an overview of the legal barriers that PPPs confront in some states, and how PPPs comply with federal law. Funding of PPPs for transit projects and long-term leasing of transit facilities are also covered in the digest.
Rail Transit Track Inspection Practices
Report Number: S-107
Publication Date: 5/6/2014
This synthesis offers information across a range of older and newer U.S. rail transit agencies on track inspection practices and policies. Since there are no actual rail track safety or maintenance standards promulgated for transit, this report is designed to help to provide rail transit agencies with information that might help it develop its own set of track safety and maintenance standards. Issues addressed in the report include agency staffing, agency organization and characteristics, track inspection program criteria, training and certification, procurement, and track safety practices.
Strategy Guide to Enable and Promote the Use of Fixed-Route Transit by People with Disabilities
Report Number: R-163
Publication Date: 4/30/2014
This report is designed to help transit agencies fulfill the primary goals of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) by making mainstream fixed-route bus and rail systems accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities. The focus of the Strategy Guide is to offer guidance on providing public services in the most integrated setting possible. The project that developed the Strategy Guide, also produced the following, which are available only in PDF format at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/170626.aspx
• a final research report that includes a summary of the literature, description of the research methodology, copies of the survey instruments used, and detailed tabulations of the survey responses; and
• information briefs that summarize key findings and findings of the research in the following five areas: – the overall strategy that is suggested, – current use of fixed-route transit by persons with disabilities, – bus stop and pedestrian infrastructure improvement efforts, – fare incentive programs, and – ADA paratransit eligibility determination programs.
Characteristics of Premium Transit Services that Affect Choice of Mode
Report Number: R-166
Publication Date: 4/23/2014
This report explores the full range of determinants for transit travel behavior and offers solutions to those seeking to represent and distinguish transit characteristics in travel forecasting models. The report includes appendices that present detailed research results including a state-of-the-practice literature review, survey instruments, models estimated by the research team, model testing, and model implementation and calibration results. The models demonstrate a potential approach for including non-traditional transit service attributes in the representation of both transit supply (networks) and demand (mode choice models), reducing the magnitude of the modal specific constant term while maintaining the ability of the model to forecast ridership on specific transit services.
Community Tools to Improve Transportation Options for Veterans, Military Service Members, and Their Families
Report Number: R-164
Publication Date: 3/27/2014
This report explores ways to enhance transportation options for veterans, military service members, and their families by building on the concepts of transportation coordination and mobility management. It provides guidance and tools to assess transportation needs of veterans, service members and their families, and ways to potentially improve public transit, specialized transportation, volunteer services, and other local transportation options needed to meet those needs.
Research Results Digest 108
Report Number: RRD-108
Publication Date: 1/1/2014
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Building a Sustainable Workforce in the Public Transportation Industry - A Systems Approach
Report Number: R-162
Publication Date: 10/3/2013
This report provides a guidebook that addresses contemporary issues in workforce development, retention, and attraction, and public transportation image management. The guidebook provides practical tools to transit agencies on a variety of workforce issues including workforce strategies that enhance organizational processes, performance metrics to evaluate the impact of workforce strategies, image management techniques that improve perceptions of the public transportation industry, and benchmarking processes that allow for continuous organizational improvement.
Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual, 3rd Edition
Report Number: R-165
Publication Date: 8/26/2013
This report provides guidance on transit capacity and quality of service issues and the factors influencing both. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability, comfort, and convenience from the passenger and transit provider points of view.
Energy Savings Strategies for Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-106
Publication Date: 7/31/2013
This synthesis describes energy reduction strategies being used in the United State and Canada that address vehicle technologies; vehicle operations, maintenance, and service design; non-revenue vehicles; stations and stops; building; indirect energy use; and renewable power generation.
Transit Station and Stop Adoption Programs
Report Number: S-103
Publication Date: 5/1/2013
This synthesis explores transit agency programs in which local organizations, individuals, or other partners “adopt” a transit station or stop and receive recognition or incentives in exchange for, periodically, performing duties such as removing litter, maintaining vegetation, or reporting suspicious activity.
Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes: Introduction
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 1
Publication Date: 2/13/2013
This report contains a four-level Table of Contents for the 16 published TCRP Report 95 chapter/volumes. It describes the Traveler Response Handbook and its development. It also offers guidance to the prospective Handbook users, and includes two Handbook appendices plus known errata. The Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes Handbook consists of these Chapter 1 introductory materials and 15 stand-alone published topic area chapters. Each topic area chapter provides traveler response findings including supportive information and interpretation, and also includes case studies and a bibliography consisting of the references utilized as sources.
Transforming Public Transportation Institutional and Business Models
Report Number: R-159
Publication Date: 12/14/2012
This report offers strategy for defining and implementing transformative change in institutional and business models, thus facilitating the operation and maintenance of public transportation systems. The report identifies the components of transformative change and examines potential consequences of change.
Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition
Report Number: R-155
Publication Date: 8/3/2012
This report provides guidelines and descriptions for the design of various common types of light rail transit (LRT) track. The track structure types include ballasted track, direct fixation (“ballastless”) track, and embedded track. Characteristics and interfaces of vehicle wheels and rail, tracks and wheel gauges, rail sections, alignments, speeds, and track moduli are considered in this report. The report includes chapters on vehicles, alignment, track structures, track components, special track work, aerial structures/bridges, corrosion control, noise and vibration, signals, traction power, and the integration of LRT track into urban streets.
Implementation and Outcomes of Fare-Free Transit Systems
Report Number: S-101
Publication Date: 7/13/2012
This synthesis highlights the experiences of public transit agencies that have planned, implemented, and operated fare-free transit systems. The report focuses on public transit agencies that are either direct recipients or subrecipients of federal transit grants and that furnish fare-free services to everyone in a service area on every mode provided.
Ridersharing as a Complement to Transit
Report Number: S-98
Publication Date: 4/2/2012
This synthesis explores current practices in using ridesharing to complement public transit and highlights ways to potentially enhance ridesharing and public transit.
Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations
Report Number: R-153
Publication Date: 3/29/2012
This report is intended to aid in the planning, developing, and improving of access to high capacity commuter rail, heavy rail, light rail, bus rapid transit, and ferry stations. The report includes guidelines for arranging and integrating various station design elements. The print version of TCRP Report 153 is accompanied by a CD-ROM that includes a station access planning spreadsheet tool that allows trade-off analyses among the various access modes--automobile, transit, bicycle, pedestrian, and transit-oriented development--for different station types. The appendices to TCRP Report 153 are also available on the CD-ROM at http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/166516.aspx
Sustainable Public Transportation: Environmentally Friendly Mobility
Report Number: RRD-103
Publication Date: 12/12/2011
This digest is an overview of an international study mission that explored how public transportation systems in several cities in India and China have implemented plans, policies, technologies, and strategies for creating more livable communities through bus, metro, bus rapid transit, rail, and light rail systems. The Indian and Chinese systems visited were designed to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, lower operating costs, and provide safe and accessible transportation services.
Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies
Report Number: R-148
Publication Date: 11/19/2011
This report provides strategies to recruit minorities for chief executive officer (CEO) positions and offers resources to assist governing boards of public transportation agencies in the recruitment of minority CEOs. It also assesses the transit industry's recruitment processes for CEOs and provides a case for diversity that documents the benefits of minorities in public transportation leadership positions. Additionally, the report describes strategies for retaining CEOs at public transportation agencies.
Improving Safety-Related Rules Compliance in the Public Transportation Industry
Report Number: R-149
Publication Date: 10/19/2011
This report identifies potential best practices for all of the elements of a comprehensive approach to safety-related rules compliance. The categories of best practices, which correspond to the elements of a safety-related rules compliance program, include screening and selecting employees, training and testing, communication, monitoring rules compliance, responding to noncompliance, and safety management. This report also outlines the features of a prototype safety reporting system for public transportation.
Video Surveillance Uses by Rail Transit Agencies
Report Number: S-90
Publication Date: 8/15/2011
This report explores the current use of electronic video surveillance technology solely by passenger rail agencies on board railcars, along rights-of-way, and more.
Public Participation Strategies for Transit
Report Number: S-89
Publication Date: 7/19/2011
This synthesis documents the state-of-the-practice in terms of public participation strategies to inform and engage the public for transit-related activities. It also provides ideas and insights into practices and techniques that agencies have found to be most successful, and discusses challenges relating to engaging the public.
Strollers, Carts, and Other Large Items on Buses and Trains
Report Number: S-88
Publication Date: 6/30/2011
This report documents the state of the practice of transit agencies managing capacity on vehicles carrying customers with large items. The synthesis also includes a discussion of vehicle designs to accommodate these various large items.
Funding for Infrastructure Maintenance: Achieving and Sustaining a State of Good Repair
Report Number: RRD-101
Publication Date: 6/27/2011
This digest examines how bus and rail agencies and operators in several European cities develop community support for public transportation and how those communities implement sustainable funding strategies for transit assets, operations, and maintenance. The digest is based on the results of a scanning mission performed from June 11 through 25, 2010, under TCRP's International Transit Studies Program.
Transit Agency Compliance with Title VI: Limited English Proficiency Requirements
Report Number: RRD-97
Publication Date: 2/2/2011
This digest explores the legal issues associated with transit operators' limited English proficiency (LEP) compliance efforts. It s designed to serve as a single source of information concerning the development and current status of transit LEP implementation efforts by state and local legislative and operational bodies.
Resource Guide for Commingling ADA and Non-ADA Paratransit Riders
Report Number: R-143
Publication Date: 1/26/2011
The core features of this Resource Guide are two decision-making processes: (1) planning and (2) operations. The Resource Guide presents important lessons learned from transit agencies that have made decisions both to commingle and not to commingle their ADA paratransit and non-ADA paratransit riders. Non-ADA paratransit riders include non-sponsored older adults, non-sponsored persons with disabilities, other agency funded persons, the general public, persons receiving Medicaid, Title III persons, non-sponsored low income persons, and persons in the Head Start program.
Managing Increasing Ridership Demand
Report Number: RRD-96
Publication Date: 9/14/2010
This digest documents a 2009 study mission to Guayaquil, Ecuador; Santiago, Chile; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Porto Alegre, Brazil, that investigated how transit operators and agencies in these cities accommodated sudden and significant growth in the number of riders and increasing demand for service.
Vehicle Operator Recruitment, Retention, and Performance in ADA Complementary Paratransit Operations
Report Number: R-142
Publication Date: 9/9/2010
This report provides guidance for understanding the relationships that influence and enhance operator recruitment, retention, and performance in Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) complementary paratransit services. Appendixes to TCRP Report 142 were published electronically as TCRP Web-Only Document 50: Survey Instrument, Productivity Charts, and Interview Protocol for Case Studies for TCRP Report 142.
Bus and Rail Transit Preferential Treatments in Mixed Traffic
Report Number: S-83
Publication Date: 8/11/2010
This synthesis explores the application of different transit preferential treatments in mixed traffic. It also examines the decision-making process that may be applied in deciding which preferential treatment might be the most applicable in a particular location.
A Guide for Planning and Operating Flexible Public Transportation Services
Report Number: R-140
Publication Date: 7/26/2010
This report explores the types of flexible transportation service strategies that are potentially appropriate for small, medium, and large urban and rural transit agencies. It also examines financial and political realities, operational issues, and institutional mechanisms related to implementing and sustaining flexible transportation services.
Employer and Institutional TDM Strategies -- Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 19
Publication Date: 7/19/2010
This report pair-uses wise comparisons to explore the relative importance of particular categories of TDM strategies, such as support versus incentives, as well as the particular strategies themselves, such as transit subsidy versus a high-occupancy vehicle parking discount. TDM (transportation demand management or travel demand management) is a process that can encompass a variety of measures intended to influence travel choices. TDM is used to manage heavy traffic demand and parking requirements, and to enhance the effectiveness of transit services.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-94
Publication Date: 2/1/2010
This report is a digest of the progress and status of TCRP Project J-7, Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments
Report Number: R-137
Publication Date: 12/14/2009
This report examines pedestrian and motorist behaviors contributing to light rail transit (LRT) safety and explores mitigating measures available designed to improve safety along LRT alignments. The report also includes suggestions to facilitate the compilation of accident data in a coordinated and homogeneous manner across LRT systems. Finally, the report provides a catalog of existing and innovative safety devices, safety treatments, and practices along LRT alignments. Appendices B through E of TCRP Report 137 were published as TCRP Web-Only Document 42.
Transit, Call Centers, and 511: A Guide for Decision Makers
Report Number: R-134
Publication Date: 8/20/2009
This report explores the operational characteristics of 511 telephone traveler information systems and examines how 511 systems interact with transit system call centers. This report inventories existing 511 systems throughout the country, documents the extent of transit participation and transit agency experiences with 511, and presents guidance to assist transit agencies and 511 system administrators in determining a transit-511 telephone strategy.
A Guidebook for the Evaluation of Project Delivery Methods
Report Number: R-131
Publication Date: 5/12/2009
This report examines various project delivery methods for major transit capital projects. The report also explores the impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of including operations and maintenance as a component of a contract for a project delivery method.
Shared Use of Railroad Infrastructure with Noncompliant Public Transit Rail Vehicles: A Practitioner's Guide
Report Number: R-130
Publication Date: 3/2/2009
This report examines a business case for the shared use of non-Federal Railroad Administration-compliant public transit rail vehicles (e.g., light rail vehicles) with freight operations and highlights a business model for such shared-use operations. This report also explores potential advantages and disadvantages of shared-use operations and the issues and barriers that can arise in the course of implementation.
Light Rail Vehicle Collisions with Vehicles at Signalized Intersections
Report Number: S-79
Publication Date: 2/24/2009
This report presents the mitigation methods tested and used by transit agencies to reduce collisions between light rail vehicles (LRVs) and motor vehicles where light rail transit (LRT) runs through or adjacent to highway intersections controlled by conventional traffic signals. A particular focus is placed on collisions occurring between LRVs and vehicles making left-hand turns at these intersections. This report offers success stories and specific actions to achieve positive results, as well as examples of unsuccessful actions. The issues addressed include a range of LRT operations and environments such as median-running, side-running, contra-flow, and mixed-use LRT alignments; urban and suburban setting; and a variety of U.S. geographic regions.
Passenger Counting Systems
Report Number: S-77
Publication Date: 1/28/2009
This report documents the state of the practice in terms of analytical tools and technologies for measuring transit ridership and other subsidiary data. Survey results include transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methodologies and of desired improvements. The survey was designed to emphasize automatic passenger counter (APC) systems, but agencies using manual systems were also surveyed to gain an understanding of why new technologies have not been adopted.
Transit Systems in College and University Communities
Report Number: S-78
Publication Date: 12/24/2008
This report updates an earlier synthesis offering information on the planning, implementation, and operation of campus transit systems by moving to a focus on the communities in which schools are located. It includes local and regional transportation systems that serve college and university campuses. Further, it presents information about practices and trends in the areas of transit operations, and campus policies and planning, with a special focus area in technology and environmental innovations
Guidebook for Measuring, Assessing, and Improving Performance of Demand-Response Transportation
Report Number: R-124
Publication Date: 4/4/2008
This guidebook is a resource to assist Demand-Response Transportation (DRT) systems to measure, assess, and improve performance, focusing on DRT in urban areas. It addresses the diversity of DRT systems, service areas, and passengers; identifies the important controllable factors affecting DRT performance; and includes performance assessment methods based on the reliable data and meaningful measures. Such methods will allow relevant assessments of DRT performance over time and across DRT systems.
Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems
Report Number: RRD-86
Publication Date: 1/24/2008
This digest notes the progress and status of J-7, "Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems" for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research.
Public Transportation Passenger Security Inspections: A Guide for Policy Decision Makers
Report Number: R-86 Volume 13
Publication Date: 10/15/2007
This report will assist public transportation agency senior staff, law enforcement, and security service providers in assessing the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a passenger security inspection program. The objective is to provide guidance that a public transportation agency may use when considering whether, where, when, and how to introduce a passenger security inspection program into its operations. This volume identifies the most promising types of screening technologies and methods currently in use or being tested, the operational considerations for the deployment of these technologies in land-based systems, the legal precedent that either applies or that should be contemplated in connection with passenger screening activities, and a passenger security inspection policy decision-making model.
Elements Needed to Create High Ridership Transit Systems
Report Number: R-111
Publication Date: 6/21/2007
This report describes the strategies used by transit agencies to create high ridership and includes case studies of successful examples of increased or high ridership. The case studies focuses on the internal and external elements that contributed to successful ridership increases and describes how the transit agencies influenced or overcame internal and external challenges to increase ridership.
Use of Guard/Girder/Restraining Rails
Report Number: RRD-82
Publication Date: 4/16/2007
This digest provides guidelines for the application of guard/girder/restraining rails by transit systems to improve vehicle curving performance, reduce risk of flange climb derailment, and to control wheel/rail wear.
Coordinated Approaches to Expanding Access to Public Transportation
Report Number: RRD-81
Publication Date: 2/26/2007
This digest summarizes the mission performed May 4, May 19, 2006 International Transit Studies Program. Study mission participants are transit management personnel with substantial knowledge and experience in transit activities. The mission experience helps transit managers to better evaluate current and proposed transit improvements and serve to generate potential public transportation research topics. Team members are encouraged to share their international experience and findings with peers in the public transportation community throughout the United States.
Making Transportation Tunnels Safe and Secure
Report Number: R-86 Volume 12
Publication Date: 2/1/2007
This report is designed to provide transportation tunnel owners and operators with guidelines for protecting their tunnels by minimizing the damage potential from extreme events such that, if damaged, they may be returned to full functionality in relatively short periods. This report will be of interest to tunnel authorities, state and local transportation departments, other agencies responsible for tunnel operation and maintenance, enforcement personnel and first responders responsible for tunnel safety and security, and tunnel designers. The objective of this report is to provide safety and security guidelines for owners and operators of transportation tunnels to use in identifying (1) principal vulnerabilities of tunnels to various hazards and threats; (2) potential physical countermeasures; (3) potential operational countermeasures; and (4) deployable, integrated systems for emergency-related command, control, communications, and information.
Fixed-Route Transit Ridership Forecasting and Service Planning Methods
Report Number: S-66
Publication Date: 12/18/2006
This synthesis documents the state of the practice in fixed-routed transit ridership forecasting and service planning. It identifies forecasting methodologies, resource, requirements, data inputs, and organizational issues. It also analyzes the impacts of service changes and reviews transit agency assessments of the effectiveness and reliability of their methods and of desired improvements.
Center Truck Performance on Low-Flow Light Rail Vehicles
Report Number: R-114
Publication Date: 12/11/2006
This report should be of interest to engineers, manufactures, maintainers, and other interested in low-floor light rail vehicle (LFLRV) center truck performance issues and their potential solutions for center trucks with unpowered, independently rotating wheels. It describes performance issues observed in the operations of LFLRV center trucks (focusing on 70-percent low-floor vehicles), such as excessive wheel wear and noise and occassional derailments, and provides guidance on how to minimize or avoid these issues.
Design of Track Transitions
Report Number: RRD-79
Publication Date: 10/26/2006
This digest reviews and analyzes various track transition designs among ballasted and nonballasted track forms and structures and offers guidance to improve track and operating performance. The research is based on similar work conducted for freight railroads, modified, as necessary, for the transit operating environment. The results should be of interest to engineers involved in the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of rail transit systems.
Transit Agency Participation in Medicaid Transportation Programs
Report Number: S-65
Publication Date: 8/24/2006
This synthesis documents and summaries the tasks necessary for a public transit Non-Emergency Medical Transportation (NEMT) partnership to be successful. The purpose is to report on the real and perceived barriers to NEMT and public transit coordination and to discribe case studies of Medicaid transportation program participation by transit agencies.
Acoustic Rail-Break Detection demonstration at MTA New York Transit
Report Number: RRD-76
Publication Date: 5/18/2006
This digest provides the resutls of a demonstration on an acoustic-based rail-break detection system in a transit application. Although no rail breaks occurred during the demonstration, lessons were learned on the potential deployment of the technology.
Train Door Systems Analysis
Report Number: RRD-74
Publication Date: 3/17/2006
This digest describes the development of a relational database for data on the causes and conditions of traiin failures and some preliminary analyses of the data.
Guidelines for An Alternative Transit Switch Design
Report Number: RRD-72
Publication Date: 2/8/2006
This digest offers design guidelines for a new transit switch based partially on longer lasting, better-performing switiches that were developed in the early 20th century, some of which are still in operation today at transit systems. It also summarizes the work done to develop guidelines and recommendations for an improved performance 13-ft switch for heavy rail transit service.
Hazard and Security Plan Workshop: Instructor Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 10
Publication Date: 2/6/2006
This report will assist rural, small urban, and community-based passenger transportation agencies in creating hazards and security plans or evaluating and modifying existing plans, policies, and procedures consistent with the National Incident. Management System (NIMS) "NIMS provides a consistent nationwide approach for Federal State, territorial, tribal, and local government to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity." To excess the accompany appendices to this report and additional resources, click the link. http://www.trb.org/Publications/Blurbs/152464.aspx
Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Department in Europe
Report Number: RRD-71
Publication Date: 12/9/2005
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated the application of new technologies in bus and rail transit operations in Germany, Austria, and France. The theme of the study mission was Implementing New Technologies in Maintenance Systems and Departments in Europe. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members. This digest includes transportation information on the cities and facilities visited.
On-Board and Intercept Transit Survey Techniques
Report Number: S-63
Publication Date: 12/3/2005
This synthesis documents and summarizes transit agencies' experiences with planning and implementing on-board and intercept surveys. On-board/intercept surveys used throughout the report refer to sel-administered surveys distributed on board buses and railcars, and in stations, as well as interviews conducted in these environments. This report provides an overview of industry prictices and covers a broad range of issues addressed in planning a given survey.
Integration of Bicycles and Transit
Report Number: S-62
Publication Date: 11/22/2005
This synthesis reflects the additional knowledge gained by transit agencies in the past 10 years about integrating bicycles and transit. It documents many different types of transit agencies in the United States and Canada. The experiences that are documented can help transit agencies improve existing services and assist other communities in developing new bicycle and transit services.
The Case for Searches on Public Transportation
Report Number: LRD-22
Publication Date: 11/2/2005
This report provides information concerning the ability of public transportation systems or their agents, within the context of federal or state law, to conduct either random searches or targeted searches of passengers on public transportation vehicles or on public transportation property.
E-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation
Report Number: R-84 Volume 7
Publication Date: 8/19/2005
This report documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. It describes how web-based tools have been used to assist with controlling and managing active and planned construction projects, including schedules and cost of the projects, through three organizations that have successfully used web-based collaborative software: The Chicago Transit Authority, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and Raytheon.
Innovations in Bus, Rail and Specialized Transit Operations in Latin America
Report Number: RRD-70
Publication Date: 6/3/2005
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated innovations in bus, rail and specialized transit operations in Latin America. It is based on individual reports provided by team members, and it reflects the views of the members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data.
Evaluation of Recent Ridership Increases
Report Number: RRD-69
Publication Date: 4/21/2005
This digest assess key factors and initiatives that led to ridership increases at 28 transit agencies, nationwide, for the period 2000 to 2002. The assessment is based on review of transit ridership statistics published by APTA, on operating statistics reported to and published in the FTA's National Transit Database, and on interviews and discussions with more than 35 senior transit managers.
Concept for an e-Transit Reference Enterprise Architecture
Report Number: R-84 Volume 5
Publication Date: 10/25/2004
TCRP Report 84: e-Transit: Electronic Business Strategies for Public Transportation documents principles, techniques, and strategies that are used in electronic business for public transportation. TCRP Report 84 will be published as multiple volumes. This volume explains the need for and uses of a reference enterprise architecture; the process for its development based on using systems engineering concepts and practices; the basic concepts behind systems engineering and enterprise architecture; and the transit-specific task associated with creating an e-transit reference enterprise architecture. This report may be used by chief information officers, general mangers, and senior managers.
Transit Pricing and Fares
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 12
Publication Date: 9/13/2004
This report addresses transit ridership response to fare changes as applied to conventional urban area bus and rail transit services. Topics covered are: changes in general fare level, changes in fare structure including relationships among fare categories, and free transit. It does not cover the combined outcome of implementing fare and service in the same time frame. This report will be of interest to transit planning practitioners; educators and researchers; and professionals across a broad spectrum of transportation agencies, MPOs, and local, state, and federal government agencies.
Transit Design, Construction, and Operations in the Mediterranean Region
Report Number: RRD-66
Publication Date: 9/1/2004
This digest is an overview of the mission that investigated transit design, construction, and operation in the Mediterranean region. It is based on individual reports provided by the team members, and it reflects the views of the team members, who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the data presented.
Operational Experiences with Flexible Transit Services
Report Number: S-53
Publication Date: 8/20/2004
This synthesis documents and summarizes tansit agency experiences with "flexible transit services," including all types of hybrid services that are not pure demand-responsive (including dial-a-ride and ADA paratransit) or fixed-route services, but that fall somewhere in between those traditional serivce models. In addition, it doucments six types of flexible transit service: request stops,flexible route segments, route deviation, point deviation, zone routes, and demand-responsive connector service. This synthesis will be of interest to transit agnecy staff responsible for vehicle operations and planning, and to those who work with them in this regard.
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 3
Publication Date: 8/16/2004
This chapter covers travel demand and related aspects of providing and supporting park-and-ride and park-and-pool facilities. It addresses the facilities working together with supportive features and in coordination with high occupancy vehicle lanes; busways; bus rapid transit and other express bus services; light rail transit, commuter rail, and heavy rail transit facilities and services.
Transit Scheduling and Frequency
Report Number: R-95 Chapter 9
Publication Date: 5/25/2004
This report's objective is to equip members of the transportation profession with a comprehensive, readily accessible, interpretive documentation of results and experience obtained across the United States and elsewhere from, different types of transportation system changes and policy actions and alternative land use and site development design approaches.
Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs
Report Number: S-52
Publication Date: 5/10/2004
This synthesis documents current information on prevention and intervention strategies and resources that can be used by transit agencies. It offers survey information obtained from individuals with the responsibility for managing health and wellness programs. It also covers the state of the practice at 14 U.S. transit agencies of various sizes, operating different modes, in diverse locales around the nations. This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff concerned with proactively addressing operator health and wellness issues at their agencies.
Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual
Report Number: R-100
Publication Date: 1/27/2004
This manual is intended to be a fundamental reference document for public transit practitioners and policy makers. The manual contains background, statistics, and graphics on the various types of public transportation, and it provides a framework for measuring transit availability and quality of service from the passenger point of view. The manual contains quantitative techniques for calculating the capacity of bus, rail, and ferry transit services, and transit stops, stations, and terminals. Examples problems are included.
Travel Matters: Mitigating Climate Change with Sustainable Surface Transportation
Report Number: R-93
Publication Date: 11/7/2003
This report and the TravelMatters website www.TravelMatters.org provides key strategies for reducing transportation emissions increasing the use of transit, changing land-use patters, and adopting energy-efficient technologis and fuels in transit fleets. It is designed to present information on climate change and to examine how greenhouse gas emissions from transportation may be reduced. Both the print and web-based research products review the capacity of public transportation to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and present this information in a format accessible to transportation professionals and the general public.
Determining Training for New Technologies: A Decision Game and Facilitation Guide
Report Number: R-96
Publication Date: 11/6/2003
The goal of this project was to help managers identify the necessary training for new technologies. This report will be of interest to managers responsible for implementing new technologies. It will also be useful to other members of new technology procurement teams, representing operations, maintenance, human resources, legal, finance, and training departments. Cognitive task analysis was used to design a simulation game that would allow managers to rapidly acquire the decision skills needed for identifying the necessary training for new technologies.
Public Transportation Security: Intrusion Detection for Public Transportation Facilities Handbook
Report Number: R-86 Volume 4
Publication Date: 10/15/2003
This report is designed to address transit agencies' needs for evaluating and upgrading the intrusion detection systems applicable to the spectrum of their facilities (including tunnels, bridges, buildings, power stations, transfer stations, rail yards, bus yards, and parking lots) and their transit vehicles (such as buses, trains, support vehicles, and special purpose vehicles). The Handbook provides guidance on assessing system needs; developing system designs; and estimating system costs, benefits, and risks.
Fare Policies, Structures and Technologies: Update
Report Number: R-94
Publication Date: 10/13/2003
This report update, identifies, describes, and evaluates key fare structures, policies, and technologies that are being considered by transit agencies, with a focus on their impact on customers, operations management, and effective and equitable fare integration. This report includes date on fare structures, policy-making procedures, and ongoing efforts to implement fare technology.
Transit Switch Design Analysis (Phase I)
Report Number: R-71 Volume 2
Publication Date: 8/28/2003
Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) modeled the performance of Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA), B-IV cars operating over a SEPTA tangential design spiraled geometry Number 8 lateral turnout, an American Railway Engineering Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA) Number 8 lateral turnout with a 13-ft curved switch design, and several variations of these two designs. The study was designed to determine which switch design features contribute to the good performance and long service life of the SEPTA switches. These design elements will be applied to current switch design to develop a low-cost,high-performance switch for future use.
A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: R-88
Publication Date: 1/29/2003
This guidebook will assist transit system managers in developing a performance-measurement system or program that uses traditional and non-traditional performance measures to address customer and community issues. The measures presented in the book will also be of interest to metorpolitan planning organizations interested in assessing the community benefits provided by transit service.
A Summary of TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System
Report Number: RRD-56
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This digest provides senior transit mangers with an easy-to-read summary of the contents of and tools in TCRP Report 88: A Guidebook for Developing a Transit Performance-Measurement System. The guidebook provides a step-by-step process for developing a performance-measurement program that includes both traditional and non-traditional performance indicators that addresses customer-oriented and community issues. It is intended to introduce agency staff and decision-makers to the key performance-measurement concepts described in the guidebook. Information on obtaining the guidebook is on page 25.
Strategies for Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-83
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
This report provides strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through market-based planning and improved management of ground acces to airports. Practical information on how to plan and improve public transportation access is provided. The report in addition presents the results of the second phase of a two-part research effort. The results of the first phase of the research were published as TCRP Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports.
Support for Fundamental Change in Public Transportation
Report Number: RRD-55
Publication Date: 1/8/2003
The aim of this digest is to inform and assist public transportation systems in the United States that are considering fundamental change to their organization. This digest was prepared as part of the third and final phase of "New Paradigms for Local Public Transportation Organizations; " it addresses major dimensions of fundamental change; illustrates a few extraordinary, fundamental changes that are being pursued by transit organizations; and calls attention to immediate opportunities to support and sustain fundamental change in the U.S. transit industry.
Report Number: S-45
Publication Date: 12/19/2002
In a number of transit agencies across the country there is an increasing focus on customer service and satisfaction. However, there is a perception among some stakeholders that customers service transit agencies lags behind that of other public and private service providers. There are some service providers and retailers (e.g., Federal Express, Southwest Airlines, Nordstrom's) that enjoy a strong reputation for providing responsive customers service in their overall operation. Often, their reputation places them at a competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the public arena, several state departments of motor vehicles are beginning to enjoy a similar, strong customer service reputation. This is a comprehensive survey of what selected transit agencies are doing to implement agency wide, results oriented customer service programs.
A Toolkit for Self-Service, Barrier-Free Fare Collection
Report Number: R-80
Publication Date: 10/18/2002
A significant number of rail transit operators are not or will be looking to adopt lower-cost, less-infrastructure-intensive ways to carry out certain system functions such as fare collection. This report addresses the full range of issues and parameters that an agency must consider in determining the applicability of self-service fare collection (SSFC) systems, including those related to policy and enforcement issues, operational issues, and capital and equipment issues. The Toolkit is designed for use by agencies at various points in the fare collection decision process.
Second Train Coming Warning Sign Demonstration Projects
Report Number: RRD-51
Publication Date: 10/12/2002
A challenging problem that many light rail systems face is the "second train coming" phenomenon on double track crossings. A second train frequently activates the grade crossing equipment within seconds after the first train has activated the grade crossing circuits, thus creating a situation in which two trains pass through the grade crossing within seconds of each other which could be very confusing and potentially dangerous to motorists and pedestrains. This digest provides the results of two demonstrations of active sign warning systems that could increase awareness of and compliance with the conditions of the second train coming phenomenon.
Communication of Threats: A Guide
Report Number: R-86 Volume 01
Publication Date: 9/5/2002
This is the first volume of TCRP Report 86: Public Transportation Security, a series in which relevant information is assembled into single, concise volumes, each pertaining to a specific security problem and closely related issues. This volume offers information on a variety of approaches to improving the sharing of the threat information. Current practices, operational needs, technologies for threat information dissemination, and system functional requirements are discussed. Effective strategies for sharing analyzed and unanalyzed reports of suspicious activities and a path to an interoperable set of national, regional, and local threat-information forums are proposed.
A Challenged Employment System: Hiring Training, Performance Evaluation, and Retention of Bus Operators
Report Number: S-40
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
Transit managers are concerned about attracting and retaining quality applicants, about the ability of new hires to successfully complete training programs, and about how new bus operators will provide quality customer service. This synthesis is intended to provide a snapshot of public transit bus operator practices, addressing hiring, training, performance evaluation, and retention. Each of these four areas is uniquely different, but also highly interrelated.
Identification of the Critical Workforce Development Issues in the Transit Industry
Report Number: RRD-45
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This digest identifies the key workforce challenges facing the public transportation industry, identifies current approaches to addressing those challenges, and suggests an agenda that the public transportation industry can use to move forward in the important area of work-force development.
Supplemental Analysis of National Survey on Contracting Transit Services
Report Number: RRD-46
Publication Date: 4/29/2002
This digest describes findings from a follow-on study designed to analyze in greater detail the data obtained from the agency and general manager surveys on contracting conducted as part of the study, "Contracting for Bus and Demand-Responsive Transit Services: A Survey of U.S. Practice and Experience," The original study was published as TRB Special Report 258.
Consensus Standards for the Rail Transit Industry
Report Number: RRD-44
Publication Date: 12/1/2001
This digest provides information on the successful implementation of a comprehensive standards process for the rail transit industry using American National Standards Institute (ANSI) consensus procedures under the aegis of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
Supplementing & Updating TCRP Report 52: Joint Operation of Light Rail Transit or Diesel Multiple Unit Vehicles with Railroad
Report Number: RRD-43
Publication Date: 12/1/2001
This digest supplements and updates TCRP Report 52, "Joint Operation of Light Rail Transit or Diesel Multiple Unit Vehicles with Railroads." The digest updates information in TCRP Report 52 to recognize the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and Federal Transit Administration (FTA) joint statement of policy concerning shared use issued in July 2000, provides supplemental information concerning the international experience with joint operation, and updates a disucssion of the key issues and conclusions. This digest also defines joint operation as commingled, simultaneous train operation on shared track by railroad trains (freight, passenger, or both) and rail transit vehicles that are not fully compliant with current FRA regulations.
Part-time Transit Operations: The Trends and Impacts
Report Number: R-68
Publication Date: 4/9/2001
This report examine how part-time labor has affected the cost and performance of transit systems over the past 25 years and consider how part-time labor can be meaningfully incorporated into the workforce while avoiding potential negative impacts. This research reflects concern for transit system operating costs, safety, service, reliability, customer satisfaction, labor-management relations, and employee satisfaction.
Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports
Report Number: R-62
Publication Date: 12/29/2000
This report provides a wealth of information about the current status of public transportation services and their use at large airports in the United States and around the world. It identifies strategies to improve public transportation access to large airports through increased awareness of issues and best industry practices. Key factors affecting passenger and employee use of public transportation for airport access is presented. Market trends and factors affecting ridership at nine U.S. airports with direct rail service are presented as well as trends and factors at U.S. airports with rubber-tired access systems such as prearranged limousines, shared-ride vans, express buses, and multistop buses. The report will be of interest to individuals involved in planning and implementing improved public transportation access to large airports.
Guidebook for Developing Welfare-to-Work Transportation Services
Report Number: R-64
Publication Date: 12/8/2000
This guidebook provides information about the role of transportation in supporting welfare-to-work initiatives and identifies practical strategies to improve access to job opportunities for former welfare recipients making the transition to work. It also describes service approaches that include modifications to existing mass transit services, coordination between transportation services, ride-sharing programs, automobile ownership programs, and collaborations between faith-based and community-based groups.
Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular Safety
Report Number: R-69
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
This report provides documentation and presents the results of a study to improve the safety of light transit (LRT) in semi-exclusive rights-of-way where light rail vehicles (LRVs) operate at speeds greater than 35 mph through crossings with streets and pedestrians pathways. It also presents the results of field tests conducted to improve the safety of high speed LRT systems through grade crossing design. This report will be useful to LRT system designers, LRT operations and maintenance personnel, transit operations planners, traffic engineers, light rail safety officials, transit managers, and transit law enforcement officials.
Toolbox for Transit Operator Fatigue
Report Number: R-81
Publication Date: 2/2/2000
The role that operator fatigue plays in mass transit safety has become one of the central issues that U.S. bus and rail transit agencies must address. Fatigue is increasing cited as a contributing factor in bus and rail transit accidents. The National Transportation Safety Board lists human fatigue as an area where significant improvement is needed in order to increase transportation safety. In addition to reducing accidents, mitigating fatigue can also reduce the cost of transit operations. Costs due to lost productivity, employee absenteeism, employee turnover rate, reduced morale, and increased wear and tear on equipment are affected by employee fatigue.
Light Rail Service: Vehicular and Pedestrian Safety
Report Number: RRD-34
Publication Date: 12/1/1999
This digest contains information to facilitate the safe, orderly, and integrated movement of all traffic, including light rail vehicles (LRVs), throughout the public highway system, but especially at light rail transit (LRT) crossing. This report is intended to assist those involved in the planning, design, operation, and maintenance of LRT systems by providing a consistent set of guidelines and standards for LRT operations through higher speed LRT crossing.
Passenger Information Services: A Guidebook for Transit Systems
Report Number: R-45
Publication Date: 4/7/1999
This guidebook will be of interest to marketing and graphics professionals, customer service personnel, schedulers, transit planners, operating staff, and others who need to be conversant with the design, distribution, and placement of passenger information materials for public transit systems. This guidebook provides instructions for designing passenger information aids. The research focused on traditional media (e.g., schedules, maps, and signage) for presentation of information. The guidebook consists of three sections. The first section addresses the basic information needs of transit passengers, including wayfinding behavior and decision making during a trip. The second section describes route guidance information and, where appropriates, provides examples to illustrate this information. The third section discusses the design and format details for information aids (e.g., print sizes, visual contrast, use of color and symbols, and map legends).
Derailment of Transit Vehicles in Special Trackwork
Report Number: RRD-15
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest provides a summary of the findings from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project D-2, Derailment of Transit Vehicles in Special Trackwork, which was conducted by Zeta-Tech Associates, Inc. This research, completed in 1996, recommended procedures to reduce derailment occurrences. The following methods were found to provide a highly effective and economic means for reducing derailment potentials: use of pre-point guards; use of point protectors; adoption of comprehensive maintenance and inspection standards; use of lubrication; use of spring frogs; use of fully gauge plated switch- point areas; use of spiral switch points; and use of house-top point guards.
Improved Methods for Increasing Wheel/Rail Adhesion in the Presence of Natural Contaminants
Report Number: RRD-17
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest summarizes the findings from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project C-6, Improved Methods for Increasing Wheel/Rail Adhesion in the Presence of Natural Contaminants, which was conducted by Tranergy Corporation. This research, completed in 1996, evaluated current practices for the control of railhead contamination by moisture, ice, and leaves and other vegetation and identified new or modified alternatives to sanding that show promise for improving wheel/ rail adhesion under these conditions. Among these alternatives are debris removal, wheel cleaning, hot air jets, and creep control. The research focused on light rail and commuter rail operations.
Wheel/Rail Noise Mitigation
Report Number: RRD-19
Publication Date: 12/1/1997
This digest provides a brief description of the products developed from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Project C-3, Wheel/Rail Noise Mitigation, which was conducted by Wilson, Ihrig & Associates, Inc. The research included a comprehensive literature review of wheel/ rail noise control practices; a survey of all North American and selected foreign heavy and light rail transit agencies to ascertain their current wheel/rail noise-mitigation techniques and their related experiences (both good and bad); a compilation of wheel/rail noise- mitigation field test reports from transit agencies and product manufacturers and suppliers; and field tests of several noise- mitigation measures at several transit agencies. From these activities, a Wheel/Rail Noise Control Manual and an accompanying software tool were developed.
Light Rail Vehicle Compression Requirements
Report Number: S-25
Publication Date: 1/1/1997
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers and their planning, operations, engineering, and design staff, as well as to other light rail vehicle (LRV) builders, operators, industry associations, and government organizations. Data summaries presented cover existing practice and include those related to design parameters. Compression test requirements are described, available information on the development of specifications and standards is presented, and examples of adjustments under particular circumstances are provided. This report of the Transportation Research Board makes use of existing surveys, reports, published literature, personal contacts, and interviews with experts in the field. It offers available LRV system information from North America, Europe, and Japan.
Integration of light Rail Transit Into City Street
Report Number: R-17
Publication Date: 12/10/1996
This report documents and presents the results of a study to improve the safety of light rail transit (LRT) operations in shared rights-of- way where LRT operates on, adjacent to, or across city streets at low to moderate speeds (35 mph or less). Safety problems and potential solutions were identified through a literature review, field observations, videotapes, and structured interviews with ten LRT properties in the U.S. and Canada. From the system surveys, an alignment classification scheme was developed, and an inventory of traffic control devices was compiled. Accident data were analyzed to examine where, how, and why conflicts between light rail vehicles, motor vehicles, and pedestrians arise.
Rail Transit Capacity
Report Number: R-13
Publication Date: 7/15/1996
This study investigated and quantified the variables that affect the maximum passenger carrying capacity of rail transit in four categories-- rail rapid transit (heavy rail), light rail transit, commuter rail, and automated guideway transit (AGT)--in North America. A comprehensive survey of existing literature on rail transit capacity was conducted. A survey of rail transit operators in Canada, Mexico and the United States determined the capacity and capacity constraints of each system. Appropriate data were collected from these agencies and in field visits. Quantitative analysis, narration and calibration to real life result in procedures for estimating rail transit capacity under a wide variety of conditions, including realistic operating margins. The procedures are divided into two sets, a basic simple method of estimation, and a comprehensive method that includes more variables. The results show that the maximum capacity on a double track urban rail transit line can be obtained with a moving-block signaling system which has the potential for a 30% increase in train throughput compared to conventional signaling. The single most important factor in maximizing capacity is to control and reduce dwell time through station and car design.
Transit Operations for Individuals with Disabilities
Report Number: R-9
Publication Date: 12/15/1995
The goal of TCRP Research Project B-1 is to develop information to assist local transit providers in the implementation of appropriate service options and enhancements to serve individuals with disabilities. The specific research objective, consistent with this goal, is the development of a methodology for transit managers and planners to design and evaluate integrated transit systems that (1) provide accessible integrated service complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA); (2) facilitate the appropriate use of paratransit service; and (3) support service or system enhancements to encourage travel on accessible fixed routes by individuals with disabilities. This Research Results Digest presents the Phase I findings. Phase I, which was completed in Fall 1993, identified service options and described enhancements.
System-Specific Spare Rail Vehicle Ratios
Report Number: S-015
Publication Date: 12/1/1995
This synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers; rail planning operations, maintenance, and policy personnel; Federal Transit Administration staff, transportation consultants and engineers; and vehicle manufacturers. This synthesis addresses the system- specific variables that directly impact fleet size, and the spare ratios that are maintained by individual transit agencies. From the information obtained, it appears that most rail transit agencies closely monitor the spare vehicles they maintain to maximize efficiency and thereby reduce operating costs. This report of the Transportation Research Board describes operating environments at 21 selected rail transit agencies of various sizes in key geographical locations in North America. It contains survey information about operating practices, impediments, and strategies used to appropriately size fleets within each agency's operating context.
Applicability of Low-Floor Light Rail Vehicles in North America
Report Number: R-2
Publication Date: 2/15/1995
This report will be of interest to transit managers, engineers, and policy makers considering the introduction of low-floor light rail vehicles in existing or planned light rail systems. The report investigates the state of the art of low-floor light rail vehicles and assesses the applicability of their use in North America. Low-floor light rail vehicle categories have been developed to facilitate the understanding of the different types of vehicles and their applications. he report describes the growing trend toward low-floor light rail vehicles and the reasons for this growth. It provides an extensive compilation of data on low-floor light rail vehicles, information on North American light rail system characteristics, and an analytical perspective on key issues relevant to the applicability of this technology in North America. The report also develops example applications to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness of using low-floor light rail vehicles.
Strategies to Facilitate Acquisition and Use of Railroad Right of Way by Transit Providers
Report Number: LRD-1
Publication Date: 10/12/1994
This digest contains a report prepared under TCRP Project J-5, Aspects of Transit and Intermodal Transportation Programs, for which the Transportation Research Board is the agency conducting the research. Project J-5 is designed to provide insight into the operating practices and legal elements of specific problems in transportation agencies. The report, which has the same title as this digest and is authored by Kevin M. Sheys, is organized as follows: Introduction; A Frame of Reference; Common Issues in Rail Transit Projects; Organization of Article; Acquisition and Use Strategies with Willing Sellers (Voluntary Sales--Abandonable Lines, Voluntary Sales--Nonabandonable Lines, and Control of Management and Operations); Acquisition and Use Strategies with Unwilling Sellers; Conclusion; and Notes.